Distinctive unit insignia
A distinctive unit insignia is a metallic heraldic badge or device worn by soldiers in the United States Army. The DUI design is derived from the coat of arms authorized for a unit. DUIs may be called "distinctive insignia" or, imprecisely, a "crest" or a "unit crest" by soldiers or collectors; the U. S. Army Institute of Heraldry is responsible for the design and authorization of all DUIs. Pre-World War I Insignia. Distinctive ornamentation of a design desired by the organization was authorized for wear on the Mess Jacket uniform by designated organizations per General Order 132 dated December 31, 1902; the distinctive ornamentation was described as coats of arms and devices. The authority continued until omitted in the Army uniform regulation dated December 26, 1911. Distinctive unit insignia. Circular 161 dated 29 April 1920 authorized the use of the regimental coat of arms or badge as approved by the War Department for wear on the collar of the white uniform and the lapels of the mess jacket.
Circular 244, 1921 states: "It has been approved, in principle, that regiments of the Regular Army and National Guard may wear distinctive badges or trimmings on their uniforms as a means of promoting esprit de corps and keeping alive historical traditions. Various organizations which carry colors or standards have submitted coats of arms having certain historical significance; as fast as approved these coats of arms will for the basis for regimental colors or standards which will replace the present regimental colors or standards when these wear out. The use of these coats of arms as collar ornaments in lieu of the insignia of corps, departments, or arms of service would be an example of distinctive badge to be worn by the regiment." `The first unit to wear this insignia was the 51st Artillery which received approval for wear on March 18, 1922. It was designed by Master Gunner and Master Sergeant Edward C. Kuhn, the artist responsible for creating all authorized coats of arms and distinctive unit insignia at the time.
Present. Up until 1965, only regiments and separate battalions were authorized a coat of arms and distinctive units insignia. Now all major commands, field hospitals, logistics commands and certain other units – groups, for example – are authorized distinctive unit insignia; the unit commanding officer requests approval of a distinctive unit insignia. A check is made by the Institute of Heraldry to determine the availability of a current copy of the lineage and honor statement and/or history for the unit. If such is not available, one is requested from the United States Army Center of Military History; the unit's history is reviewed to determine if the unit may inherit a approved distinctive unit insignia or if a new design should be made. If a new design is to be made, careful study is made of the battle honors of the unit; the most important decorations, combat service and missions are represented in the design of the insignia. Sometimes two centuries of history are condensed into symbolism for distinctive unit insignia.
A proposed design is sent to the commanding officer for review and concurrence. Upon concurrence by the unit commander an official letter of approval of the distinctive unit insignia is sent to the unit. Manufacturing drawings and specifications are sent to a certified manufacturer which provides samples of the finished distinctive unit insignia to the Institute of Heraldry for approval. Once approved the manufacturer may produce this insignia; each manufacturer has an identifying hallmark assigned by the Institute of Heraldry, applied to the back of the insignia. The shield shape design is used to identify color bearing organizations. Other design patterns will be used for non-color bearing units; the design is based on assignment or accomplishments. Cartoon characters or logos are not authorized as design elements. Symbols are to represent mission rather than actual equipment. Unit designations, letters, geographical outlines, reproductions of other insignia will not be included as part of the design.
Once a distinctive unit insignia is approved it is changed only when a heraldic or historical error is found. A modification of unit designation or mission does not permit a change to the DUI design; as a result, DUIs tend to further reflect the historic roots of a unit. For example, many older Military Intelligence battalions' DUIs feature teal blue rather than oriental blue, having been designed for Army Security Agency units which were designated as branch-immaterial; those that began as Signals units feature orange. The 211th Military Police Battalion provides an example of a unit changing branches without changing insignia, having been assigned to six different branches during its existence. Color-bearing battalions and regiments continue to have insignia without the shield shape if they were non-color-bearing units when the insignia was approved. Distinctive unit insignia of a design approved by The Institute of Heraldry, U. S. Army, are authorized under Paragraph 28-22 of Army Regulation 670-1.
