United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
The Tudor rose is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster. The Tudor rose consists of five white inner petals, representing the House of York, five red outer petals to represent the House of Lancaster; when Henry VII took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought the end of the retrospectively dubbed "Wars of the Roses" between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Henry's father was Edmund Tudor from the House of Richmond, his mother was Margaret Beaufort from the House of Lancaster; the white rose. The historian Thomas Penn writes: The "Lancastrian" red rose was an emblem that existed before Henry VII. Lancastrian kings used the rose sporadically, but when they did it was gold rather than red. Contemporaries did not refer to the traumatic civil conflict of the 15th century as the "Wars of the Roses". For the best part of a quarter-century, from 1461 to 1485, there was only one royal rose, it was white: the badge of Edward IV.
The roses were created after the war by Henry VII. On his marriage, Henry VII adopted the Tudor rose badge conjoining the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster; the Tudor rose is seen divided in quarters and vertically red and white. More the Tudor rose is depicted as a double rose, white on red and is always described, heraldically, as "proper". During his reign, Henry VIII had the legendary "Round Table" at Winchester Castle – believed to be genuine – repainted; the new paint scheme included. Though previous to this, his father Henry VII had built a chapel at Westminster Abbey dedicated to himself and it was decorated principally with the Tudor rose and the Beaufort portcullis – as a form of propaganda to define his claim to the throne; the Tudor rose badge may appear slipped and crowned: shown as a cutting with a stem and leaves beneath a crown. The Tudor rose may appear dimidiated to form a compound badge; the Westminster Tournament Roll includes a badge of Henry and his first wife Catherine of Aragon with a slipped Tudor rose conjoined with Catherine's personal badge, the pomegranate.
James I of England and VI of Scotland used a badge consisting of a Tudor rose dimidiated with a thistle and surmounted by a royal crown. The crowned and slipped Tudor Rose is used as the plant badge of England, as Scotland uses the thistle, Ireland uses the shamrock, Wales uses the leek; as such, it is seen on the dress uniforms of the Yeomen Warders at the Tower of London, of the Yeomen of the Guard. It features in the design of the British Twenty Pence coin minted between 1982 and 2008, in the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, it features on the coat of arms of Canada. The Tudor rose, it is notably used as the symbol of the English Tourist Board. And as part of the badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; the Tudor Rose is used as the emblem of the Nautical Training Corps, a uniformed youth organisation founded in Brighton in 1944 with 20 units in South East England. The Corps badge has the Tudor Rose on the shank of an anchor with the motto "For God and Country", it is used as part of the Corps' cap badge.
The Tudor Rose is prominent in a number of towns and cities. The Royal Town of Sutton Coldfield, uses the emblem due to the town being given Royal Town status by King Henry VIII; the borough of Queens in New York City uses a Tudor Rose on its seal. The Tudor rose was used in the coat of arms of Count of Schaumburg-Lippe; the city of York, South Carolina is nicknamed "The White Rose City", the nearby city of Lancaster, South Carolina is nicknamed "The Red Rose City". Flag of England Red Rose of Lancaster Tudor dynasty Wars of the Roses White Rose of York Royal Badges of England Floral emblem Boutell, Charles. C. Fox-Davies; the Handbook to English Heraldry. London: Reeves and Turner. OCLC 2034334. Fox-Davies, A. C.. The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopædia of Armory. London and Edinburgh: T C and E C Jack. Fox-Davies, A. C.. Heraldic Badges. London: John Lane. OCLC 4897294. Fox-Davies, A. C.. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London and Edinburgh: T C and E C Jack. OCLC 474004850. Starkey, David. Henry – Virtuous Prince.
London: Harper. ISBN 0-00-729263-5. Wise, Terence. Medieval Heraldry. Osprey. ISBN 0-85045-348-8. Tudor Rose in SF Presidio, CH+D Magazine
Code of Federal Regulations
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles; the CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the Electronic CFR website, updated daily. Under the nondelegation doctrine, federal agencies are authorized by "enabling legislation" to promulgate regulations; the process of rulemaking is governed by the Administrative Procedure Act: the APA requires a process that includes publication of the proposed rules in a notice of proposed rulemaking, a period for comments and participation in the decisionmaking, adoption and publication of the final rule, via the Federal Register. The rules and regulations are first published in the Federal Register.
