The Airmen of Note
The Airmen of Note is the premier jazz ensemble of the United States Air Force and part of the United States Air Force Band. Created in 1950 to carry on the tradition of Major Glenn Miller's Army Air Corps dance band, the "Note" is a touring big band that has attracted 18 professional jazz musicians from across the United States; the band has presented jazz performances to audiences throughout the United States and Asia and produces broadcasts and recordings, with one release reaching number two on the JazzWeek jazz album chart. In 1954 the Airmen of Note played Miller's band in the movie The Glenn Miller Story; the Glenn Miller sound has remained central, but the band adopted a more contemporary sound in the 1950s and 1960s due to staff arrangers such as Sammy Nestico. Over the past four decades, Mike Crotty and Alan Baylock have taken that role. To augment its writing staff, the Airmen of Note has commissioned works by Bob Florence, Bob Mintzer, Rob McConnell, Bill Holman. Sammy Nestico and former band member Tommy Newsom have composed works for the group.
The group took a further step in diversifying their sound in their 2019 album Global Reach, which featured tunes inspired by cultures from across the world. Many of its members have backgrounds in music education, they lead clinics at high schools and colleges across the country and have been invited to perform at conventions such as the International Association of Jazz Educators, Music Educators National Conference, The Midwest Clinic. The Airmen of Note have recorded and performed with Allen Vizzutti, Dizzy Gillespie, Joe Williams, Sarah Vaughan, Joanie Sommers and Nancy Wilson. In 1990, the Airmen of Note established the Jazz Heritage Series, featuring the "Note" in concert with icons of jazz. Musicians that have joined the "Note" for the program include Al Jarreau, Clark Terry, Phil Woods, Kurt Elling, Kurt Rosenwinkel, Paquito D'Rivera, Nicholas Payton, Karrin Allyson; every year, the Jazz Heritage Series is broadcast over National Public Radio, independent jazz radio stations, satellite radio, the internet.
Surprising Sounds of the Airmen of Note Big Band Sound'67 In Concert Sound Airmen of Note & Friends Here Come the Airmen of Note Rock Jazz With a Little Help From Our Friends Two Sides of the Airmen of Note Come Out Swingin Airmen of Note and Sarah Vaughan Brothers in Blue New Spirit Today! Just in Time Live from Mobile Just the Way We Are Noel Better Than Ever Bone Voyage Crystal Gardens Somewhere Out There Jazz Heritage: Old, Borrowed & Blue Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town Children of the Night The Glenn Miller Tradition Blues & Beyond Legacy Christmas Time Is Here Invitation Let's Dance Fifty Years of the Airmen of Note ¡Tiempo Latino! A Holiday Note from Home Keep'em Flying Out in Front Airmen of Note Live! Cool Yule Airmen of Note "60" Compositions Airmen of Note Veterans of Jazz Best of the Jazz Heritage Series, Vol. 1 Global Reach United States military bands Alan Baylock Tim Eyermann Walt Levinsky Joe Locke Vaughn Nark Sammy Nestico Bob Snyder Allen Vizzutti Official site
American Bandmasters Association
The American Bandmasters Association was formed in 1929 by Edwin Franko Goldman to promote concert band music. Goldman sought to raise esteem for concert bands among audiences; the reputations of concert bands suffered in comparison to symphony orchestras due to factors including "the concert band’s concert venue out-of-doors, the difficulty of conductors to obtain a quality music education, a limited repertoire that with the exception of marches was borrowed from the libraries of the orchestra, a lack of camaraderie among the leading bandmasters/conductors of the period." The ABA's current Constitution states that the organization shall: honor outstanding achievement by invitation to membership. Membership is extended to the leaders of the wind band movement and is considered to be the highest honor given within the wind studies realm; the current president is Lowell E. Graham. Previous presidents include Goldman, Karl King, Charles O'Neill, Herbert L. Clarke, Henry Fillmore, William D. Revelli.
