The Cardenas Medal was an award approved by an act of Congress of the United States on May 3, 1900. The award recognizes the crew of the USRC Hudson, who showed gallantry in action at the Battle of Cárdenas during the Spanish–American War; the statute awarding the medal is listed as follows: Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in recognition of the gallantry of First Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb, of the Revenue-Cutter Service, commanding the revenue cutter Hudson, his officers and the men of his command, for their intrepid and heroic gallantry in the action at Cardenas, Cuba, on the eleventh day of May, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, when the Hudson rescued the United States naval torpedo boat Winslow in the face of a most galling fire from the enemy's guns, the Winslow being disabled, her captain wounded, her only other officer and half her crew killed; the commander of the Hudson kept his vessel in the center of the hottest fire of the action, although in constant danger of going ashore on account of the shallow water, until he got a line made fast to the Winslow and towed that vessel out of range of the enemy's guns.
In commemoration of this signal act of heroism it is hereby enacted that the Secretary of the Treasury be authorized and directed to cause to be and to present to First Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb, Revenue-Cutter Service, a gold medal, to each of his officers a silver medal, to each member of his crew a bronze medal; the medal was struck in silver for the officers and bronze for the men of Hudson. The medal was designed by Charles E. Barber; the obverse of the medal depicts Victory wearing a winged cap. In her right hand she in her left an olive branch. In the background is the scene of Hudson tying up to the Winslow. At the bottom is the inscription CARDENAS MAY 11, 1898; the reverse of the medal bears the inscription in eleven lines: JOINT RESOLUTIONS OF CONGRESS APPROVED MAY 3, 1900. IN RECOGNITION OF THE GALLANTRY OF THE OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE HUDSON WHO IN THE FACE OF GALLING FIRE TOWED THE WINSLOW OUT OF RANGE OF THE ENEMY'S GUNS. To the right of the inscription is a nude female figure holding a chisel and hammer, to the left is a palm leaf and laurel branch.
At the bottom is a tablet flanked by laurels where recipients' names are engraved. The medal was struck as a non-wearable table top medal, it was converted to a wearable medal. The Cardenas Medal of Honor appears in regulations on order of wear as late as 1930
World War I Victory Medal (United States)
The World War I Victory Medal was a United States World War I service medal designed by James Earle Fraser. Award of a common allied service medal was recommended by an inter-allied committee in March 1919; each allied nation would design a'Victory Medal' for award to their military personnel, all issues having certain common features, including a winged figure of victory on the obverse and the same ribbon. The Victory Medal was intended to be established by an act of Congress; the bill authorizing the medal never passed, thus leaving the military departments to establish it through general orders. The War Department published orders in April 1919, the Navy in June of the same year; the Victory Medal was awarded to military personnel for service between April 6, 1917, November 11, 1918, or with either of the following expeditions: American Expeditionary Forces in European Russia between November 12, 1918, August 5, 1919. American Expeditionary Forces Siberia between November 23, 1918, April 1, 1920.
The front of the bronze medal features a winged Victory holding a sword on the front. The back of the bronze medal features "The Great War For Civilization" in all capital letters curved along the top of the medal. Curved along the bottom of the back of the medal are six stars, three on either side of the center column of seven staffs wrapped in a cord; the top of the staff is winged on the side. The staff is on top of a shield that says "U" on the left side of the staff and "S" on the right side of the staff. On left side of the staff it lists one World War I Allied country per line: France, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. On the right side of the staff the Allied country names read: Great Britain, Brazil, Portugal and China. To denote battle participation and campaign credit, the World War I Victory Medal was authorized with a large variety of devices to denote specific accomplishments. In order of seniority, the devices authorized to the World War I Victory Medal were as follows: The Citation Star to the World War I Victory Medal was authorized by the United States Congress on February 4, 1919.
A 3⁄16 inch silver star was authorized to be worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal for any member of the U. S. Army, cited for gallantry in action between 1917 and 1920. In 1932, the Citation Star was redesigned and renamed the Silver Star Medal and, upon application to the United States War Department, any holder of the Silver Star Citation could have it converted to a Silver Star medal; the Navy Commendation Star to the World War I Victory Medal was authorized to any person, commended by the Secretary of the Navy for performance of duty during the First World War. A 3⁄16 inch silver star was worn on the World War I Victory Medal, identical in appearance to the Army's Citation Star. Unlike the Army's version, the Navy Commendation Star could not be upgraded to the Silver Star medal; the following battle clasps, inscribed with a battle's name, were worn on the medal to denote participation in major ground conflicts. For general defense service, not involving a specific battle, the "Defensive Sector" Battle Clasp was authorized.
