Bolling Air Force Base
Bolling Air Force Base was a United States Air Force base in Washington, D. C. In 2010 it was merged with Naval Support Facility Anacostia to form Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling, bollings property has been a Department of Defense asset since 1917. From its beginning, the installation has included the Army Air Corps and Navy aviation, the tract of land selected for the base was scouted by William C. Ocker at the direction of General Billy Mitchell, the base began near Anacostia in 1918, as the only military airfield near the United States Capitol and was originally named The Flying Field at Anacostia on 2 October 1917. It was renamed Anacostia Experimental Flying Field in June 1918, not long after its acquisition by the military, the single installation evolved into two separate, adjoining bases, one Army and one Navy. Bolling Field was officially opened 1 July 1918 and was named in honor of the first high-ranking air service officer killed in World War I, Colonel Raynal C. In the late 1940s, Bolling Fields property became Naval Air Station Anacostia, Bolling AFB has served as a research and testing ground for new aviation equipment and its first mission provided aerial defense of the capital.
It moved to its present location, along the Potomac in the citys southwest quadrant, over the years, Marine Corps, Coast Guard and National Guard units, as well as DOD and federal agencies found the installation to be an ideal place from which to operate. In 1918, pilots from the installation were dispatched by President Woodrow Wilson to create the first permanent airmail route from Washington, Navy seaplanes were first tested and Air Force aerial refueling techniques were developed by installation-based personnel and military commands. Following its successful flight in 1927, Charles Lindberghs Spirit of St. Louis returned to the installation. Soon after, the aircraft was utilized for Lindberghs goodwill flight to Mexico, Air Force Lt. Col. Henry Hap Arnold led a bomber flight from Bolling Field on a 4, 000-mile journey to Alaska in 1934, to demonstrate the capabilities of long-range strategic bombing missions. Throughout World War II, the served as a training and organizational base for personnel.
It served as the gateway to the nations capital. The Air Force’s first headquarters was established at the installation, as Army Air Forces Headquarters in 1941 and, with the creation of the United States Air Force, Air Force Headquarters in 1947. The Sacred Cow, President Harry Trumans initial official aircraft and Franklin Roosevelts only official aircraft and this aircraft was the predecessor to Air Force One and was used for both presidential and VIP support missions. President Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which created the United States Air Force, in 1962, fixed-wing aircraft operations at the air force and naval installations ceased, due to congested airspace around Washington National Airport on the opposite shore of the Potomac River
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed. The term cold is used there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides. The Cold War split the temporary alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and secret police, the Party controlled the press, the military, the economy and all organizations. In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press, a small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, it sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945, the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the USSR and USA competed for influence in Latin America, and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was stopped by the Soviets, the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. The early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, the United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation.
In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the reforms of perestroika and glasnost. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in Eastern Europe, especially Poland, Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Warsaw Pact regimes as had occurred in the past. The result in 1989 was a wave of revolutions that peacefully overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. The United States remained as the only superpower. The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy and it is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfare
Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force
The Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Air Force. In this instance, the SEAC would outrank the CMSAF, while the CMSAF is a non-commissioned officer, the billet is protocol equivalent to a lieutenant general. The current Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force is Chief Kaleth O. Wright, on February 17,2017, Chief Kaleth O. Wright succeeded Chief James A. Cody, to become the 18th Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force. On November 1,2004, the CMSAFs rank insignia was updated to include the Great Seal of the United States of America and this puts the insignia in line with those of the Army and Marine Corps which have similar insignia to denote their senior enlisted servicemen. The laurel wreath around the star in the field remained unchanged. The CMSAF wears distinctive collar insignia, enlisted airmens collar insignia was silver-colored U. S. within a ring. The CMSAFs collar brass replaced the ring with a silver laurel wreath. The CMSAF wears a distinctive cap device, enlisted airmens cap device is the Coat of Arms of the United States, surrounded by a ring, all struck from silver-colored metal.