The distinctive unit insignia of the unit to which the soldier is assigned are worn as follows: On the beret flash of enlisted personnel On the breast patch of the bl
Major general (United States)
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks below lieutenant general. A major general commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, is the highest-permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed-services. Higher ranks are technically-temporary ranks linked to specific positions, although all officers promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank; the United States Code explicitly limits the total number of general officers that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 231 for the Army, 62 for the Marine Corps, 198 for the Air Force; some of these slots are finitely set by statute. For example, the Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Army is a major general in the Army.
The United States Code limits the total number of general officers that may be on the Reserve Active Status List in the Reserve Component, defined in the case of general officers as the Army National Guard, Army Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve. To be promoted to the permanent grade of major general, officers who are eligible for promotion to this rank are screened by an in-service promotion board comprising other general officers from their branch of service; this promotion board generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion to general rank. This list is sent to the service secretary and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for review before it can be sent to the President, through the Secretary of Defense for consideration; the President nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, the service secretary, if applicable, the service's chief of staff or commandant. The President may nominate any eligible officer, not on the recommended list if it serves in the interest of the nation, but this is uncommon.
The Senate must confirm the nominee by a majority vote before the officer can be promoted. Once confirmed, the nominee is promoted to that rank on assuming a position of office that requires an officer to hold the rank. For positions of office that are reserved by statute, the President nominates an officer for appointment to fill that position. For all three of the applicable uniformed services, because the grade of major general is a permanent rank, the nominee may still be screened by an in-service promotion board to add their input on the nominee before the nomination can be sent to the Senate for approval. Since the grade of major general is permanent, the rank does not expire when the officer vacates a two-star position. Tour length varies depending on the position, by statute, and/or when the officer receives a new assignment or a promotion, but the average tour length per two-star billet is two to four years. In the Army, Major Generals serve as division commanders, training center commanders, joint task force commanders, deputy commanding generals to 3-star generals, chief of staff in 4-star commands, senior directors on Army and joint staffs, and, in the case of the Army National Guard, as The Adjutant General for their state, commonwealth or territory.
In the Marine Corps, Major Generals serve as commanding generals or deputy commanding generals of Marine Expeditionary Forces, Marine Divisions, Marine Aircraft Wings, Joint Task Force Commanders, or senior directors on Marine Corps and joint staffs. In the Air Force, Major Generals serve as Numbered Air Force commanders, vice commanders of 3-star commands, joint task force commanders, warfare center, training center, weapons center, or logistics center commanders, or senior directors on Air Force and joint staffs. In the case of the Air National Guard, they may serve as The Adjutant General for their state, commonwealth or territory. Other than voluntary retirement, statute sets a number of mandates for retirement of general officers. All major generals must retire after five years in grade or 35 years of service, whichever is unless appointed for promotion or reappointed to grade to serve longer. Otherwise, all general officers must retire the month after their 64th birthday; the Continental Army was established on June 15, 1775 when the Continental Congress commissioned George Washington as a general and placed him in command of the Army of Observation besieging Boston.
The rank of major general was first established two days on June 17, 1775 when two major generals were commissioned by Congress soon followed by two more major generals being appointed on June 19. Following the disbanding of the Continental Army at the end of 1783 only one major general, Henry Knox, remained in service until his resignation in June 1784; the rank was revived on March 4, 1791 when Arthur St. Clair was appointed as major general in command of the U. S. Army. St. Clair was succeeded by Major General Anthony Wayne who commanded the Army until his death on December 15, 1796; the rank was revived on July 19, 1798 when Alexander Hamilton and Charles C. Pinckney were commissioned as major generals during the Quasi War with France; the expanded Army was demobilized on June 15, 1800 when it was reduced to
19th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 19th Infantry Regiment is a United States Army infantry regiment, assigned to the US Army Training and Doctrine Command, with the assignment of conducting Basic and Advanced Infantry Training. Constituted 1861-05-03 in the Regular Army as the 1st Battalion, 19th Infantry Regiment Organized 1861-07-09 at Indianapolis, Indiana Reorganized and redesignated 1866-10-01 as the 19th Infantry Regiment Consolidated 1869-03-15 with the 28th Infantry Regiment and consolidated unit designated as the 19th Infantry Regiment. Assigned 1918-07-29 to the 18th Division Relieved 1919-02-14 from assignment to the 18th Division Took part in quelling the 1921 miners' rebellion at the Battle of Blair Mountain in Logan, WV; this took three infantry regiments to halt. The 19th Infantry took the lead role, traveling up the Spruce Fork River to Blair, WV, dispersing the miners. Once the 19th arrived, the miners, many of whom were veterans fresh from WWI, surrendered peaceably and departed for their homes. Assigned 1922-10-17 to the Hawaiian Division, stationed at Schofield Barracks.
