Distinctive unit insignia
A distinctive unit insignia is a metallic heraldic badge or device worn by soldiers in the United States Army. The DUI design is derived from the coat of arms authorized for a unit. DUIs may be called "distinctive insignia" or, imprecisely, a "crest" or a "unit crest" by soldiers or collectors; the U. S. Army Institute of Heraldry is responsible for the design and authorization of all DUIs. Pre-World War I Insignia. Distinctive ornamentation of a design desired by the organization was authorized for wear on the Mess Jacket uniform by designated organizations per General Order 132 dated December 31, 1902; the distinctive ornamentation was described as coats of arms and devices. The authority continued until omitted in the Army uniform regulation dated December 26, 1911. Distinctive unit insignia. Circular 161 dated 29 April 1920 authorized the use of the regimental coat of arms or badge as approved by the War Department for wear on the collar of the white uniform and the lapels of the mess jacket.
Circular 244, 1921 states: "It has been approved, in principle, that regiments of the Regular Army and National Guard may wear distinctive badges or trimmings on their uniforms as a means of promoting esprit de corps and keeping alive historical traditions. Various organizations which carry colors or standards have submitted coats of arms having certain historical significance; as fast as approved these coats of arms will for the basis for regimental colors or standards which will replace the present regimental colors or standards when these wear out. The use of these coats of arms as collar ornaments in lieu of the insignia of corps, departments, or arms of service would be an example of distinctive badge to be worn by the regiment." `The first unit to wear this insignia was the 51st Artillery which received approval for wear on March 18, 1922. It was designed by Master Gunner and Master Sergeant Edward C. Kuhn, the artist responsible for creating all authorized coats of arms and distinctive unit insignia at the time.
Present. Up until 1965, only regiments and separate battalions were authorized a coat of arms and distinctive units insignia. Now all major commands, field hospitals, logistics commands and certain other units – groups, for example – are authorized distinctive unit insignia; the unit commanding officer requests approval of a distinctive unit insignia. A check is made by the Institute of Heraldry to determine the availability of a current copy of the lineage and honor statement and/or history for the unit. If such is not available, one is requested from the United States Army Center of Military History; the unit's history is reviewed to determine if the unit may inherit a approved distinctive unit insignia or if a new design should be made. If a new design is to be made, careful study is made of the battle honors of the unit; the most important decorations, combat service and missions are represented in the design of the insignia. Sometimes two centuries of history are condensed into symbolism for distinctive unit insignia.
A proposed design is sent to the commanding officer for review and concurrence. Upon concurrence by the unit commander an official letter of approval of the distinctive unit insignia is sent to the unit. Manufacturing drawings and specifications are sent to a certified manufacturer which provides samples of the finished distinctive unit insignia to the Institute of Heraldry for approval. Once approved the manufacturer may produce this insignia; each manufacturer has an identifying hallmark assigned by the Institute of Heraldry, applied to the back of the insignia. The shield shape design is used to identify color bearing organizations. Other design patterns will be used for non-color bearing units; the design is based on assignment or accomplishments. Cartoon characters or logos are not authorized as design elements. Symbols are to represent mission rather than actual equipment. Unit designations, letters, geographical outlines, reproductions of other insignia will not be included as part of the design.
Once a distinctive unit insignia is approved it is changed only when a heraldic or historical error is found. A modification of unit designation or mission does not permit a change to the DUI design; as a result, DUIs tend to further reflect the historic roots of a unit. For example, many older Military Intelligence battalions' DUIs feature teal blue rather than oriental blue, having been designed for Army Security Agency units which were designated as branch-immaterial; those that began as Signals units feature orange. The 211th Military Police Battalion provides an example of a unit changing branches without changing insignia, having been assigned to six different branches during its existence. Color-bearing battalions and regiments continue to have insignia without the shield shape if they were non-color-bearing units when the insignia was approved. Distinctive unit insignia of a design approved by The Institute of Heraldry, U. S. Army, are authorized under Paragraph 28-22 of Army Regulation 670-1.