The clasp was awarded for any battle, not recognized by its own battle clasp. The World War I Victory Medal bears the clasps of the battles the U. S. Army participated in across the ribbon. Not all battles are shown on the bar clasps. Only the battles designated as battles that would have bars issued were shown on the medal; the famous Battle of Chateau Thierry to hold the Chateau and the bridge as a joint effort between the US Army and the US Marines against the German machine gunners did not get awarded clasps. Navy battle clasps were issued for naval service in support of Army operations and had identical names to the Army battle clasps. There was a slight variation of the criteria dates for the Navy battle clasps; the Defensive Sector Clasp was authorized for Navy personnel who had participated in naval combat but were not authorized a particular battle clasp. For sea-related war duty, the Navy issued the following operational clasps, which were worn on the World War I Victory Medal and inscribed with the name of the duty type, performed: Unlike the army, the navy only allowed one clasp of any type to be worn on the ribbon.
Members of the marine or medical corps who served in France but was not eligible for a battle clasp would receive a bronze Maltese cross on their ribbons. For non-combat service with the army during the First World War, the following service clasps were authorized to be worn with the World War I Victory Medal; each service claps was inscribed with a region name where support service was performed. The U. S. Army issued the following service clasps: The U. S. Navy issued similar service clasps to the Army for service in the following regions during the following periods: Since battle and service clasps could only be worn on the full-sized World War I Victory Medal, 3/16 inch bronze service stars were authorized for wear on the award ribbon; this was the common method of campaign and battle display when wearing the World War I Victory Medal as a ribbon on a military uniform. Medals issued to U. S. Marines were issued with a Maltese cross device affixed to the ribbon; the World War I Victory Medals were awarded after the end of World War I, so they were mailed to the servicemen instead of awarded in person.
For example, the boxes containing the Victory Medals for United States Army World War I veterans were mailed out by the depot officer at the General Supply Depot, U. S. Army, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in April 1921. An outer
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
79th United States Congress
The Seventy-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1945, to January 3, 1947, during the last months of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency, the first two years of Harry Truman's presidency; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. January 20, 1945: President Franklin D. Roosevelt began his fourth term. April 12, 1945: President Roosevelt died, Vice President Harry S. Truman became President of the United States. September 2, 1945: World War II ended. September 11, 1945–June 20, 1946: Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack conducted its investigation and issued a report. November 6, 1946: United States Senate elections, 1946, United States House of Representatives elections, 1946: Republicans gained control of both houses.
January 3, 1947: Proceedings of the U. S. Congress were televised for the first time. March 9, 1945: McCarran-Ferguson Act July 31, 1945: Bretton Woods Agreements Act, Pub. L. 79–171 July 31, 1945: Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 December 20, 1945: United Nations Participation Act December 28, 1945: War Brides Act February 18, 1946: Rescission Act of 1946, Pub. L. 79–301 February 20, 1946: Employment Act, Pub. L. 79–304, ch. 33, 60 Stat. 23 May 13, 1946: Federal Airport Act of 1946, Pub. L. 79–377 June 4, 1946: Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, ch. 281, 60 Stat. 230 June 11, 1946: Administrative Procedure Act, ch. 324, 60 Stat. 237 July 2, 1946: Luce-Celler Act of 1946 July 3, 1946: Hobbs Anti-Racketeering Act, ch. 537, 60 Stat. 420 July 5, 1946: Lanham Trademark Act of 1946 August 1, 1946: United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946, ch. 724, 60 Stat. 755 August 2, 1946: Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 August 2, 1946: Federal Tort Claims Act, ch. 753, title IV, 60 Stat. 842 August 2, 1946: Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946 August 13, 1946: Foreign Service Act, ch.
957, titles I–X, 60 Stat. 999 August 13, 1946: Hospital Survey and Construction Act, Pub. L. 79–725, ch. 958, 60 Stat. 1040 August 14, 1946: Farmers Home Administration Act, ch. 964, 60 Stat. 1062 December 4, 1945: Senate approved the entry of the United States into the United Nations July 4, 1946: The United States ratified the Treaty of Manila, which gave independence to The Philippines President: Henry A. Wallace, until - January 20, 1945 Harry S. Truman, January 20, 1945 – April 12, 1945. Majority whip: Lister Hill Minority whip: Kenneth Wherry, elected 1944 Speaker: Sam Rayburn Majority leader: John William McCormack Minority leader: Joseph William Martin, Jr. Majority whip: John J. Sparkman Minority whip: Leslie C. Arends Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1946.