Divisional assignment changed on 1941-08-26 from the Hawaiian Division to the 24th Infantry Division. Deployed forward from Hawaii on 1943-07-30. Regiment arrived in Australia on 1943-08-08, Regiment moved to Goodenough Island on 1944-01-26. Regiment assaulted Tanahmerah Bay, New Guinea on 1944-04-22. Regiment departed Humboldt Bay, New Guinea in stages between 1944-10-07 and 1944-10-12, Assaulted Leyte Island in the Philippines on 1944-10-20. Regiment attached to the US 6th Army from 1944-11-20. Regiment assaulted Mindoro, Philippines on 1944-12-15; the Army attachment was changed from the 6th US Army to the 8th US Army on 1945-01-01. Regiment was relieved from attachment to 8th Army on 1945-02-01 Regiment assaulted Romblon Island on 1945-03-11 and Simara Island on 1945-03-12, Malabang, Mindanao on 1945-04-17. Regiment was at Davao, Mindanao on 1945-08-20. Regiment arrived in Japan for Occupation Duty on 1945-10-22, where they were active through 1946. Relieved 1958-06-05 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division and reorganized as a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System Withdrawn 1989-06-16 from the Combat Arms Regimental System, reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System, transferred to the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, assigned to Basic and Advanced Infantry Training duty at Fort Benning, Georgia.
Constituted 1861-05-03 in the Regular Army as the 2d Battalion, 19th Infantry. Organized 1863-03-31 at Fort Wayne, Michigan. Reorganized and redesignated 1866-10-01 as the 28th Infantry Regiment. Consolidated 1869-03-15 with the 19th Infantry and consolidated unit designated as the 19th Infantry Regiment. Withdrawn 1989-06-16 from the Combat Arms Regimental System, reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System, transferred to the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, assigned to Basic and Advanced Infantry Training duty at Fort Benning, Georgia. Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as the 3d Battalion, 19th Infantry Regiment. Organized May 1865 - September 1866 at Fort Wayne, Michigan. One-half of the 37th Infantry consolidated August–December 1869 with the 3d Infantry and consolidated unit designated as the 3d Infantry. Civil War:Shiloh.
Walter Henry Gordon
Walter Henry Gordon was a United States Army general. He took command of the Tenth Infantry Brigade at the time of its organization as a part of the Fifth Division and commanded it throughout its training period and the trench warfare of the Vosges sectors, he was born at Artonish, Mississippi. He entered the United States Military Academy in 1882 and was commissioned Second Lieutenant of the Twelfth Infantry on July 1, 1886. Lieutenant Gordon was promoted to First Lieutenant of Infantry on November 30, 1892. During the Spanish -- American War he became, on June 1898, Major of the First Delaware Infantry. On September 21, he was promoted to Colonel of that regiment, at the close of hostilities he was honorably mustered out. Promotion to Captain of Infantry came March 2, 1899. From 1907 to 1909, Gordon was a member of the General Staff, he was promoted to Major on March 23, 1909. From April 2, 1910 to August 14, 1913, Gordon served as Inspector General, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry on September 13, 1914.