John Philip Sousa was the first honorary life president. Membership is extended through invitation to conductors/teachers/directors considered to be exemplary professionals within the field. Associate Membership is available through invitation to "firms and individuals engaged in the music industry or related field" who are affiliated with the ABA; the association has contributed to the wind and percussion band community through the spheres of literature and pedagogy. The ABA is responsible for the commissioning of many of the wind band's most revered works, including Lincolnshire Posy by Percy Grainger, Pageant by Vincent Persichetti, Strange Humors by John Mackey, Endurance by Timothy Mahr. A list of the current and historical officers and membership can be found in the publication Lest We Forget, updated regularly; the ABA sponsors the Sousa/Ostwald Award. The organization produces the Journal of Band Research; the American Bandmasters Association Website The American Bandmasters Association Archives, Special Collections in Performing Arts at the University of Maryland The American Bandmasters Association Research Center, Special Collections in Performing Arts at the University of Maryland
Alton Glenn Miller was an American big-band trombonist, arranger and bandleader in the swing era. He was the best-selling recording artist from leading one of the best-known big bands. Miller's recordings include "In the Mood", "Moonlight Serenade", "Pennsylvania 6-5000", "Chattanooga Choo Choo", "A String of Pearls", "At Last", " Kalamazoo", "American Patrol", "Tuxedo Junction", "Elmer's Tune", "Little Brown Jug". In just four years Glenn Miller scored 16 number-one records and 69 top ten hits—more than Elvis Presley and the Beatles did in their careers. While he was traveling to entertain U. S. troops in France during World War II, Miller's aircraft disappeared in bad weather over the English Channel. The son of Mattie Lou and Lewis Elmer Miller, Glenn Miller was born in Iowa, he attended grade school in North Platte in western Nebraska. In 1915, his family moved to Missouri. Around this time, he had made enough money from milking cows to buy his first trombone and played in the town orchestra.
He played cornet and mandolin, but he switched to trombone by 1916. In 1918 the Miller family moved again, this time to Fort Morgan, where he went to high school. In the fall of 1919 he joined the high-school football team, which won the Northern Colorado American Football Conference in 1920, he was named Best Left End in Colorado. During his senior year he became interested in "dance band music", he was so taken. By the time he graduated from high school in 1921 he had decided to become a professional musician. In 1923 Miller entered the University of Colorado in Boulder, he spent most of his time away from school, attending auditions and playing any gigs he could get, including with Boyd Senter's band in Denver. After failing three out of five classes, he dropped out of school to pursue a career in music, he studied the Schillinger System with Joseph Schillinger, under whose tutelage he composed what became his signature theme, "Moonlight Serenade". In 1926 Miller toured with several groups, landing a good spot in Ben Pollack's group in Los Angeles.
He played for Victor Young, which allowed him to be mentored by other professional musicians. In the beginning he was the main trombone soloist of the band, but when Jack Teagarden joined Pollack's band in 1928, Miller found that his solos were cut drastically. He realized that his future was in composing, he had a songbook published in Chicago in 1928 entitled Glenn Miller's 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone by the Melrose Brothers. During his time with Pollack, he wrote several arrangements, he wrote his first composition, "Room 1411", with Benny Goodman, Brunswick Records released it as a 78 under the name "Benny Goodman's Boys". In 1928, when the band arrived in New York City, he sent for and married his college sweetheart, Helen Burger, he was a member of Red Nichols's orchestra in 1930, because of Nichols, he played in the pit bands of two Broadway shows, Strike Up the Band and Girl Crazy. The band included Gene Krupa. During the late 1920s and early 1930s Miller worked as a freelance trombonist in several bands.
On a March 21, 1928 Victor Records session he played alongside Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, Joe Venuti in the All-Star Orchestra directed by Nat Shilkret. He arranged and played trombone on several significant Dorsey Brothers sessions for OKeh Records, including "The Spell of the Blues", "Let's Do It", "My Kinda Love", all with Bing Crosby on vocals. On November 14, 1929, vocalist Red McKenzie hired Miller to play on two records: "Hello, Lola" and "If I Could Be With You One Hour Tonight". Beside Miller were saxophonist Coleman Hawkins, clarinetist Pee Wee Russell, guitarist Eddie Condon, drummer Gene Krupa. In the early-to-mid-1930s, Miller worked as a trombonist and composer for The Dorsey Brothers, first when they were a Brunswick studio group and when they formed an ill-fated orchestra. Miller composed the songs "Annie's Cousin Fanny", "Dese Dem Dose", "Harlem Chapel Chimes", "Tomorrow's Another Day" for the Dorsey Brothers Band in 1934 and 1935. In 1935, he assembled an American orchestra for British bandleader Ray Noble, developing the arrangement of lead clarinet over four saxophones that became a characteristic of his big band.
