United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs is a United Nations body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182. The resolution was designed to strengthen the UN's response to complex emergencies and natural disasters. Earlier UN organizations with similar tasks were the Department of Humanitarian Affairs, its predecessor, the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator. In 1998, due to reorganization, DHA merged into OCHA and was designed to be the UN focal point on major disasters, it is a sitting observer of the political debate United Nations Development Group. After merging with the DHA, its mandate was expanded to encompass the coordination of humanitarian response, policy development and humanitarian advocacy; the agency's activities include organization and monitoring of humanitarian funding, as well as information exchange and rapid-response teams for emergency relief. Since May 2017, OCHA is led by Mark Lowcock as Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, appointed for a five-year term.
From 2013 to 2016, OCHA organized the World Humanitarian Summit, held in Istanbul, Turkey, on May 23 and 24, 2016. OCHA is headed by the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, since May 2017 by Mark Lowcock, it has 2 headquarters in New York and Geneva, 8 regional offices, 32 field offices, 23 humanitarian adviser teams, 3 liaison offices. As of June 2016, OCHA has 2,300 staff spread across the world in over 60 countries. Major OCHA country offices are located in all continents, among others in Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Palestinian territories, Sri Lanka, Sudan and Zimbabwe, while regional offices are located in Panama City, Cairo and Bangkok. OCHA has some liaison and support staff in New York and Geneva. OCHA has built up a range of services in the execution of its mandate; some of the larger ones are: IRIN, Integrated Regional Information Networks, a humanitarian news and analysis service Since 1 January 2015, IRIN now operates as an independent news service and is no longer affiliated with OCHA.
INSARAG, International Search and Rescue Advisory Group ReliefWeb, a leading source of time-critical humanitarian information on global crises and disasters. ReliefWeb is a 24/7 service that provides the latest reports, maps and videos from trusted sources, as well as jobs and training programs for humanitarians. Central Emergency Response Fund, a humanitarian fund established by the UN General Assembly to 1) promote early action and response to reduce loss of life. Who does What Where Database and Contact Management Directory: To ensure that appropriate and timely humanitarian response is delivered during a disaster or emergency, information must be managed efficiently; the key information that are important to assess and ensure that humanitarian needs are met in any emergency/disaster are, to know which organizations are carrying out what activities in which locations, universally referred to as the 3W. The integrated Contact Management Directory, complements the 3W database, making it easy for the user to navigate through the application.
Common and Fundamental Operational Datasets are critical datasets that are used to support the work of humanitarian actors across multiple sectors. They are considered a de facto standard for the humanitarian community and should represent the best-available datasets for each theme; the Fundamental Operational Datasets are datasets that are relevant to a humanitarian operation, but are more specific to a particular sector or otherwise do not fit into one of the seven COD themes. Since 2004, OCHA has partnered with the Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance to facilitate OCHA's Civil Military Coordination course in the Asia-Pacific Region; the UN-CMCoord Course is designed to address the need for coordination between international civilian humanitarian actors UN humanitarian agencies, international military forces in an international humanitarian emergency. This established UN training plays a critical role in building capacity to facilitate effective coordination in the field by bringing together 30 practitioners from the spectrum of actors sharing operational space during a humanitarian crisis and training them on UN coordination mechanisms and internationally recognized guidelines for civil military coordination.
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian territory. OCHA's Country Office in the occupied Palestinian territory, established in 2002 to support international efforts to respond to the deteriorating humanitarian situation in the oPt; the OCHA encourages humanitarian innovation within organizations. For organizations, it is a way of identifying and solving problems while changing business models to adapt to new opportunities. In OCHA's occasional policy paper Humanitarian Innovation: The State of the Art, they list the reasons why organizations are moving toward providing their own kind of humanitarian service through innovation: Shifting business models based on public demand: There is a growing amount of humanitarian emergencies and the old model of respons
Unified Task Force
The Unified Task Force was a US-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force, which operated in Somalia between 5 December, 1992 – 4 May 1993. A United States initiative, UNITAF was charged with carrying out United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 to create a protected environment for conducting humanitarian operations in the southern half of the country. After the killing of 20-25 Pakistani peacekeepers, the Security Council changed UNITAF's mandate issuing the Resolution 837 that establishes that UNITAF troops could use "all necessary measures" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. Faced with a humanitarian disaster in Somalia, exacerbated by a complete breakdown in civil order, the United Nations had created the UNOSOM I mission in April 1992. However, the complete intransigence of the local faction leaders operating in Somalia and their rivalries with each other meant that UNOSOM I could not be performed; the mission never reached its mandated strength.