In that year, he was at the United States Army War College. On July 1, 1916, he was promoted to rank of Colonel. Gordon was made Brigadier General, National Army, on August 31, 1917, he took command of the Tenth Infantry Brigade, organized from the Sixth and Eleventh Infantry at Camp Forrest, Georgia, on December 1, 1917. While the Fifth Division was occupying the St. Die sector, Gordon was placed in direct command of an operation to capture the village of Frapelle in the valley of the Fave River, above St. Die; the operation was carried out by the Sixth Infantry according to Gordon's plans. Gordon was promoted to rank of Major General on August 26 and left the Tenth Brigade to assume command of the Sixth Division. USS General W. H. Gordon This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: K. Stevenson's The official history of the Fifth division, U. S. A.: during the period of its organization and of its operations in the European world war, 1917–1919. The Red diamond division
Silver Wings (parachute team)
The United States Army Maneuver Center of Excellence Command Exhibition Parachute Team known as the Silver Wings, is the official demonstration parachute team of Fort Benning, United States Army. It is made up of US Army Paratroopers who have demonstrated excellence in parachuting skills, drawn from the 1st Battalion of the 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, Fort Benning. In 1958 a group of experienced parachutists from 1-507 Parachute Infantry Regiment formed the Fort Benning Sport Parachute Club in order to recreationally hone their free-fall parachuting skills on the weekends, their efforts to promote the club and talent in the air brought higher-level attention to the club over the following seven years. Renamed the 5000 Jumpers, the club conducted its first official demonstration at the Fort Benning Airfield in 1962. In 1965, the 5000 Jumpers were redesignated as the United States Army Command Exhibition Parachute Team, nicknamed the Silver Wings. Composition The Silver Wings mission is to perform live aerial demonstrations in support of the United States Army, Fort Benning public relations and recruiting.
The Silver Wings team is composed of sixteen jumpers, ten of them holding full-time orders to the unit and six serving part-time with the unit. In order to qualify for a position on the team candidates must, at a minimum, hold a novice freefall USPA jump rating, be Basic Airborne qualified, come from the 1-507 Parachute Infantry Regiment or a unit permanently assigned to Fort Benning. Candidates must: Be in the rank of Sergeant-Sergeant First Class. Must be /hold an A license or above, unless selected for AFF training. Must have an exit weight of at least 145 pounds. Must be flexible to change. Must have no UCMJ flags. Must obtain a letter of approval from their Battalion Commander. Candidates are hand-selected with approval by their Battalion Commander. All candidates undergo a demanding 90-day training and assessment phase, during which candidates must master aspects of ground control, to include time warnings, target placement, radio procedures, rigging smoke, team organizations and equipment storage.
Candidates who fail to master these disciplines will not be selected as a member of the Silver Wings. Demonstrations The Silver Wings conduct demonstrations in a variety of locations during every weekend of the year; the team has jumped into events such as the Taladega Speedway, Daytona 500, a number of university- and professional-level sporting events. The team conducts tandem jumps with various celebrities and VIPs. Weekends not spent on demonstrations are filled with drop zone training; the Silver Wings conduct a number of specialty jumps as well, including night and water landing jumps. 507th Infantry Regiment United States Army Airborne School United States Army Pathfinder School United States Army Jumpmaster School United States Army Parachute Team - Golden Knights USSOCOM Parachute Team - Para-Commandos Silver Wings Official Web Page Fort Benning Official Website 199th Infantry Brigade Official Website U. S. Army Official Accessions Website U. S. Army Official Homepage
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e
Combatives is a term for hand-to-hand combat training and techniques within the American military. Sometimes called Close Quarters Combat, World War II-era American combatives were developed by Britain's William E. Fairbairn and Eric A. Sykes. Known for their eponymous Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife and Sykes had worked in the British Armed Forces and helped teach the Shanghai Municipal Police quick and simple techniques for fighting with or without weapons in melee situations. Similar training was provided to British Commandos, the First Special Service Force, Office of Strategic Services, Army Rangers, Marine Raiders. Fairbairn at one point called this system Defendu and published on it, as did their American colleague Rex Applegate. Fairbairn referred to the technique as "gutter fighting," a term which Applegate used, along with "the Fairbairn system." Other combatives systems having their origins in the modern military include Chinese Sanshou, Soviet Bojewoje Sambo, Israeli Kapap. The prevalence and style of combatives training changes based on perceived need, in times of peace, special forces and commando units tend to have a much higher emphasis on close combat than most personnel, as may embassy guards or paramilitary units such as police SWAT teams.