The distinctive unit insignia of the unit to which the soldier is assigned are worn as follows: On the beret flash of enlisted personnel On the breast patch of the bl
Fort Bragg, North Carolina is a military installation of the United States Army in North Carolina, and, by population, is the largest military installation in the world with more than 50,000 active duty personnel. The installation is located within Cumberland, Hoke and Moore counties; the installation borders the towns of Fayetteville, Spring Lake, Southern Pines. It was a census-designated place in the 2000 census, during which a residential population of 29,183 was identified, it is named for Confederate General Braxton Bragg. It covers over 251 square miles, it is the home of the Army's XVIII Airborne Corps and is the headquarters of the United States Army Special Operations Command, which oversees the U. S. Army 1st 75th Ranger Regiment, it is home to the U. S. Army Forces Command, U. S. Army Reserve Command, Womack Army Medical Center. Fort Bragg maintains two airfields: Pope Field, where the United States Air Force stations global airlift and special operations assets as well as the Air Force Combat Control School, Simmons Army Airfield, where Army aviation units support the needs of airborne and special operations forces on post.
Camp Bragg was established in 1918 as an artillery training ground. The Chief of Field Artillery, General William J. Snow, was seeking an area having suitable terrain, adequate water, rail facilities, a climate suitable for year-round training, he decided that the area now known as Fort Bragg met all of the desired criteria. Camp Bragg was named to honor a native North Carolinian, Braxton Bragg, who commanded Confederate States Army forces in the Civil War; the aim was for six artillery brigades to be stationed there and $6,000,000 was spent on the land and cantonments. There was an airfield on the camp used by aircraft and balloons for artillery spotters; the airfield was named Pope Field on April 1, 1919, in honor of First Lieutenant Harley H. Pope, an airman, killed while flying nearby; the work on the camp was finished on November 1, 1919. The original plan for six brigades was abandoned after World War I ended and once demobilization had started; the artillery men, their equipment and material from Camp McClellan, were moved to Fort Bragg and testing began on long-range weapons that were a product of the war.
The six artillery brigades were reduced to two cantonments and a garrison was to be built for Army troops as well as a National Guard training center. In early 1921 two field artillery units, the 13th and 17th Field Artillery Brigades, began training at Camp Bragg; the same year, the Long Street Church and six acres of property were acquired for the reservation. The church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Due to the post-war cutbacks, the camp was nearly closed for good when the War department issued orders to close the camp on August 7, 1921. General Albert J. Bowley was commander at the camp and after much campaigning, getting the Secretary of War to visit the camp, the closing order was cancelled on September 16, 1921; the Field Artillery Board was transferred to Fort Bragg on February 1, 1922. Camp Bragg was renamed Fort Bragg, to signify becoming a permanent Army post, on September 30, 1922. From 1923 to 1924 permanent structures were constructed on Fort Bragg, including four barracks.
By 1940, during World War II, the population of Fort Bragg had reached 5,400. Various units trained at Fort Bragg during World War II, including the 9th Infantry Division, 2nd Armored Division, 82nd Airborne Division, 100th Infantry Division, various field artillery groups; the population reached a peak of 159,000 during the war years. Following World War II, the 82nd Airborne Division was permanently stationed at Fort Bragg, the only large unit there for some time. In July 1951, the XVIII Airborne Corps was reactivated at Fort Bragg. Fort Bragg became a center for unconventional warfare, with the creation of the Psychological Warfare Center in April 1952, followed by the 10th Special Forces Group. In 1961, the 5th Special Forces Group was activated at Fort Bragg, with the mission of training counter-insurgency forces in Southeast Asia. In 1961, the "Iron Mike" statue, a tribute to all Airborne soldiers, past and future, was dedicated. In early 1962 the 326 Army Security Agency Company, de-activated after the Korean War, was reactivated at Ft. Bragg under XVIII Corps.
In August of that year, an operational contingent of that Company was relocated to Homestead AFB Florida, due to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Circa 1963, that contingent was reassigned to the newly created USASA 6th Field Station. More than 200,000 young men underwent basic combat training here during the period 1966–70. At the peak of the Vietnam War in 1968, Fort Bragg's military population rose to 57,840. In June 1972, the 1st Corps Support Command arrived at Fort Bragg. In the 1980s, there was a series of deployments of tenant units to the Caribbean, first to Grenada in 1983, Honduras in 1988, to Panama in 1989; the 5th Special Forces Group departed Fort Bragg in the late 1980s. In 1990, the XVIII Airborne Corps and the 82nd Airborne Division deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. In the mid- and late 1990s, there was increased modernization of the facilities in Fort Bragg; the World War II wooden barracks were removed, a new main post exchange was built, Devers Elementary School was opened, along with several other projects.