Much as with the distinctive collar brass, the ring is replaced with a laurel wreath for the CMSAF. The Sergeant Major of the Army wears an identical cap device, first considered in 1992, the SMAs color has been authorized since 22 March 1999. The Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force colors were authorized in January 2013, the official term of address for the CMSAF is Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force or Chief
An airman is a member of the air component of a nations armed service. In the United States Air Force, it can refer to a specific enlisted rank. More informally, it can refer to any member of an air force, or to any pilot, aviator, or aircrewman, military or civilian, the equivalent in the British Royal Air Force and some other Commonwealth countries is aircraftman/woman. In civilian aviation usage, the airman is analogous to the term sailor in nautical usage. In the American Federal Aviation Administration usage, an airman is any holder of an airmans certificate and this certificate is issued to those who qualify for it by the Federal Aviation Administration Airmen Certification Branch. In the U. S. Air Force, airman is a term which can refer to any member of the United States Air Force. The rank of airman is the enlisted rank from the bottom, just above the rank of airman basic. Since the Air Force was established 1947, all of the ranks of airman have always included females, and in this context.
Former U. S. Air Force ranks included airman second class, the current E-2 paygrade rank of airman was called airman third class from 1952 to 1967. These programs are sponsored and taught by four of the services at hundreds of the high schools in the United States. Having achieved the Eagle Scout level from the Boy Scouts of America, having earned 20 college semester credit hours. They receive their retroactive pay increment that brings them up to the pay grade for an airman upon their completion of basic training. While at the rank of airman, the duties of enlisted personnel include adjusting to the Air Force way of military life, for airmen with high aptitudes, some of these training programs include more than one school and take one year or more to complete. In the U. S. Navy, airman is the rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Navys aviation field. In the U. S. Coast Guard, the ranks are similar or identical to the ones in the U. S. Navy. Coast Guard airman is the rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Coast Guards aviation field.
Military pilot Soldier Seaman U. S. Air Force enlisted rank insignia U. S. Navy enlisted rate insignia RAF enlisted ranks Aircraftman
A midshipman is an officer cadet or a commissioned officer candidate of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Canada, Bangladesh, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Kenya. Beginning in the 18th century, an officer candidate was rated as a midshipman. After serving at least three years as a midshipman or masters mate, he was eligible to take the examination for lieutenant, promotion to lieutenant was not automatic, and many midshipmen took positions as masters mates for an increase in pay and responsibility aboard ship. Midshipman began to mean an officer cadet at a naval college, trainees now spent around four years in a college and two years at sea prior to promotion to commissioned officer rank. Between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, time at sea declined to less than a year as the age was increased from 12 to 18. Ranks equivalent to midshipman exist in other navies.
Using US midshipman or pre-fleet board UK midshipman as the basis for comparison, using post-fleet board UK midshipman for comparison, the rank would be the most junior commissioned officer in the rank structure, and similar to a US ensign in role and responsibility. Today, these ranks all refer to cadets, but historically they were selected by the monarchy. The first published use of the term midshipman was in 1662, the word derives from an area aboard a ship, but it refers either to the location where midshipmen worked on the ship, or the location where midshipmen were berthed. By the 18th century, four types of midshipman existed, midshipman extraordinary, midshipman, by 1794, all midshipmen were considered officer candidates, and the original rating was phased out. Beginning in 1661, boys who aspired to become officers were sent by their families to serve on ships with a letter of service from the crown, and were paid at the same rate as midshipmen. Their official rating was volunteer-per-order, but they were known as Kings letter boys.