The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress. Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee. Atomic Energy Conditions of Indian Tribes Disposition of Executive Papers Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack Legislative Budget The Library Organization of Congress Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures Selective Service Deferments Taxation Democratic Democratic Architect of the Capitol: David Lynn Attending Physician of the United States Congress: George Calver Comptroller General of the United States: Lindsay C. Warren Librarian of Congress: Luther H. Evans Public Printer of the United States: Augustus E. Giegengack Chaplain: Frederick Brown Harris Parliamentarian: Charles Watkins Secretary: Edwin A. Halsey, Leslie Biffle Sergeant at Arms: Wall Doxey Chaplain: James Shera Montgomery Clerk: South Trimble Parliamentarian: Lewis Deschler Postmaster: Finis E. Scott Reading Clerks: N/A and N/A Sergeant at Arms: Kenneth Romney United States elections, 1944 United States presidential election, 1944 United States Senate elections, 1944 United States House of Representatives elections, 1944 United States elections, 1946 United States Senate elections, 1946 United States House of Representatives elections, 1946 Clerk of the House of Representatives House of Representatives Session Calendar for the 79th Congress.
China Campaign Medal
The China Campaign Medal is a decoration of the United States Army, created by order of the United States War Department on January 12, 1905. The medal recognizes service in the China Relief Expedition, conducted by the United States Army at the turn on the 20th century during the Boxer Rebellion. To be awarded the China Campaign Medal, a service member must have performed military duty in China, between the dates of June 20, 1900 and May 27, 1901, with such duty being in service of the China Relief Expedition. For those service members who were cited for gallantry in action, the Citation Star is authorized as a device to the China Campaign Medal; the United States Navy equivalent of the China Campaign Medal was the China Relief Expedition Medal. A similar medal, known as the China Service Medal, was created by the Navy in 1941. On the obverse is the Imperial Chinese five-toed dragon with the inscription CHINA RELIEF EXPEDITION around the upper border and the dates 1900–1901 at the bottom. On the reverse is a trophy composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, a Sulu kris.
Below the trophy are the words FOR SERVICE. Around the border at the top are the words UNITED STATES ARMY and around the bottom are thirteen stars; the ribbon is 13⁄8 inches wide and is composed of the following vertical stripes: 1/16 inch Ultramarine blue, 11⁄4 inch Golden yellow, 1/16 inch Ultramarine Blue. Army units which received credit for campaign participation may display the streamer on the organizational flag; the inscription will be as indicated on the unit's lineage and honors. There are three streamers displayed on the Army flag to represent the China Relief Expedition; the inscriptions are: TIENTSIN 1900 YANG-TSUN 1900 PEKING 1900 List of military decorations Awards and decorations of the United States military This article incorporates text in the public domain from the United States Army."China Relief Expeditionary Medal". Service Medals and Campaign Credits of the United States Navy. Naval Historical Center. 13 June 1998. Retrieved 2007-10-17."China Campaign Medal". The Institute of Heraldry, United States Army.
Archived from the original on 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-10-17
World War II Victory Medal (United States)
The World War II Victory Medal is a service medal of the United States military, established by an Act of Congress on 6 July 1945 and promulgated by Section V, War Department Bulletin 12, 1945. The corresponding medal from World War I is the World War I Victory Medal; the World War II Victory Medal was first issued as a service ribbon referred to as the “Victory Ribbon.” The World War II Victory Medal was established by an Act of Congress on 6 July 1945 and promulgated by Section V, War Department Bulletin 12, 1945. The medal was designed by Mr. Thomas H. Jones and approved by the Secretary of War on 5 February 1946, it did not transition from a ribbon to a full medal until after World War II had ended. The Congressional authorization for the medal specified that it was to be awarded to any member of the United States military, including members of the armed forces of the Government of the Philippine Islands, who served on active duty, or as a reservist, between 7 December 1941 and 31 December 1946.
On 8 August 1946, the separate Merchant Marine World War II Victory Medal was established for members of the United States Merchant Marine who served during World War II. The medal is awarded for service between 7 December 1941 and 31 December 1946, both dates inclusive; the National Personnel Records Center has reported some cases of service members receiving the award for a few days of service. As the Second World War ended on 2 September 1945, there may be cases of service members who had enlisted, entered officer candidate school, or had been a cadet or midshipman at the U. S. Military Academy, the U. S. Naval Academy or the U. S. Coast Guard Academy between 3 September 1945 and any date in 1946, receiving the medal without having been a veteran of World War II; the reason for this late date is that President Harry S. Truman did not declare an official end of hostilities until the last day of 1946; as every member of the United States Armed Forces who served from December 7, 1941 to December 31, 1946 was eligible for the medal, there were over 12 million eligible recipients, making the World War II Victory Medal one of the most awarded decorations of the United States military.