As a result of campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, the units on Fort Bragg have seen a sizeable increase to their operations tempo, with units conducting two, three, or four or more deployments to combat zones. As directed by law, in accordance with the reco
United States Secretary of the Army
The Secretary of the Army is a senior civilian official within the Department of Defense of the United States with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, reserve affairs, environmental issues, weapons systems and equipment acquisition and financial management. Prior military service is not a requirement, but quite a few have served in the United States armed forces. Secretary Stone is the only holder to serve in the military outside of the United States; the Secretary of the Army is nominated by the President and confirmed by the U. S. Senate; the Secretary is a non-Cabinet level official serving under the Secretary of Defense. This position was created on September 18, 1947, replacing the Secretary of War, when the Department of War was split into the Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force. On November 15, 2017, Mark Esper was confirmed as the Secretary of the Army, was sworn in to office on November 20, 2017; the Senior Leadership of the Department of the Army consists of two civilians—the Secretary of the Army and the Under Secretary of the Army—and two military officers of four-star rank—the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army.
The Secretary of the Army is in effect the chief executive officer of the Department of the Army, the Chief of Staff of the Army works directly for the Secretary of the Army. The Secretary presents and justifies Army policies, plans and budgets to the Secretary of Defense, other executive branch officials, to the Congressional Defense Committees; the Secretary communicates Army policies, programs and accomplishments to the public. As necessary, the Secretary convenes meetings with the senior leadership of the Army to debate issues, provide direction, seek advice; the Secretary is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board. The Secretary of the Army has several responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, including the authority to convene general courts-martial. Other duties include management of the Civilian Aides to the Secretary of the Army Program; the Office of the Secretary of the Army is composed of the Under Secretary of the Army, the Assistant Secretaries of the Army, the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army, the General Counsel of the Department of the Army, the Inspector General of the Army, the Chief of Legislative Liaison, the Army Reserve Forces Policy Committee.
Other offices may be established by the Secretary of the Army. No more than 1,865 officers of the Army on the active-duty list may be assigned or detailed to permanent duty in the Office of the Secretary of the Army and on the Army Staff. Under Secretary of the Army Assistant Secretary of the Army Assistant Secretary of the Army Assistant Secretary of the Army Assistant Secretary of the Army Assistant Secretary of the Army General Counsel of the Army Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army Inspector General of the Army Kenneth Claiborne Royall, the last Secretary of War, became the first Secretary of the Army when the National Defense Act of 1947 took effect. Gordon Gray was the last Army secretary to hold the cabinet status, henceforth assigned to the Secretary of Defense. Official website
Department of Defense Education Activity
The Department of Defense Education Activity is a civilian agency of the United States Department of Defense that manages schools for military-connected children in the United States and overseas at American military bases worldwide. DoDEA's schools serve the children of military service members and Department of Defense civilian employees throughout the world. Children of enlisted military personnel represent 85 percent of the total enrollment in DoDEA schools. DoDEA provides support to more than one million military-connected students who attend public schools throughout the United States, it is headed by a director who oversees all agency functions from the Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. DoDEA's schools are divided into three regions, each of, managed by an area director. Within each of these three regions schools are organized into districts headed by superintendents. Shortly after the end of World War II and the arrival of military families overseas, schools for the children of American service members opened at 43 locations in Germany and Japan with 116 teachers and 1,297 students.
From these beginnings with classrooms sometimes in quonset huts or factory buildings, the Dependents School Service grew into an organization supporting an estimated 160,000 students in 300 schools around the world. Dr. Beth Stephens, former director for one of DoDEA's predecessor agencies in the mid-80s, once said, "At no time in history has any other nation educated 150,000 of its children in 20 countries around the world and made it possible for them to understand and experience the culture of their host nations while maintaining their identity with and patriotism for their own country." As the Cold War came to a close, U. S. military forces abroad began to draw down, so did the schools and communities supporting families stationed overseas. All the schools serving military-connected students, in the U. S. and abroad, came under the umbrella of the DoDEA as a new parent agency in 1992. As of October 2018, the DoDEA operates 163 schools and 1 virtual high school in 8 districts located in 11 foreign countries, 7 U.