Beginning in 1677, Royal Navy regulations for promotion to lieutenant required service as a midshipman, by the Napoleonic era, the regulations required at least three years of services as a midshipman or masters mate and six years of total sea time. Sea time was earned in various ways, most boys served this period at sea in any lower rating, either as a servant of one of the ships officers, a volunteer, or a seaman. By the 1730s, the rating volunteer-per-order was phased out and replaced with a system where prospective midshipmen served as servants for officers. For example, a captain was allowed four servants for every 100 men aboard his ship, the school was unpopular in the Navy, because officers enjoyed the privilege of having servants and preferred the traditional method of training officers via apprenticeship. Volunteers were paid £6 per year, by 1816, the rating of midshipman ordinary was phased out, and all apprentice officers were rated as midshipmen
United States Army officer rank insignia
United States Army Officer rank insignia in use today. The structure of United States military ranks had its roots in British military traditions, adopting the same or similar ranks, at the start of the American Revolutionary War in 1776, let alone insignia, were barely affordable and recognition of ranks in the field was problematic. In 1780, regulations prescribed silver stars for general officers, worn on epaulettes, from 1821 to 1832, the Army used chevrons to identify officer grades, a practice that is still observed at West Point for cadet officers. In 1832, epaulettes were specified for all officers, and colonels began wearing the eagle insignia. The epaulettes worn by the infantry were silver, while all other branches had gold epaulettes, no insignia existed yet for lieutenant colonels, majors and lieutenants—the length and size of the fringe showing the difference of grade. In 1836, shoulder straps were adopted to replace the epaulette for field duty, at that time, lieutenant colonels and majors were authorized leaves, captains were authorized two bars, and first lieutenants were authorized one bar on the shoulder straps.
In 1851, it was decided to use only silver eagles for colonels, at that time on the shoulder straps, lieutenant colonels wore an embroidered silver leaf, majors wore a gold embroidered leaf, and captains and first lieutenants wore gold bars. The second lieutenant had no insignia, but the presence of an epaulette or shoulder strap identified him as a commissioned officer. For majors, the shoulder strap contained an oak leaf, but like the second lieutenant, the major was still distinguishable from the second lieutenant due to the more elaborate epaulette fringes worn by field grade officers. In 1872, epaulettes were abolished for officers and replaced by shoulder knots, as the shoulder knots had no fringe, it was necessary that some change in the insignia on the dress uniform be made in order to distinguish the major from the second lieutenant. It was natural to use the leaf which the major had been wearing on the shoulder strap. In the same year, the bars on the straps of the captains. By 1917 and the time of World War I, the olive drab service uniform had gradually become used more frequently and the blue uniform was worn only in the evenings and on dress occasions.
As a result, metal insignia was authorized for wear on the uniform on the shoulder loop. Shortly after the United States entered the war, only the olive drab uniform was being worn. The need for an insignia for the second lieutenant became urgent, among the proposals was one to authorize for that grade a single bar, the first lieutenant two bars, and the captain three bars. However, the policy of making as little change as possible prevailed, in terms of heraldic tradition, these changes created the curious situation of silver outranking gold. Another rationale, perhaps originally devised as a tool for recruits to sort out the confusion, proposed that the symbology was expressed as proximity to the heavens
Great Seal of the United States
The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the U. S. federal government. The phrase is used both for the seal itself, and more generally for the design impressed upon it. The Great Seal was first used publicly in 1782, the obverse of the great seal is used as the national coat of arms of the United States. It is officially used on such as United States passports, military insignia, embassy placards. As a coat of arms, the design has official colors, since 1935, both sides of the Great Seal have appeared on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. The Seal of the President of the United States is directly based on the Great Seal, the design on the obverse of the seal is the coat of arms of the United States. The shield, though sometimes drawn incorrectly, has two differences from the American flag. First, it has no stars on the blue chief, unlike the American flag, the outermost stripes are white, not red, so as not to violate the heraldic rule of tincture.
The supporter of the shield is an eagle with its wings outstretched. Although not specified by law, the branch is usually depicted with 13 leaves and 13 olives. The eagle has its head turned towards the branch, on its right side. In its beak, the eagle clutches a scroll with the motto E pluribus unum, over its head there appears a glory with 13 mullets on a blue field. In the current dies of the seal, the 13 stars above the eagle are arranged in rows of 1-4-3-4-1. The 1782 resolution of Congress adopting the arms, still in force, legally blazoned the shield as Paleways of 13 pieces and gules, a more technically proper blazon would have been argent, six pallets gules. But the phrase used was chosen to preserve the reference to the 13 original states, the 1782 resolution adopting the seal blazons the image on the reverse as A pyramid unfinished. In the zenith an eye in a triangle, surrounded by a glory, the pyramid is conventionally shown as consisting of 13 layers to refer to the 13 original states.