Members of the Noble band included Claude Thornhill, Bud Freeman, Charlie Spivak. Miller made his first movie appearance in The Big Broadcast of 1936 as a member of the Ray Noble Orchestra performing "Why Stars Come Out at Night"; the film included performances by Dorothy Dandridge and the Nicholas Brothers, who would appear with Miller again in two movies for Twentieth Century Fox in 1941 and 1942. In 1937, Miller formed his first band. After failing to distinguish itself from the many bands of the time, it broke up after its last show at the Ritz Ballroom in Bridgeport, Connecticut on January 2, 1938. Benny Goodman said in 1976: In late 1937, before his band became popular, we were both playing in Dallas. Glenn came to see me, he asked, "What do you do? How do you make it?" I said, "Glenn. You just stay with it." Discouraged, Miller returned to New York. He realized that he needed to develop a unique sound, decided to make the clarinet play a melodic line with a tenor saxophone holding the same note, while three other saxophones harmonized within a single octave.
George T. Simon discovered. Miller hired Schwartz, but instead had him play lead clarinet. According to Simon, "Willie's tone and way of playing provided a fullness and richness so distinctive that none of the
A military band is a group of personnel that performs musical duties for military functions for the armed forces. A typical military band consists of wind and percussion instruments; the conductor of a band bears the title of Bandmaster or Director of Music. Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching bands in the world, dating from the 13th century; the military band is capable of playing ceremonial and marching music, including the national anthems and patriotic songs of not only their own nation but others as well, both while stationary and as a marching band. Military bands play a part in military funeral ceremonies. There are two types of historical traditions in military bands; the first is military field music. This type of music includes bugles, bagpipes, or fifes and always drums; this type of music was used to control troops on the battlefield as well as for entertainment. Following the development of instruments such as the keyed trumpet or the saxhorn family of brass instruments, a second tradition of the brass and woodwind military band was formed.
Some police forces have their own police bands. Military band instruments such as fife and bugle were used to communicate orders to soldiers in battle; the use of drums and gongs has been documented as far back as 2,500 years ago, in The Art of War by Sun Tzu.11th century book Divânu Lügati't-Türk mentions a prototype of the Mehtaran, as a "nevbet", Turkish military band tradition. Bands were formed by soldiers. 17th century traveler Evliya Çelebi noted that the Ottoman Empire had 40 guilds of musicians in the 1670s Istanbul. Ottoman military bands influenced European equivalents; each regiment in the British Army maintained its own military band. Until 1749 bandsmen were civilians hired at the expense of the colonel commanding a regiment. Subsequently, they became regular enlisted men who accompanied the unit on active service to provide morale enhancing music on the battlefield or, from the late nineteenth century on, to act as stretcher bearers. Instruments during the 18th century included fifes, the oboe, French horn and bassoon.
Drummers summoned men from their ranches to muster for duty. In the chaotic environment of the battlefield, musical instruments were the only means of commanding the men to advance, stand or retire. In the mid 19th century each smaller unit had their own fifer and drummer, who sounded the daily routine; when units massed for battle a band of musicians was formed for the whole. Military bands can vary in function and duties based on their specific mission. Bands may perform for a variety of reasons such as special events, military parades, military review, military tattoos, public relations, troop entertainment. Military bands play ceremonial and marching music, including the national anthems and patriotic songs. A concert band's repertoire includes original wind compositions, arrangements of orchestral compositions, light music, popular tunes and concert marches found in standard repertoire. Modern-day military musicians perform a variety of other styles of music in different ensembles, from chamber music to rock and roll.