Over the final quarter of 1992, the situation in Somalia continued to worsen. Factions were splintering into smaller factions, splintered again. Agreements for food distribution with one party were worthless when the stores had to be shipped through the territory of another; some elements were opposing the UNOSOM intervention. Troops were shot at, aid ships attacked and prevented from docking, cargo aircraft were fired upon and aid agencies and private, were subject to threats and extortion. By November, General Mohamed Farrah Aidid had grown confident enough to defy the Security Council formally and demand the withdrawal of peacekeepers, as well as declaring hostile intent against any further UN deployments. In the face of mounting public pressure and frustration, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali presented several options to the Security Council. Diplomatic avenues having proved fruitless, he recommended that a significant show of force was required to bring the armed groups to heel.
Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations allows for "action by air, sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security." Boutros-Ghali believed the time had come for moving on from peacekeeping. However, Boutros-Ghali felt that such action would be difficult to apply under the mandate for UNOSOM. Moreover, he realised that solving Somalia’s problems would require such a large deployment that the UN Secretariat did not have the skills to command and control it. Accordingly, he recommended that a large intervention force be constituted under the command of member states but authorised by the Security Council to carry out operations in Somalia; the goal of this deployment was "to prepare the way for a return to peacekeeping and post-conflict peace-building". Following this recommendation, on 3 December 1992 the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 794, authorizing the use of "all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia".
The Security Council urged the Secretary-General and member states to make arrangements for "the unified command and control" of the military forces that would be involved. UNITAF has been considered part of a larger state building initiative in Somalia, serving as the military arm to secure the distribution of humanitarian aid. However, UNITAF cannot be considered a state building initiative due to its ‘specific and palliative aims, which it nonetheless exercised forcefully’; the primary objective of UNITAF was security rather than larger institution building initiatives. Prior to Resolution 794, the United States had approached the UN and offered a significant troop contribution to Somalia, with the caveat that these personnel would not be commanded by the UN. Resolution 794 did not identify the U. S. as being responsible for the future task force, but mentioned "the offer by a Member State described in the Secretary-General's letter to the Council of 29 November 1992 concerning the establishment of an operation to create such a secure environment".
Resolution 794 was unanimously adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 3 December 1992, they welcomed the United States offer to help create a secure environment for humanitarian efforts in Somalia. President George H. W. Bush responded to this by initiating Operation Restore Hope on 4 December 1992, under which the United States would assume command in accordance with Resolution 794. CIA Paramilitary Officer Larry Freedman from their Special Activities Division became the first US casualty of the conflict in Somalia when his vehicle struck an anti-tank mine, he had been inserted prior to official US presence on a special reconnaissance mission, serving as a liaison between the U. S. Embassy and the arriving military forces. Freedman was a former Army Delta Force operator and Special Forces soldier and had served in every conflict that the US was involved in both and unofficially since Vietnam. Freedman was awarded the Intelligence Star for extraordinary heroism; the first Marines of UNITAF landed on the beaches of Somalia on 9 December 1992 amid a media circus.
The press "seemed to know the exact time and place of the Marines' arrival" and waited on the airport runway and beaches to capture the moment. Critics of US involvement argued that the US government was intervening so as to gain control of oil concessions for American companies, with a survey of Northeast Africa by the World Bank and UN ranking Somalia second only to Sudan as the top prospective producer. However, no US and UN troops were deployed in proximity to the major oil explora
Mogadishu, locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banadir region on the Somali Sea, the city has served as an important port for millennia; as of 2017, it had a population of 2,425,000 residents. Mogadishu is the nearest foreign mainland city to Seychelles, at a distance of 835 mi over the Somali Sea. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited by hunter-gatherers; these were joined by Cushitic-speaking agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies. During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, the Ajuran Sultanate, it subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, most notably the Sultanate of the Geledi. The city became the capital of Italian Somaliland in the colonial period. After the Somali Republic became independent in 1960, Mogadishu became known and promoted as the White Pearl of the Indian Ocean.