De-emphasized in the United States after World War II, insurgency conflicts such as the Vietnam War, low intensity conflict, urban warfare tend to encourage more attention to combatives. While the United States Marine Corps replaced its LINE combat system with Marine Corps Martial Arts Program in 2002, The United States Army adopted the Modern Army Combatives program the same year with the publishing of Field Manual 3-25.150. MAC draws from systems such as Wrestling, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Sambo, Muay Thai and Eskrima, which could be trained "live" and can be integrated into current Close Quarters Battle tactics and training methods. In August 2007, MAC training became required in every Army unit by Army regulation 350-1; the Modern Army Combatives Program was adopted as the basis for the Air Force Combatives Program in January 2008. In recent years the major tenets of MAC, namely "live" training and using competitions as a tool to motivate Soldiers and units to higher levels of training, have been adopted by many of the major Combatives Systems such as Krav Maga and the Russian military hand-to-hand combat system.
In 2001, Matt Larsen a Sergeant First Class, established the United States Army Combatives School at Fort Benning. Students are taught techniques from the 2002 and 2009 versions of FM 3-25.150 written by Larsen. The aim of the regimen is to teach soldiers how to train rather than attempting to give them the perfect techniques for any given situation; the main idea is that all real ability is developed after the initial training and only if training becomes routine. The initial techniques are a learning metaphor useful for teaching more important concepts, such as dominating an opponent with superior body position during ground grappling or how to control someone during clinch fighting, they are taught as small repeatable drills, in which practitioners could learn multiple related techniques rapidly. For example, Drill One teaches several techniques: escaping blows, maintaining the mount, escaping the mount, maintaining the guard, passing the guard, assuming side control, maintaining side control and assuming the mount.
The drill can be completed in less than a minute and can be done with varying levels of resistance to maximize training benefits. New soldiers begin their Combatives training on day three of Initial Military Training, at the same time that they are first issued their rifle; the training begins with learning to maintain control of your weapon in a fight. Soldiers are taught how to gain control of a potential enemy at the farthest possible range in order to maintain their tactical flexibility, what the tactical options are and how to implement them; the three basic options upon encountering a resistant opponent taught are: Option One, disengage to regain projectile weapon range Option Two, gain a controlling position and utilize a secondary weapon Option Three, close the distance and gain control to finish the fight. During the graduation exercises the trainee must react to contact from the front or rear in full combat equipment and execute whichever of the three tactical options is appropriate and to take part in competitive bouts using the basic rules.
The Combatives School teaches four instructor certification courses. Students of the first course are not expected to have any knowledge of combatives upon arrival, they are taught fundamental techniques which are designed to illuminate the fundamental principles of combatives training. The basic techniques form a framework upon which the rest of the program can build and are taught as a series of drills, which can be performed as a part of daily physical training. While the course is heavy on grappling, it does not lose sight of the fact that it is a course designed for soldiers going into combat, it is made clear that while combatives can be used to kill or disable, the man that wins a hand-to-hand fight in combat is the one whose allies arrive with guns first. Subsequent courses build upon the framework by adding throws and takedowns from Wrestling and Judo, striking skills from Boxing and Muay Thai, ground fighting from Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Sambo and melee weapons fighting from Eskrima and the western martial arts, all of that combined with how to conduct scenario training and referee the various levels of Combatives competitions.
There are several reasons that the combatives course is taught: To educate soldiers on how to protect themselves against