The United States Army Reserve is a reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the Army element of the Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. Since June 2016, the commanding general of the Army Reserve is Lieutenant General Charles D. Luckey became the 33rd Chief of Army Reserve, Commanding General, United States Army Reserve Command; the senior enlisted leader of the Army Reserve is Command Sergeant Major Ted L. Copeland. On 23 April 1908 Congress created the Medical Reserve Corps, the official predecessor of the Army Reserve. After World War I, under the National Defense Act of 1920, Congress reorganized the U. S. land forces by authorizing a Regular Army, a National Guard, an Organized Reserve of unrestricted size, which became the Army Reserve. This organization provided a peacetime pool of trained Reserve officers and enlisted men for use in war; the Organized Reserve included the Officers Reserve Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, Reserve Officers' Training Corps.
The Organized Reserve infantry divisions raised after World War I continued the lineage and geographic area distribution of National Army divisions that had served in the war. They were maintained on paper with one-third of their enlisted men. Units in other arms of the Army besides infantry, most notably cavalry, field artillery and engineers were formed. Organized Reserve units, depending upon their geographic area, maintained relationships with one or several colleges or universities, which populated them with officers through the ROTC. In the event of war, Organized Reserve officers and enlisted men would be called to duty to form the cores of the divisions they were assigned to, be moved to other parts of the Army that needed officers. Service in the Organized Reserve during the interwar period was not as appealing as the Army expected. Most divisions reached their full complement of officers, but had less than 100 enlisted men, since there was no incentive for them to serve; the 101st Infantry Division was designated a division of the Organized Reserve after World War I and assigned to the state of Wisconsin.
A tentative troop basis for the Organized Reserve Corps, prepared in March 1946, outlined 25 divisions: three armored, five airborne, 17 infantry. These divisions and all other Organized Reserve Corps units were to be maintained in one of three strength categories, labeled Class A, Class B, Class C. Class A units were divided into two groups, one for combat and one for service, units were to be at required table of organization strength; the troop basis listed nine divisions as Class A, nine as Class B, seven as Class C. Major General Ray E. Porter therefore proposed reclassification of all Class A divisions as Class B units; the War Department agreed and made the appropriate changes. Although the dispute over Class A units lasted several months, the War Department proceeded with the reorganization of the Organized Reserve Corps divisions during the summer of 1946; that all divisions were to begin as Class C units, progressing to the other categories as men and equipment became available, undoubtedly influenced the decision.
The War Department wanted to take advantage of the pool of trained reserve officers and enlisted men from World War II. By that time Army Ground Forces had been reorganized as an army group headquarters that commanded six geographic armies; the armies replaced the nine corps areas of the prewar era, the army commanders were tasked to organize and train both Regular Army and Organized Reserve Corps units. The plan the army commanders received called for twenty-five Organized Reserve Corps divisions, but the divisions activated between September 1946 and November 1947 differed somewhat from the original plans; the First United States Army declined to support an airborne division, the 98th Infantry Division replaced the 98th Airborne Division. After the change, the Organized Reserve Corps had four airborne, three armored, eighteen infantry divisions; the Second Army insisted upon the number 80 for its airborne unit because the division was to be raised in the prewar 80th Division's area, not that of the 99th.
The 103rd Infantry Division, organized in 1921 in New Mexico and Arizona, was moved to Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota in the Fifth United States Army area. The Seventh Army, allotted the 15th Airborne Division, refused the designation, the adjutant general replaced it by constituting the 108th Airborne Division, which fell within that component's list of infantry and airborne divisional numbers, thus the final tally of divisions formed after World War II appears to have been the 19th, 21st, 22d Armored Divisions. A major problem in forming divisions and other units in the Organized Reserve Corps was adequate housing. While many National Guard units owned their own armories, some dating back to the nineteenth century, the Organized Reserve Corps had no facilities for storing equipment and for training. Although the War Department requested funds for needed facilities, Congress moved in response; the Organized Reserves were redesignated 25 Mar
Jim Sikora is a Chicago based American film director and producer and is considered a pioneer in DV filmmaking. Sikora is best known for his independent micro-budgeted feature films "Walls in the City", starring Paula Killen, Bill Cusack, Tony Fitzpatrick, David Yow of the rock band The Jesus Lizard, with a soundtrack by The Denison/Kimball Trio. Sikora's films and videos have aired everywhere from MTV's "120 Minutes" to PBS's "Image Union", his film “Bullet on a Wire” was shown in 18 film festivals in the United States, worldwide, including the Rotterdam International Film Festival, The Munich International Film Festival, in London at the ICA as part of the American Underground Cinema retrospective. The film made Kevin Thomas's list as one of the best movies of 1998 in the LA Times. Sikora has had successful theatrical runs of his pictures in New York City and Los Angeles. Sikora was raised in Chicago, in the greater Chicagoland area, he attended Columbia College Chicago on the G. I. Bill after being honorably discharged from the U.