The bronze medal is 1 4⁄8 inches in width. The obverse is a figure of Liberation standing full length with head turned to dexter looking to the dawn of a new day, right foot resting on a war god’s helmet with the hilt of a broken sword in the right hand and the broken blade in the left hand, the inscription WORLD WAR II placed below the center. On the reverse are inscriptions for the Four Freedoms: FREEDOM FROM FEAR AND WANT and FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION separated by a palm branch, all within a circle composed of the words UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 1941 1945; the suspension and service ribbon of the medal is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 3⁄8 inch double rainbow in juxtaposition. The rainbow on each side of the ribbon is a miniature of the pattern used in the World War I Victory Medal. Although the World War I Victory Medal included clasps, the World War II Victory Medal did not; this was. Awards and decorations of the United States military Merchant Marine World War II Victory Medal United States Statutes at Large.
Vol. 59. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register. 1946. P. 461. Code of Federal Regulations. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register. 2008. 32CFR578.47. Retrieved 4 June 2009. NavPers 15,790: Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy. 1960. P. 161. OCLC 45726498. Retrieved 4 June 2009. MIL-DTL-3943/237A: Detail Specification Sheet — Medal, World War II Victory. 15 August 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2009. MIL-DTL-11589/149E: Detail Specification Sheet — Ribbon, World War II Victory Medal. 15 September 1995. Retrieved 4 June 2009. "World War II Victory Medal". Fort Belvoir, Virginia: The Institute of Heraldry, U. S. Army. Archived from the original on September 9, 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2009
Indian Campaign Medal
The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration established by War Department General Orders 12, 1907. The medal was retroactively awarded to any soldier of the U. S. Army who had participated in the American Indian Wars against the Native Americans between 1865 and 1891. A; the Indian Campaign Medal was established by War Department General Orders 12 in 1907. It was created at the same time as the Civil War Campaign Medal. B; the initial ribbon was all red. C. Campaign streamers of the same design as the service ribbon are authorised for display by units receiving campaign credit participation for Indian Wars as early as 1790; the inscriptions for streamers displayed on the organizational flag will be as indicated in the unit's lineage and honors. The inscriptions for the 14 streamers displayed on the Army flag are listed in AR 840-10 and AR 600-8-22; the Code of Federal Regulations declares service in the following campaigns as requirements for award of the Indian Campaign Medal: Southern Oregon, northern California, Nevada between 1865 and 1868.
Against the Comanches and confederate tribes in Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, Indian Territory between 1867 and 1875. Modoc War between 1872 and 1873. Against the Apaches in Arizona in 1873. Against the Northern Cheyennes and Sioux between 1876 and 1877. Nez Perce War in 1877. Bannock War in 1878. Against the Northern Cheyennes between 1878 and 1879. Against the Sheep-Eaters and Bannocks between June and October, 1879. Against the Utes in Colorado and Utah between September 1879 and November 1880. Against the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico between 1885 and 1886. Against the Sioux in South Dakota between November 1890 and January 1891. Against hostile Indians in any other action in which United States troops were killed or wounded between 1865 and 1891; the Code of Federal Regulations describes the medal as follows: The medal of bronze is 11⁄4 inches in diameter. On the obverse is a mounted Indian facing sinister, wearing a war bonnet, carrying a spear in his right hand. Above the horseman are the words ‘‘Indian Wars,’’ and below, on either side of a buffalo skull, the circle is completed by arrowheads, conventionally arranged.
On the reverse is a trophy, composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, a Sulu kriss. Below the trophy are the words ‘‘For Service.’’ The whole is surrounded by a circle composed of the words ‘‘United States Army’’ in the upper half and thirteen stars in the lower half. The medal is suspended by a ring from a silk moire ribbon 13⁄8inches in length and 13⁄8 inches in width composed of a red stripe, black stripe, red band, black stripe, red stripe; the Indian Campaign Medal was issued as a one-time decoration only and there were no devices or service stars authorized for those who had participated in multiple actions. The only attachment authorized to the medal was the silver citation star, awarded for meritorious or heroic conduct; the silver citation star was the predecessor of the Silver Star and was awarded to eleven soldiers between 1865 and 1891. Awards and decorations of the United States military U.
S. military history: Indian conflicts, battles and campaigns "Named Campaigns – Indian Wars". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 13 December 2005. US Army Institute of Heraldry: Indian Campaign Medal