The adopting resolution provides that it is inscribed on its base with the date MDCCLXXVI in Roman numerals, where the top of the pyramid should be, the Eye of Providence watches over it. Two mottos appear, Annuit cœptis signifies that Providence has approved of undertakings, Novus ordo seclorum, freely taken from Virgil, is Latin for a new order of the ages
Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in the armed forces of several countries. It is a rank in some police services. In origin certain senior sergeants were assigned to administrative, supervisory, as such they held seniority over sergeants who were members of a battalion or company, and were paid correspondingly increased wages. Their seniority was indicated by a crown worn above the three stripes on their uniform rank markings. In the Australian Army and Cadets, the rank of sergeant is being phased out. It was usually held by the quartermaster sergeant or the holders of other administrative roles. Staff sergeants are addressed as Staff Sergeant or Staff, never as Sergeant as it degrades their rank. Chief is another nickname though this is used for the company chief clerk. A staff sergeant ranks above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2, for further information, see Israel Defense Forces ranks. Soldiers who take a course may become staff sergeants earlier. The rank insignia is composed of three stripes with an embroidered fig leaf, a biblical motif, in the center of the rank insignia.
Staff sergeants get a pay raise. A staff sergeant in the Singapore Armed Forces ranks above first sergeant and it is the second most senior specialist rank. Staff sergeants are addressed as Staff Sergeant or Staff, but never Sergeant, Staff sergeants may be appointed as company sergeant major if they are due for promotion to master sergeant. They are usually addressed as CSM in camp, although in the past they were referred to as Encik, the rank insignia consists of two chevrons pointing up and three chevrons pointing down, with the Singapore coat of arms in the middle. However, all three grades of Sergeants all don the same three chevrons insigna, the rank of Staff Sergeant exists in the Army, Air Force and the Marine Corps, and is equivalent to the Petty officer 2nd Class in the Navy. In the British Army, staff sergeant ranks above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2, the rank is given a NATO code of OR-7. The insignia is the crown above three downward pointing chevrons
Gary R. Pfingston
Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Gary R. Pfingston was the tenth Chief Master Sergeant appointed to the highest Non-commissioned officer position in the United States Air Force. Chief Pfingston was born in Evansville, Indiana on January 2,1940, in California, he graduated from Torrance High School in 1958 and attended El Camino College from 1958 through 1961. He entered the Air Force in February 1962, Chief Pfingston spent his early years as a B-52 Crew Chief at Castle AFB, California from 1962 to 1968 and worked on B-52s and KC-135s at Plattsburgh AFB, N. Y. from 1968 to 1972. After serving in Thailand at U-Tapao Royal Thai Air Base for a year between 1972 and 1973, he became a military Training Instructor at Lackland AFB in 1973, in 1979 he became Commandant of the Military Training Instructor School. On August 1,1990 he became CMSAF, Chief Pfingston’s focus during his tenure was tackling the Air Force’s draw-down and budget. His toughest challenge was Air Force downsizing, with a goal of avoiding involuntary separations during the ongoing force draw-down, he worked to get the Voluntary Separation Incentive and Special Separation Bonus programs established.
He died of cancer June 23,2007 and this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document https, //archive. is/20121212202625/http, //www. af. mil/information/bios/bio. asp. bioID=6751
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
United States Army Air Corps
The United States Army Air Corps was the military aviation arm of the United States of America between 1926 and 1941. The USAAC was renamed from the earlier United States Army Air Service on 2 July 1926, the Air Corps became the United States Army Air Forces on 20 June 1941, giving it greater autonomy from the Armys middle-level command structure. The separation of the Air Corps from control of its combat units caused problems of unity of command that became more acute as the Air Corps enlarged in preparation for World War II. This was resolved by the creation of the Army Air Forces, the U. S. Army Air Service had a brief but turbulent history. In early 1926 the Military Affairs Committee of the Congress rejected all bills set forth before it on both sides of the issue. They fashioned a compromise in which the findings of the Morrow Board were enacted as law, while providing the air arm a five-year plan for expansion and development. The legislation changed the name of the Air Service to the Air Corps, thereby strengthening the conception of military aviation as an offensive, the Air Corps Act became law on 2 July 1926.
