United States Air Force

The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight U. S. uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the second youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the U. S. Air Force articulates its core missions as air superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation. The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Certain Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense and Secretary of the Air Force, to unified combatant commands. Combatant commanders are delegated operational authority of the forces assigned to them, while the Secretary of the Air Force and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force retain administrative authority over their members. Along with conducting independent air operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 321,444 active duty airmen, 141,800 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.

It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".

The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.

OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.

Max Bailey

Max Bailey was a former professional Australian rules footballer who played for the Hawthorn Football Club of the Australian Football League. He is serving as the development coach of the Hawthorn Football Club. Drafted 18th overall by the Hawks in the 2005 AFL draft, the ruckman from West Perth made his AFL debut in round 18 of the 2006 season. However, he would miss the 2007 season after suffering a right knee ACL injury during training before the season started. Max returned to the Box Hill Hawks reserves team for a game in June 2008, only to rupture his right ACL again which required another knee reconstruction. Max postponed the surgery to concentrate on his study when the timing was right went under the knife. In May 2009 Max resumed training and was expected to play at the Box Hill Hawks in the part of the season; however he had 23 hit outs in a win over Richmond. The following week against Essendon, Bailey suffered another ACL injury after he landed awkwardly and badly twisted his good left knee five minutes into the game and had to be helped from the ground.

He missed the 2010 season. Throughout his succession of knee injuries, the Hawthorn Football Club kept the faith, retaining him on the senior list despite his first five years at the club yielding just six senior appearances. Max Bailey returned in round 9 of 2011 in a win over Sydney. Looking free of the injury curse, Bailey made a total of 16 senior appearances in the side that year. By trading 2008 premiership ruck Brent Renouf to Port Adelaide at the end of the 2011 season, the club endorsed Bailey and the other rucks on the list to carry the mantle in 2012 and beyond; this plan struck a snag during the 2012 pre-season, when Bailey aggravated a wrist injury, set to keep him on the sidelines for around 12 weeks. During the 2013 season Bailey managed to cement a spot in the Hawthorn side, after playing well in round 1 in the Hawks loss to Geelong. Bailey's football career ended in the pinnacle of sporting achievements, being a member of Hawthorn's 2013 Premiership side. Former captain Sam Mitchell referred to Bailey as "the greatest story of the 2013 premiership," in a speech at the club's best and fairest, where Bailey ended his AFL career, retiring after 43 games due continued problems with his right knee.

After retiring from the game Bailey was employed by Richmond Football Club as a skills coach for two years, 2014-2015. Bailey spent six months in Tanzania. In 2019 he coached the affiliate club Box Hill Hawks. Team AFL Premiership: 2013 2x McClelland Trophy: 2012, 2013 Max Bailey's profile on the official website of the Hawthorn Football Club Max Bailey's playing statistics from AFL Tables

William Pearson (surveyor)

William Pearson was a surveyor in the early days of the colony of South Australia. Pearson arrived in South Australia in 1849 in September of that year aboard the ship Caroline. In the 1850s he had a private surveying practice. In December 1857 he was appointed, with W. H. Christie, R. Edmunds and W. Dawson, as surveyor to the Survey and Crown Lands Department. In 1864 he surveyed the town of Port Mannum, where blocks went on sale in October 1864. In March 1864 he was appointed to the Northern Territory as one of several surveyors in a contingent of 40 under B. T. Finniss who left for Adam Bay, Northern Territory on the barque Henry Ellis with the task of choosing and surveying a site for a principal town to be called Palmerston; the site chosen, Escape Cliffs, had an excellent harbour with the deepest river in the Territory. Most of the land however was low-lying salt plains populated with mangroves and mosquito-infested at high tide and a quagmire in the Wet Season. On 9 August 1864 Pearson was leader of a party of four on horseback, sent by Manton to recover stores, left unguarded on the river bank and plundered by Aborigines.

When approaching their camp, Aborigines armed with spears surrounded the party, injured a horse and several men, Pearson more one spear piercing his side, another his elbow and a third grazing his head above the ear. Litchfield and Dyer showed courage in removing Pearson from danger. Other settlers arrived on foot, ostensibly as a rescue party, several shots were fired at the natives, Alaric Ward killing one of their number. Once Pearson had recovered from his wounds, he and Arthur Hamilton were sent to survey "The Narrows", the site on the Adelaide River selected by Finniss for a port, where one man was taken by a crocodile and another swept away in the swift current. Pearson developed purpura but was accused by Finniss of malingering, not until February 1865 permitted to return to base camp for treatment, sending Hamilton a labourer named Smith as his replacement. In April 1865 Pearson and King, both on sick leave, 15 others left Adam Bay on supply ship Bengal for Surabaya, where he and most of the others transshipped to Melbourne by the steamer Douglas.

Pearson was one of many critics of the site chosen for the new town, of Finniss for refusing to look for alternatives, though this was only one of many criticisms levelled at their leader. Pearson may have been one of the Officers aggrieved that Finniss preferred the company of bright young labourers, such as Auld and Bennett to men of his own social class. From August 1869 to August 1870 he was a senior member under J. Evans, for much of the time the leader, of a survey party involved in defining the border between South Australia and New South Wales, to the satisfaction of both parties, unlike the boundary with Victoria, the subject of a long and costly dispute; the work was arduous and demanding, but two incidents are worth recounting: the campsite chosen for one stage world-famous as Broken Hill, site of the great silver mines, the hospitality shown the party by Alfred T. Dickens, son of the novelist, at Corona Station. Pearson retired from the Lands Titles Office on June 30 1902, died three years survived by his second wife.

Pearson married Elizabeth Tait in 1851. Elizabeth arrived in South Australia in November 1850 aboard Joseph Somes. Elizabeth died at their home on Wakefield Street, they had one son: Thomas William Pearson, Posts & Telegraph employee, died at Wakefield Street. He married again, to Mary Harriet Parrott in 1902, she married again, to Robert Harry Allen, on 7 August 1906 John Thomas Pearson who married Maria Biggs, lived in Young Street in Robsart Street, was a brother employed by Posts & Telegraph Department