After the ousting of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and the ensuing Somali Civil War, various militias fought for control of the city to be replaced by the Islamic Courts Union in the mid-2000s. The ICU thereafter splintered into more radical groups, notably al-Shabaab, which fought the Transitional Federal Government and its African Union Mission to Somalia allies. With a change in administration in late 2010, government troops and their military partners had succeeded in forcing out Al-Shabaab by August 2011. Mogadishu has subsequently experienced a period of intense reconstruction; as Somalia's capital city, many important national institutions are based in Mogadishu. It is the seat of the Federal Government of Somalia established in August 2012, with the Somalia Federal Parliament serving as the government's legislative branch. Abdirahman Omar Osman has been the Mayor of Mogadishu since January 2018. Villa Somalia is the official residential palace and principal workplace of the President of Somalia, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed.
In May 2012, the First Somali Bank was established in the capital, which organized Mogadishu's first Technology, Design conference. The establishment of a local construction yard has galvanized the city's real-estate sector. Arba'a Rukun Mosque is one of the oldest Islamic places of worship in the capital, built circa AH 667; the Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu is the largest masjid in the Horn region. Mogadishu Cathedral was built in 1928 by the colonial authorities in Italian Somalia in a Norman Gothic style, served as the traditional seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mogadiscio; the National Museum of Somalia holds many culturally important artefacts. The National Library of Somalia is undergoing a US$1.5 million Somali federal government funded renovation, including a new library complex. Mogadishu is home to a number of media institutions; as part of the municipality's urban renewal program, 100 schools across the capital are scheduled to be refurbished and reopened. The Somali National University was established in the 1950s, professors from the university founded the non-governmental Mogadishu University.
Benadir University was established in 2002 with the intention of training doctors. Various national sporting bodies have their headquarters in Mogadishu, including the Somali Football Federation and the Somali Olympic Committee. Mogadishu Stadium was constructed in 1978 during the Siad Barre administration, with the assistance of Chinese engineers, it hosts football matches with teams from the Somalia Cup. Additionally, the Port of Mogadishu serves as a major national seaport and is the largest harbour in Somalia. Mogadishu International Airport, the capital's main airport, is the hub of the national carrier Somali Airlines; the origins of the name Mogadishu has many theories including from the Somali word Muuq Disho meaning sight-killer, or the Persian word Maq'ad-i-Shah, which means "the seat of the Shah". It is known locally as Xamar. Another theory is that it is derived from the Arabic root'mqds', which means "hallowed".. The 16th century explorer Leo Africanus knew the city as Magadazo. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited early by hunter-gatherers of Khoisan descent.
Although most of these early inhabitants are believed to have been either overwhelmed, driven away or, in some cases, assimilated by migrants to the area, physical traces of their occupation survive in certain ethnic minority groups inhabiting modern-day Jubaland and other parts of the south. The latter descendants include relict populations such as the Eile, the Wa-Ribi, the Wa-Boni. By the time of the arrival of peoples from the Cushitic Rahanweyn clan confederacy, who would go on to establish a local aristocracy, other Cushitic groups affiliated with the Oromo and Ajuuraan had formed settlements of their own in the sub-region. During the antiquity times. Mogadishu was part of the Somali city-states that in engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Parthian Persia, Saba and the Roman Empire. Somali sailors used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo; the ancient city of Sarapion is believed to have been the predecessor state of Mogadishu.
It is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greek travel document dating from the
The Hawiye is a Somali clan. Members of the clan traditionally inhabit central and southern Somalia and the North Eastern Province. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their paternal ancestry to Irir, one of the sons of Samaale. Hawiye is one of the major Somali clans, with a wide traditional territory, it is the dominant clan in the capital of Somalia. The Hawiye have produced many prominent Somali figures with the first President, Prime Minstier, the father of the Somali military all hailing from the Hawiye. According to an official military survey conducted during the colonial period, Hawiye clan members are by tradition believed to be descended from a forefather named Hawiya Irrir, he is held to be the brother of Dir. I. M. Lewis and many sources maintain that the Dir together with the Hawiye trace ancestry through Irir, son of Samaale. Due to ancient pastoralist migrations and population movements across the Somali peninsula in search of water wells and grazing land over a period of thousand years, Hawiye clans today can be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia between Barawa and Kismayo, to the regions surrounding Merka and Warsheikh in the hinterland, west to the modern city of Beledweyne in the Hiran region, north to the ancient port town of Hobyo in the arid central Mudug region.