The CFR is structured into 50 subject matter titles. Agencies are assigned chapters within these titles; the titles are broken down into chapters, parts and paragraphs. For example, 42 CFR 260.11 would be read as "title 42, part 260, section 11, paragraph." While new regulations are continually becoming effective, the printed volumes of the CFR are issued once each calendar year, on this schedule: Titles 1–16 are updated as of January 1 Titles 17–27 are updated as of April 1 Titles 28–41 are updated as of July 1 Titles 42–50 are updated as of October 1The Office of the Federal Register keeps an unofficial, online version of the CFR, the e-CFR, updated within two days after changes that have been published in the Federal Register become effective. The Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules lists rulemaking authority for regulations codified in the CFR; the CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas: Title 1: General Provisions Title 2: Grants and Agreements Title 3: The President Title 4: Accounts Title 5: Administrative Personnel Title 6: Domestic Security Title 7: Agriculture Title 8: Aliens and Nationality Title 9: Animals and Animal Products Title 10: Energy Title 11: Federal Elections Title 12: Banks and Banking Title 13: Business Credit and Assistance Title 14: Aeronautics and Space Title 15: Commerce and Foreign Trade Title 16: Commercial Practices Title 17: Commodity and Securities Exchanges Title 18: Conservation of Power and Water Resources Title 19: Customs Duties Title 20: Employees' Benefits Title 21: Food and Drugs Title 22: Foreign Relations Title 23: Highways Title 24: Housing and Urban Development Title 25: Indians Title 26: Internal Revenue Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms Title 28: Judicial Administration Title 29: Labor Title 30: Mineral Resources Title 31: Money and Finance: Treasury Title 32: National Defense Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters Title 34: Education Title 35: Reserved Title 36: Parks and Public Property Title 37: Patents and Copyrights Title 38: Pensions and Veterans' Relief Title 39: Postal Service Title 40: Protection of Environment Title 41: Public Contracts and Property Management Title 42: Public Health Title 43: Public Lands: Interior Title 44: Emergency Management and Assistance Title 45: Public Welfare Title 46: Shipping Title 47: Telecommunication Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System Title 49: Transportation Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries The Federal Register Act provided for a complete compilation of all existing regulations promulgated prior to the first publication of the Federal Register, but was amended in 1937 to provide a codification of all regulations every five years.
The first edition of the CFR was published in 1938. Beginning in 1963 for some titles and for all titles in 1967, the Office of the Federal Register began publishing yearly revisions, beginning in 1972 published revisions in staggered quarters. On March 11, 2014, Rep. Darrell Issa introduced the Federal Register Modernization Act, a bill that would revise requirements for the filing of documents with the Office of the Federal Register for inclusion in the Federal Register and for the publication of the Code of Federal Regulations to reflect the changed publication requirement in which they would be available online but would not be required to be printed; the American Association of Law Libraries opposed the bill, arguing that the bill undermines citizens' right to be informed by making it more difficult for citizens to find their government's regulations. According to AALL, a survey they conducted "revealed that members of the public, researchers, students and small business owners continue to rely on the print" version of the Federal Register.
AALL argued that the lack of print versions of the Federal Register and CFR would mean the 15 percent of Americans who don't use the internet would lose their access to that material. The House voted on July 14, 2014 to pass the bill 386–0. Regulations.gov United States Reports California Code of Regulations Florida Administrative Code Illinois Administrative Code Code of Massachusetts Regulations New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules New Jersey Administrative Code New York Codes and Regulations Oregon Administrative Rules Pennsylvania Code "About Code of Federal Regulations". Government Publishing Office. "A Res
A finial or hip-knob is an element marking the top or end of some object formed to be a decorative feature. In architecture it is a decorative device carved in stone, employed to emphasize the apex of a dome, tower, roof, or gable or any of various distinctive ornaments at the top, end, or corner of a building or structure. Where there are several such elements they may be called pinnacles. Smaller finials in materials such as metal or wood are used as a decorative ornament on the tops or ends of poles or rods such as tent-poles or curtain rods or any object such as a piece of furniture; these are seen on top of bed posts or clocks. Decorative finials are commonly used to fasten lampshades, as an ornamental element at the end of the handles of souvenir spoons; the charm at the end of a pull chain is known as a finial. During the various dynasties in China, a finial was worn on the top of the hats civil or military officials wore during formal court ceremonies; the finial was changed to a knob for other daily usage.
The Pickelhaube is a Central European military helmet with a finial topped by a spike. In Java and Bali, a rooftop finial is known as kemuncak. A "ball-style" finial is mounted to the top of a stationary flagpole; the United States Army, Marine Corps and Coast Guard employ a variety of different finials depending on the flag in question, the Marines and Coast Guard deferring to the Navy's protocols. Bed posts and public garden railings end in finials. Wooden posts tend to have turned wood finials. While the purpose of finials on bed posts is decorative, they serve a purpose on curtain rods, providing a way to keep a curtain from slipping off the end of a straight rod. Curtain rod finials can be seen to act much like a barometer of public taste. Many designs hark back to the Gothic and Neogothic of architectural finials, while other contemporary finials reflect minimalist, art nouveau and other traditional styles of décor; the use of different materials is as wide as the range of designs with brass, stainless steel, various woods and aluminium being employed with a variety of finishes such as ‘satin steel’ and'antique brass'.