S. states and Puerto Rico, for more than 71,000 students. The largest community is the Kaiserslautern Military Community, which includes Ramstein Air Base and 10 other U. S. and NATO facilities, 57,000 people. All schools within DoDEA are accredited by U. S. accreditation agencies. 11,600 full-time employees serve DoDEA's over 73,000 students. DoDEA's curricular programs provide a comprehensive pre-K through 12th grade instruction, competitive with that of any school system in the United States. DoDEA maintains a high school graduation rate of 97 percent; the 2,809 graduating seniors in DoDEA's Class of 2017 earned more than $35 million in scholarships and grants. DoDEA designed and implemented college and career ready programs to ensure high school graduates have the content knowledge, skills and dispositions in multiple subjects to be successful in their future endeavors, after high school. Nationwide, it has become expected that high school graduates need to continue their education in a postsecondary course of study, program or training series if they are to have options and opportunities in the current job market.
College and Career Ready Standards establish clear and high learning goals and are more focused on preparing students for success in college and careers. The standards in the areas of mathematics and literacy set a foundation for greater student success and growth; the standards set grade-by-grade learning expectations for students in grades K-12. In conjunction with the implementation of the College and Career Ready Standards, DoDEA transitioned to the Comprehensive Assessment System starting school year 2017-18; the DoDEA-CAS includes all of the assessments that are administered systematically within DoDEA. All assessments included in the DoDEA-CAS support student learning, provide information for decision makers concerning instructional programs and services, inform parents. Headquartered in Peachtree City, GA, DoDEA Americas is divided into 2 school districts and operates 52 schools at 16 military communities on the U. S. mainland, Puerto Rico, Cuba. As of October 2018, it educates 22,000 students of U.
S. military and eligible DoD civilian personnel families. Bitz IS Brewster MS Heroes ES Johnson PS Lejeune HS Tarawa Terrace ES Albritton MS Bowley ES Devers ES Gordon ES Hampton PS Irwin IS Poole ES Shughart ES Shughart MS DeLalio ES Dahlgren ES/MS Crossroads ES Quantico MS/HS West Point ES West Point MS W. T. Sampson ES/HS Ramey Unit School Antilles ES Antilles MS Antilles HS Dexter ES Faith MS McBride ES Stowers ES White ES Barkley ES Barsanti ES Fort Campbell HS Lucas ES Mahaffey MS Marshall ES Pierce Terrace ES Pinckney ES Fort Knox HS Scott MS Van Voorhis ES Kingsolver ES Fort Rucker ES Fort Rucker PS Diamond ES Kessler ES Murray ES Maxwell AFB ES/MS Bolden ES/MS Elliott ES Headquartered in Kapaun AS, Germany, DoDEA Europe is organized into 3 districts and operates 65 schools within 27 U. S. military communities across Europe. As of June 2018, the DoDEA European region educates 27,000 children of U. S. military and eligible DoD civilian personnel families. Ansbach ES Ansbach MS/HS Baumholder MS/HS Hainerberg ES Smith ES Garmisch ES/MS Grafenwoehr ES Netzaberg ES Netzaberg MS Vilseck ES Vilseck HS Hohenfels ES Hohenfels HS Kaiserslautern ES Kaiserslautern MS Kaiserslautern HS Landstuhl ES/MS Sembach ES Sembach MS Vogelweh ES Ramstein ES Ramstein HS Ramstein IS Ramstein MS Patch ES Patch MS Robinson Barracks ES Stuttgart ES Stuttgart HS Aukamm ES Wie
Shoulder sleeve insignia
A shoulder sleeve insignia, is an embroidered patch worn on some uniforms of the United States Army. It is used by major formations of the U. S. Army; the U. S. Army is unique among the U. S. Armed Forces in that all soldiers are required to wear the patch of their headquarters as part of their military uniforms. Shoulder sleeve insignia receive their name from the fact that they are most worn on the upper left sleeve of the Army Combat Uniform. S. Army uniforms. However, they can be placed on other locations, notably on the side of a helmet. Shoulder sleeve insignia worn on the upper right sleeve of Army uniforms denote former wartime service; these "combat patches" are no longer worn on the Army Service Uniform. Instead, a 2 inch metal replica is worn on the right breast pocket and is known as the Combat Service Identification Badge. Shoulder sleeve insignia were designed with intricate designs including bright colors, when created; because these bright colors and designs risk standing out when a soldier is in combat or in hiding, the shoulder sleeve insignia in its color form was only worn on the dress uniform or service uniform when a soldier was not in combat.