The Hawiye have played an important role in Somalia. Many of Somalia's founding fathers hailed from the Hawiye; the first President of Somalia, Prime minister, the father of the Somali military were all Hawiye. Aden Adde the first president was Ujejeen; the first prime minister Abdullahi Issa was Habar Gidir. The father of Somali military Daud Abdulle Hirsi was Abgaal. Since the Hawiye have produced four more presidents and three more prime ministers; the Hawiye's role in Somalia is not limited to only political affairs. They are prominent in other important fields in Somali society; the clan has prominent members within the Somali business and media communities. For example, Abdirahman Yabarow, the editor-in-chief of VOA Somali is kin. Yusuf Garaad Omar, the chairman of BBC Somali for over a decade and helped pioneer its rise during his tenure is a member. Magool and Hasan Adan Samatar who are among some of the most famous Somali musicians of all time hail from this clan; the Hawiye play an important role in business.
For instance the head of the Somali airline company Jubba Airways and Hormud Telecom are members. The Hawiye play a large role in the Somali regions of Galmudug, South West State and Banadir but Somalia as a whole. Hawiye along with some Samaale sub-clans migrated to central and southern Somalia in the 1st century AD to populate the Horn of Africa, they established farmlands in the fertile plain lands of southern Somalia and established flourishing harbor ports in south and central Somalia. The first written reference to the Hawiye dates back to a 12th-century document by the Arab geographer, Ibn Sa'id, who described Merca at the time as the "capital of Hawiye country"; the 12th century cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi may have referred to the Hawiye as well, as he called Merca the region of the "Hadiye", which Herbert S. Lewis believes is a scribal error for "Hawiye", as do Guilliani and Cerulli. Along with Rahanweyn, Hawiye clan came under the Ajuran Empire control in the 13th century that governed much of southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia, with its domain extending from Hobyo in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south.
At the end of the 17th century, the Ajuran Empire was on its decline due to high taxation on none-Ajuran clans and the practice of primae noctis, the prime reason why the Hawiye clan revolted against the Ajuran rulers and since this first revolt against the Ajuran other groups would follow in the rebellion which would bring down Ajuran rule of the inter-riverine region. Lee Cassanelli in his book, The Shaping of Somali society, provides a historical picture of the Hiraab Immate, he writes: "According to local oral tradition, the Hiraab imamate was a powerful alliance of related groups who shared a common lineage under the Gorgaarte clan divisions. It revolted against the Ajuran Empire and established an independent rule for at least two centuries from the seventeen hundreds and onwards; the alliance involved the army leaders and advisors of the Habar Gidir and Duduble, a Fiqhi/Qadi of Sheekhaal, the Imam was reserved for the Mudulood branch, believed to have been the first born. Once established, the Imamate ruled the territories from the Shabeelle valley, the Benaadir provinces, the Mareeg areas all the way to the arid lands of Mudug, whilst the ancient port of Hobyo emerged as the commercial center and Mogadishu being its capital for the newly established Hiraab Imamate in the late 17th century.
Hobyo served as a prosperous commercial centre for the Imamate. The agricultural centres of Eldher and Harardhere included the production of sorghum and beans, supplementing with herds of camels, cattle and sheep. Livestock and skin, whilst the aromatic woods and raisins were the primary exports as rice, other foodstuffs and clothes were imported. Merchants looking for exotic goods came to Hobyo to buy textiles, precious pearls; the commercial goods harvested along the Shabelle river were brought to Hobyo for trade. The increasing importance and rapid settlement of more southernly cities such as Mogadishu further boosted the prosperity of Hobyo, as more and more ships made their way down the Somali coast and stopped in Hobyo to trade and replenish their supplies
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of 495–570 nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by a combination of yellow and blue, or yellow and cyan. By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants photosynthesize and convert sunlight into chemical energy. Many creatures have adapted to their green environments by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage. Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald, colored green by its chromium content. During post-classical and early modern Europe, green was the color associated with wealth, merchants and the gentry, while red was reserved for the nobility. For this reason, the costume of the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci and the benches in the British House of Commons are green while those in the House of Lords are red, it has a long historical tradition as the color of Ireland and of Gaelic culture.