S. Army, he has made music videos and promos for labels such as SST Records, Touch & Go, Amphetamine Reptile and Rykodisk. The bands he's created videos and promos for are as varied and diverse as Urge Overkill, The Frogs, The Leaving Trains, Mike Watt, The Jesus Lizard, Mutts, Enuff Z' Nuff, The Screaming Trees, Greg Ginn of Black Flag, The Roots. Jim has produced and directed the feature film "The Earl", written by internationally acclaimed playwright Brett Neveu, "The Critics", written by novelist and playwright Adam Langer, his short films include "Bring Me The Head of Geraldo Rivera", named by Film Threat Magazine as one of the best underground films of the decade. Sikora is developing the late-60's Chicago autobiographical period drama "Tim", the noir-horror thriller "Things I've Done", the Mid-Western noir road adventure "I'll Die Tomorrow" starring Michael Shannon. In development is "Obits", a black comedy written by Terry Southern and Harry Nilsson. Mutts Music VideoJim Sikora's Pioneering Digital Feature “Rock & Roll Punk” plays at the Gene Siskel Film CenterNew York Times feature: Bullet On A Wire, Directed by Jim SikoraDennison Kimball Trio - Soundtrack for Walls In The City by Jim SikoraAustin Chronicle 1997 South By Southwest article on screening Bullet On A WireDope Gun's And Fucking Up Your Video Deck - Vol. 1-3 1990-94 on Amphetamine Reptile Records with the video for Les Paul Worries by Tar, directed by Jim Sikora, Peeling Eyeball ProductionsChicago Reader article on I'll Die Tomorrow with Michael ShannonReel 360 article: Jim Sikora feature “The Critics,” 12 years in the makingCUFF Chicago Underground Film Fest Jim Sikora video showcaseCHICAGO UNDERGROUND FILM FESTIVAL FEATURES FILMMAKERS FAR FROM MAINSTREAM Review by Roger EbertLumpen Television Interview with Filmmaker Jim SikoraWalls In The City and Bullet On A Wire on Mondo DigitalChicago Tribune article: ACTING BUG BITES JESUS LIZARD'S DAVID YOWEmphasis Entertainment page for Bullet On A WireIndie Wire article about Laramie Film Company debuts Bullet On A WireJonathan Rosenbaum on Bullet On A WireChicago Journal article on the film Critics, Directed by Jim SikoraVice Interview with David Yow About Baseball and MoviesVariety Magazine reviews Bullet On A WireFilmmaker Magazine, Jim SikoraCHICAGO FILMMAKERS ON THE CHICAGO RIVERTheater Mania - Unearthing Terry SouthernChicago Theater Beat Reviews film The Earl, Directed by Jim SikoraDavid Yow Is Done With Music, but His World Remains a Stage, Williamette WeekIkonen Magazine: Bullet On A WireDanny Plotnick Film Compilation with Jim SikoraDigital Journal: Chicago Underground Film Festival Will Unspool 18 New Features.
This article contains additional information about the band the Only Ones and the lead singer Peter Perrett. The Only Ones, UK #56 Even Serpents Shine, UK #42 Baby's Got a Gun, UK #37 Special View Remains Alone in the Night Live in London The Peel Sessions Album The Immortal Story The Big Sleep Live at the BBC Hearts On Fire Darkness & Light: The Complete BBC Recordings Why Don't You Kill Yourself? Another Girl, Another Planet: the Best of the Only Ones Original Album Classics Vinyl albums 7-inch singles Vinyl compilations Peter Perrett Sierra Braco Site