Two additional brigadier generals would serve as assistant chiefs of the Air Corps, previous provisions of the National Defense Act of 1920 that all flying units be commanded only by rated personnel and that flight pay be awarded were continued. The Air Corps retained the Prop and Wings as its branch insignia through its disestablishment in 1947, patrick became Chief of the Air Corps and Brig. Gen. James E. Fechet continued as his first assistant chief. The Air Corps Act of 2 July 1926 effected no fundamental innovation, the change in designation meant no change in status, the Air Corps was still a combatant branch of the Army with less prestige than the Infantry. The Air Corps Act gave authorization to carry out an expansion program. However, a lack of appropriations caused the beginning of the program to be delayed until 1 July 1927. The act authorized expansion to 1,800 airplanes,1,650 officers, none of the goals were reached by July 1932. Organizationally the Air Corps doubled from seven to fifteen groups, but the expansion was meaningless because all were seriously understrength in aircraft and pilots.
Air Corps groups added 1927–1937 ¹Inactivated on 20 May 1937 ²Redesignated 17th Attack Group, 17th Bomb Group As units of the Air Corps increased in number, so did higher command echelons. The 1st Bomb Wing was activated in 1931, followed by the 3rd Attack Wing in 1932 to protect the Mexican border, the three wings became the foundation of General Headquarters Air Force upon its activation in 1935. In 1927 the Air Corps adopted a new scheme for painting its aircraft. The wings and tails of aircraft were painted yellow, with the words U. S
Nathan Farragut Twining
Nathan Farragut Twining was a United States Air Force General, born in Monroe, Wisconsin. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force from 1953 until 1957, as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1957 to 1960 he was the first member of the Air Force to serve in that role. Nathan Twining came from a background, his forebears had served in the United States Army and Navy since the French. His step-mother was Frances Staver Twining, author of Bird-Watching in the West, in 1913, Twining moved with his family from Monroe, Wisconsin, to Oswego, Oregon. He served in the Oregon National Guard from 1915 to 1917, in 1917, he received an appointment to West Point. Because the program was shortened so as to produce officers for combat. After graduating in 1918 and serving in the infantry for three years, arriving in Europe in July 1919, he transferred to the Air Service. Over the next 15 years he flew fighter aircraft in Texas and Hawaii, while attending the Air Corps Tactical School. On 1 February 1943, the U. S.
Navy rescued Brig. Gen. Twining, the 13th Air Force Commander and they had ditched their plane on the way from Guadalcanal to Espiritu Santo and spent six days in life rafts. On 20 October 1945, Twining led three B-29s in developing a new route from Guam to Washington via India and Germany and they completed the 13, 167-mile-trip in 59 hours,30 minutes. He returned to the States where he was named commander of the Air Materiel Command, in 1947, Twining was asked to study UFO reports, he recommended that a formal study of the phenomenon take place, Project Sign was the result. He was alleged to be a member of the group known as Majestic 12. Researchers and the FBI concluded it is a hoax, when General Hoyt Vandenberg retired in mid-1953, Twining was selected as chief, during his tenure, massive retaliation based on airpower became the national strategy. In 1957, President Eisenhower appointed Twining Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Twining died on March 29,1982 at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
General Twining held the ratings of Command Pilot and Aircraft Observer, in addition, General Twining was awarded numerous personal decorations from the U. S. military and foreign countries. National Aviation Hall of Fame A city park in Monroe, Twinings birthplace, an extensive amateur astronomy observatory facility located in rural central New Mexico is named after him. Fact Sheets, Gen. Nathan F. Twining, Nathan Farragut Twining, United States Air Force]. American Airpower Biography, A Survey of the Field