It is the historic color of Islam, representing the lush vegetation of Paradise. It was the color of the banner of Muhammad, is found in the flags of nearly all Islamic countries. In surveys made in American and Islamic countries, green is the color most associated with nature, health, spring and envy. In the European Union and the United States, green is sometimes associated with toxicity and poor health, but in China and most of Asia, its associations are positive, as the symbol of fertility and happiness; because of its association with nature, it is the color of the environmental movement. Political groups advocating environmental protection and social justice describe themselves as part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties; this has led to similar campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold green, or environmentally friendly, products. Green is the traditional color of safety and permission; the word green comes from the Middle English and Old English word grene, like the German word grün, has the same root as the words grass and grow.
It is from a Common Germanic *gronja-, reflected in Old Norse grænn, Old High German gruoni from a PIE root *ghre- "to grow", root-cognate with grass and to grow. The first recorded use of the word as a color term in Old English dates to ca. AD 700. Latin with viridis has a genuine and used term for "green". Related to virere "to grow" and ver "spring", it gave rise to words in several Romance languages, French vert, Italian verde; the Slavic languages with zelenъ. Ancient Greek had a term for yellowish, pale green – χλωρός, cognate with χλοερός "verdant" and χλόη "chloe, the green of new growth". Thus, the languages mentioned above have old terms for "green" which are derived from words for fresh, sprouting vegetation. However, comparative linguistics makes clear that these terms were coined independently, over the past few millennia, there is no identifiable single Proto-Indo-European or word for "green". For example, the Slavic zelenъ is cognate with Sanskrit hari "yellow, golden"; the Turkic languages have jašɨl "green" or "yellowish green", compared to a Mongolian word for "meadow".
In some languages, including old Chinese, old Japanese, Vietnamese, the same word can mean either blue or green. The Chinese character 青 has a meaning that covers both green. In more contemporary terms, they are 綠 respectively. Japanese has two terms that refer to the color green, 緑 and グリーン. However, in Japan, although the traffic lights have the same colors as other countries have, the green light is described using the same word as for blue, because green is considered a shade of aoi. Vietnamese uses a single word for both blue and green, with variants such as xanh da trời, lục. "Green" in modern European languages corresponds to about 520–570 nm, but many historical and non-European languages make other choices, e.g. using a term for the range of ca. 450–530 nm and another for ca. 530–590 nm. In the comparative study of color terms in the world's languages, green is only found as a separate category in languages with the developed range of six colors, or more in systems with five colors; these languages have introduced supplementary vocabulary to denote "green", but these terms are recognizable as recent adoptions that are not in origin color terms.
Thus, the Thai word เขียว kheīyw, besides mean
Somalia the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country located in the Horn of Africa, it is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djabuti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, its terrain consists of plateaus and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around 14.3 million. And has been described as the most culturally homogeneous country in Africa. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are concentrated in the southern regions; the official languages of are Arabic. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre, it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt.
During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Sultanate of the Geledi. The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. In the late 19th century, the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. In the interior, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Darwiish repelled the British four times, forcing a retreat to the coast, before succumbing in the Somaliland campaign. Italy acquired full control of the northeastern and southern parts of the area after waging the Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government; the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, which collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out.
During this period most regions returned to religious law. The early 2000s saw the creation of interim federal administrations; the Transitional National Government was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, which reestablished the military. In 2006, the TFG assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union; the ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized, a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. A new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012; the same month, the Federal Government of Somalia was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu. Somalia has maintained an informal economy based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, telecommunications, it is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here; the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East; the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back 5,000 years, has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback; the rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE.
Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula; this civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. The Puntites traded myrrh, gold, short-horned cattle and frankincense with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians and Romans through their commercial ports. An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati.
In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt, brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor. In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have b