However, with the retirement of the Army Green Uniform in 2015, the full-color SSI was discontinued and was replaced with a CSIB. For combat uniforms, "subdued" versions have been created for wear on the battlefield. After a few years of retirement, the full-color SSI will return when the "pinks and greens" uniform is re-introduced in the late 2010s and early 2020s. "Full color" SSI were only worn on the brown service coat during the 1940s, on the green "Class A" uniform and on the OG-107 during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Full color SSI were worn on the "full color" Military Police brassard, worn by MPs while wearing the green "Class A" service uniform or while wearing subdued field uniforms in a garrison environment. However, with the ACU, the MP brassard was replaced by a rectangular patch made of fabric or infrared-reflective material, reading "MP". In one notable exception, the U. S. 1st Infantry Division wore full-color SSI on their BDUs and ACUs for a time, before that too was replaced with a subdued version.
The subdued version of the SSI created for the Battle Dress Uniform features patches that are olive, dark brown and black, to match the BDU. In general, this version is obsolete because the Army phased out the BDU in the late 2000s in favor of the Army Combat Uniform; the subdued version created for the Desert Camouflage Uniform is tan and "spice" brown, to match the uniform's design. This version is obsolete, as the Army phased out DCUs in favor of ACUs; the subdued version created for the Army Combat Uniform is the version used in the field today. Since the Army-wide adoption of the ACU, SSI for the ACU have been developed; these SSI are foliage green, light brown, black, though a few patches feature red and maroon colors for some details. Unlike previous patches, the ACU SSI are velcro-backed, designed to attach to the velcro pockets on the shoulder of the uniform, instead of being sewn on; this makes them easier to replace. Since the development of the Operational Camouflage Pattern uniform new SSI have been procured where the "Foliage" green of the ACU SSI is replaced by "Bagby" green.
Velcro remains the method for attaching the SSI to the uniform. Well-recognized examples are the shoulder sleeve insignia for the 1st Infantry Division and the 1st Cavalry Division. In the U. S. Army, the SSI is worn on the left upper arm, just below the uniform's shoulder seam on all but the ACU. On the Army Combat Uniform the SSI is attached to a velcro backing and is centered on rectangle of velcro on the arm. First Army has directed that all subordinate brigades wear the First Army SSI instead of their own authorized brigade SSI; the most common place for the SSI to be worn is on the upper sleeve of the uniform, however it is sometimes worn on other places, notably when the soldier's body armor covers the shoulders. SSI are commonly worn on the shoulder pads of interceptor body armor, which covers the SSI on the uniform; some soldiers wear SSI on their MICH TC-2000 Combat Helmets, however this is not standard practice for all units. Some SSI are too large to be worn on the helmets. SSI are occasionally worn on the backpacks or rucksacks of soldiers, but this is not standard practice and is personal preference.
Which SSI is worn depends on the chain of command that the soldier's formation is a part of. The soldier wears the SSI of their division or separate brigade, but if they fall under the command of a different division, they must wear the SSI of that division; those soldiers who are combat veterans are authorized permanent wear of the SSI of the unit they fought with on their right shoulder. This shoulder sleeve insignia recognizes "former wartime service" and is called a "combat patch". Per Army Regulation 670-1, a soldier is authorized to wear the SSI of their higher headquarters; this is not dependent on whether or not the higher headquarters deployed, or to whom the soldier was attached throughout his/her deployment. Exceptions have been made for operations of short duration such as service in the Dominican Republic and Grenada. With the transformation of the U. S. Army into a brigade-centered force, the SSI that soldiers may wear for wartime service has grown. Where soldiers once fought only under the command of
Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Energy and Environment)
Assistant Secretary of the Army is a civilian office in the United States Department of the Army. The Assistant Secretary of the Army is the primary advisor to the Secretary of the Army and Chief of Staff, Army on all United States Army matters related to Installation policy and coordination of energy security and management; the ASA is responsible for policy and oversight of sustainability and environmental initiatives.
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S