The durability and machinability of modern alloys have lent themselves to intricate and dazzling designs. Some lampshades or light fittings in glass terminate in a finial which serves to affix the shade to the lamp or fixture. Finials are twisted onto the lamp harp; the finial is externally decorative whilst hiding an internal screw thread. There are several standard thread sizes. Acroterion Alem Crocket Souvenir spoon Word-of-the-day on finial
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U. S; the Secretary of Defense's position of command and authority over the U. S. military is second only to that of the Congress, respectively. This position corresponds to what is known as a Defense Minister in many other countries; the Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, the general provision in 10 U. S. C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority and control over the Department of Defense", is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.
Subject only to the orders of the President, the Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces — the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force — as well as the U. S. Coast Guard when its control is transferred to the Department of Defense. Only the Secretary of Defense can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments and the 10 Combatant Commands; because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceed those of any commissioned officer, is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury are regarded as heading the four most important departments. Since January 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense has been Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, serving in an acting capacity.
His predecessor, Jim Mattis, resigned on December 20, 2018, effective February 2019, after failing to persuade President Donald Trump to reconsider a decision to withdraw U. S. troops from Syria. A few days Trump announced that Mattis would leave at the end of December. An Army and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution; the War Department, headed by the Secretary of War, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more manage the large combined military establishment; the Army favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was a compromise between these divergent viewpoints; the Act split the Department of War into the Department of the Army and Department of the Navy and established the National Military Establishment, presided over by the Secretary of Defense.
The Act separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status; the first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as Secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the Secretary of Defense in the chain of command, rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department; the position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was created at this time. The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them.
The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", has "authority and control over the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution vests all military a
Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals; the term can be used in other countries with a legislature named "Congress", such as the Congress of the Philippines. In the United States, Acts of Congress are designated as either public laws, relating to the general public, or private laws, relating to specific institutions or individuals. Since 1957, all Acts of Congress have been designated as "Public Law X-Y" or "Private Law X-Y", where X is the number of the Congress and Y refers to the sequential order of the bill. For example, P. L. 111-5 was the fifth enacted public law of the 111th United States Congress. Public laws are often abbreviated as Pub. L. No. X-Y; when the legislation of those two kinds is proposed, it is called public bill and private bill respectively. The word "act", as used in the term "Act of Congress", is a common, not a proper noun.
The capitalization of the word "act" is deprecated by some dictionaries and usage authorities. Some writers, in particular the U. S. Code, capitalize "Act"; this is a result of the more liberal use of capital letters in legal contexts, which has its roots in the 18th century capitalization of all nouns as is seen in the United States Constitution. "Act of Congress" is sometimes used in informal speech to indicate something for which getting permission is burdensome. For example, "It takes an Act of Congress to get a building permit in this town." An Act adopted by simple majorities in both houses of Congress is promulgated, or given the force of law, in one of the following ways: Signature by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception while the Congress is in session, or Reconsideration by the Congress after a presidential veto during its session. The President promulgates Acts of Congress made by the first two methods. If an Act is made by the third method, the presiding officer of the house that last reconsidered the act promulgates it.
Under the United States Constitution, if the President does not return a bill or resolution to Congress with objections before the time limit expires the bill automatically becomes an Act. In addition, if the President rejects a bill or resolution while the Congress is in session, a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Congress is needed for reconsideration to be successful. Promulgation in the sense of publishing and proclaiming the law is accomplished by the President, or the relevant presiding officer in the case of an overridden veto, delivering the act to the Archivist of the United States. After the Archivist receives the Act, he or she provides for its publication as a slip law and in the United States Statutes at Large. Thereafter, the changes are published in the United States Code. An Act of Congress that violates the Constitution may be declared unconstitutional by the courts; the judicial declaration of an Act's unconstitutionality does not remove the law from the statute books.
However, future publications of the Act are annotated with warnings indicating that the statute is no longer valid law. Legislation List of United States federal legislation for a list of prominent acts of Congress. Procedures of the United States Congress Act of Parliament Coming into force Enactment Federal Register http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/glossary.html
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red. It is one of the class of five dark tinctures called "colours", the others being azure, sable and purpure. In engraving, it is sometimes depicted by hatching of vertical lines. In "trick" or "tricking" it is marked with gu.. The term gules derives from the Old French word goules "throats", but used to refer to a fur neckpiece made of red fur. For many decades, heraldic authors have believed that the term may have arisen from the Persian word گل, but according to Brault, there is no evidence to support this derivation. Gules is the most used heraldic tincture. Through the sixteenth century, nearly half of all noble coats of arms in Poland had a field gules with one or more argent charges on them. Examples of coats of arms consisting of purely a red shield include those of: the d'Albret family, the Rossi family, the Swiss canton of Schwyz, the old coats of arms of the cities of Nîmes and Montpellier. Polish heraldry Cinnabar Murrey Sinople