Cameroonian military bands follows the French precedent for military music and military bands. The Yaoundé based Principal Music Band of the Cameroonian Armed Forces under the baton of Captain Florent Essimbi is the main military band of the country; the band was founded in 1959, a year before Cameroon gained its independence, as purely a brass band company. Because of its increase in musicians it was upgraded to a musical section 10 years later, it has retained its current name since 2004. The band and has relyed on its cooperation with the French Military and its connections to musicians from the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Lyon. Nigerian military bands follow the British Household Division format and are influenced and aided by British military bands. Over the years, the Nigerian Armed Forces have taken enormous steps to indigenize military bands due to the overuse of American and British military music and the exposure of the military to Nigerian art; some of these steps include the establishment of the Nigerian Army School of Music and the creation of new military music.
Nigerian military bands are today under the command of the Headquarters of the Nigerian Armed Forces in Abuja. The Nigerian Army Band Corps, which provides official military records for the armed forces, is the seniormost band in the Nigerian Army and in the armed forces; the following bands come under the direct command of the Nigerian Armed Forces: Nigerian Army Band Corps Nigerian Police Band - This band considered to be the pioneer military band formation in the country, being established in 1892. Being composed of buglers at the time of its founding, the band was composed of British servicemen, rather than native Nigerians. Nigerian Air Force Band - This band is the most was the most recent military band to be founded, being founded in 1970. Enlisted musicians only joined a year and did not have its first director of music until 1975. Nigerian Navy Band - It was founded in 1963 only months before Nigeria became a republic, it was founded at a time. Nigerian Defence Academy Band Nigerian Army School of Music Like Cameroon and Niger, the Armed Forces of Senegal follows the French military band format in all of its musical formations.
The Mounted Squadron of the Red Guard of Senegal, being the premier ceremonial unit of its 1st Infantry Regiment
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b
Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City, one of the world's largest parades, is presented by the U. S. based department store chain Macy's. The parade started in 1924, tying it for the second-oldest Thanksgiving parade in the United States with America's Thanksgiving Parade in Detroit; the three-hour parade is held in Manhattan from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on Thanksgiving Day, has been televised nationally on NBC since 1952. Employees at Macy's department stores have the option of marching in the parade. In 1924, the annual Thanksgiving parade started in Newark, New Jersey by Louis Bamberger at the Bamberger's store was transferred to New York City by Macy's. In New York, the employees marched to Macy's flagship store on 34th Street dressed in vibrant costumes. There were professional bands and live animals borrowed from the Central Park Zoo. At the end of that first parade, as has been the case with every parade since, Santa Claus was welcomed into Herald Square.
At this first parade, Santa was enthroned on the Macy's balcony at the 34th Street store entrance, where he was crowned "King of the Kiddies." With an audience of over 250,000 people, the parade was such a success that Macy's declared it would become an annual event. The Macy's parade was enough of a success to push Ragamuffin Day, the typical children's Thanksgiving Day activity from 1870 into the 1920s, into obscurity. Ragamuffin Day featured children going around and performing a primitive version of trick-or-treating, a practice that by the 1920s had come to annoy most adults; the public backlash against such begging in the 1930s led to promotion of alternatives, including Macy's parade. While ragamuffin parades that competed with Macy's would continue into the 1930s, the competition from Macy's would overwhelm the practice, the last ragamuffin parade in New York City would take place in 1956. Anthony "Tony" Frederick Sarg loved to work with marionettes from an early age. After moving to London to start his own marionette business, Sarg moved to New York City to perform with his puppets on the street.
Macy's heard about Sarg's talents and asked him to design a window display of a parade for the store. Sarg's large animal-shaped balloons, produced by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in Akron, replaced the live animals in 1927. A popular belief was that a balloon version Felix the Cat balloon was the first character balloon in the parade back in 1927. Macy's claimed that, but Felix made his first appearance in 1931. At the finale of the 1928 parade, the balloons were released into the sky, where they unexpectedly burst; the following year, they were redesigned with safety valves to allow them to float for a few days. Address labels were sewn into them, so that whoever found and mailed back the discarded balloon received a gift from Macy's. Through the 1930s, the Parade continued to grow, with crowds of over one million people lining the parade route in 1933; the first Mickey Mouse balloon entered the parade in 1934. The annual festivities were broadcast on local radio stations in New York City from 1932 to 1941, resumed in 1945, running through 1951.
The parade was suspended from 1942 to 1944 as a result of World War II, owing to the need for rubber and helium in the war effort. The parade resumed in 1945 using the route that it followed until 2008; the parade became known nationwide after being prominently featured in the 1947 film, Miracle on 34th Street, which included footage of the 1946 festivities. The event was first broadcast on network television in 1948. Since 1984, the balloons have been made by Raven Industries of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, through its Raven Aerostar division. Other American cities have parades held on Thanksgiving, none of which are run by Macy's; the nation's oldest Thanksgiving parade was first held in Philadelphia in 1920. Other cities with parades on the holiday include the McDonald's Thanksgiving Parade in Chicago and parades in Plymouth, Massachusetts. There is a second Thanksgiving balloon parade within the New York metropolitan area, the UBS balloon parade in Stamford, located 30 miles away, it does not duplicate any balloon characters.
The Celebrate the Season Parade, held the last Saturday in November in Pittsburgh, was sponsored by Macy's from 2006 to 2013 after Macy's bought the Kaufmann's store chain that had sponsored that parade prior to 2006. The classic "Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade" logo was, with one exception, last used in 2005. For 2006, a special variant of the logo was used; every year since a new logo has been used for each parade. The logos however are seen if at all, on television as NBC has used its own logo with the word "Macy's" in a script typeface and "Thanksgiving Day Parade" in a bold font; the logos are assumed to be for use by Macy's only, such as on the Grandstand tickets and the ID badges worn by parade staff. The Jackets worn by parade staff still bear the original classic parade logo, this being the only place where that logo can be found. New safety measures were incorporated in 2006 to prevent balloon-related injuries. One measure taken was the installation of win
The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. In 2009, official US troops were withdrawn, but American soldiers continued to remain on the ground fighting in Iraq, hired by defence contractors and private military companies; the U. S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U. S. President George W. Bush following the unrelated September 11 terrorist attacks. In October 2002, President Bush obtained congressional approval from a Democrat-led Senate and Republican-led House authorizing war-making powers.
The Iraq war began on 19 March 2003, when the U. S. joined by the U. K. and several coalition allies, launched a "awe" bombing campaign. Iraqi forces were overwhelmed as U. S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U. S. and coalition forces. Many violent insurgent groups were supported by al-Qaeda in Iraq; the United States responded with a troop surge in 2007, a build up of 170,000 troops. The surge in troops gave greater security to Iraq’s government and military, was a success; the winding down of U. S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U. S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011. However, with no stay-behind agreement or advisers left in Iraq, a new power vacuum was created and led to the rise of ISIS.
Nine months after President Trump was elected, U. S.-backed forces captured Raqqa. The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, viewed by the U. S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction and that there was concern about an active WMD program, that the Iraqi government posed a threat to the United States and its coalition allies. Select U. S. officials accused Saddam of harbouring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq. Hundreds of chemical weapons were found in Iraq, which were determined to be produced before the 1991 Gulf War, intelligence officials determined they were "so old they couldn't be used as designed." From 2004 to 2011, US troops and American-trained Iraqi troops encountered, on six reported occasions were wounded by, chemical weapons from years earlier in Saddam Hussein's rule. 5,000 chemical warheads, shells or aviation bombs were discovered.
The rationale of U. S. pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism both domestically and internationally. From 2009 to 2011, the UK conducted a broad inquiry into its decision to go to war chaired by Sir John Chilcot; the Chilcot Report, published in 2016, concluded military action may have been necessary but was not the last resort at the time and that the consequences of invasion were underestimated. In the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014; the al-Maliki government enacted policies that were seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies; the Iraq War caused over a hundred thousand civilian deaths and tens of thousands of military deaths.
The majority of deaths occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007. Strong international opposition to the Saddam Hussein regime began after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990; the international community condemned the invasion, in 1991 a military coalition led by the United States launched the Gulf War to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Following the Gulf War, the US and its allies tried to keep Saddam in check with a policy of containment; this policy involved numerous economic sanctions by the UN Security Council. The inspections were carried out by the United Nations Special Commission. UNSCOM, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, worked to ensure that Iraq destroyed its chemical and nuclear weapons and facilities. In the decade following the Gulf War, the United Nations passed 16 Security Council resolutions calling for the complete elimination of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction. Member states communicated their frustration over the years that Iraq was impeding the work of the special commission and failing to take its disarmament obligations.
Iraqi officials harass