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United States Atomic Energy Commission

The United States Atomic Energy Commission known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U. S. Congress to control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology. President Harry S. Truman signed the McMahon/Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946, transferring the control of atomic energy from military to civilian hands, effective on January 1, 1947; this shift gave the members of the AEC complete control of the plants, laboratories and personnel assembled during the war to produce the atomic bomb. During its initial establishment and subsequent operationalization, the AEC played a key role in the institutional development of Ecosystem ecology, it provided crucial financial resources, allowing for ecological research to take place. More it enabled ecologists with a wide range of groundbreaking techniques for the completion of their research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the AEC approved funding for numerous bioenvironmental projects in the arctic and subarctic regions.

These projects were designed to examine the effects of nuclear energy upon the environment and were a part of the AEC's attempt at creating peaceful applications of atomic energy. An increasing number of critics during the 1960s charged that the AEC's regulations were insufficiently rigorous in several important areas, including radiation protection standards, nuclear reactor safety, plant siting, environmental protection. By 1974, the AEC's regulatory programs had come under such strong attack that the U. S. Congress decided to abolish the AEC; the AEC was abolished by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, which assigned its functions to two new agencies: the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, which created the Department of Energy; the new agency assumed the responsibilities of the Federal Energy Administration, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission, various other Federal agencies.

In creating the AEC, Congress declared that atomic energy should be employed not only in the form of nuclear weapons for the nation's defense, but to promote world peace, improve the public welfare and strengthen free competition in private enterprise. At the same time, the McMahon Act which created the AEC gave it unprecedented powers of regulation over the entire field of nuclear science and technology, it furthermore explicitly prevented technology transfer between the United States and other countries, required FBI investigations for all scientists or industrial contractors who wished to have access to any AEC controlled nuclear information. The signing was the culmination of long months of intensive debate among politicians, military planners and atomic scientists over the fate of this new energy source and the means by which it would be regulated. President Truman appointed David Lilienthal as the first Chairman of the AEC. Congress gave the new civilian AEC extraordinary power and considerable independence to carry out its mission.

To provide the AEC exceptional freedom in hiring its scientists and engineers, AEC employees were exempt from the civil service system. The AEC's first order of business was to inspect the scattered empire of atomic plants and laboratories to be inherited from the U. S. Army; because of the need for great security, all production facilities and nuclear reactors would be government-owned, while all technical information and research results would be under AEC control. The National Laboratory system was established from the facilities created under the Manhattan Project. Argonne National Laboratory was one of the first laboratories authorized under this legislation as a contractor-operated facility dedicated to fulfilling the new AEC's missions; the Argonne was the first of the regional laboratories. Others were the Clinton labs and the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the Northeast, although a similar lab in Southern California did not eventuate. On 11 March 1948 Lilienthal and Kenneth Nichols were summoned to the White House where Truman told them "I know you two hate each other’s guts".

He directed that "the primary objective of the AEC was to develop and produce atomic weapons", Nichols was appointed a major general and replaced Leslie Groves as chief of the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Lilienthal had opposed his appointment. Lilienthal was told to "forgo your desire to place a bottle of milk on every doorstop and get down to the business of producing atomic weapons. Nichols became General Manager of the AEC on 2 November 1953; the AEC was in charge of developing the U. S. nuclear arsenal, taking over these responsibilities from the wartime Manhattan Project. In its first decade, the AEC oversaw the operation of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, devoted to weapons development, in 1952, the creation of new second weapons laboratory in California, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the AEC carried out the "crash program" to develop the hydrogen bomb, the AEC played a key role in the prosecution of the Rosenbergs for espionage. The AEC began a program of regular nuclear weapons testing, both in the faraway Pacific Proving Grounds and at the Nevada Test Site in the western United States.

While the AEC supported much basic research, the vast majority of its early budget was devoted to nuclear weapons development and production. Within the AEC, high-level scientific and technical advice was provided by the General Advisory Committee headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer. In its early years, the General

List of Western Australian Legislative Council by-elections

The list of Western Australia Legislative Council by-elections includes every by-election held in the Australian state of Western Australia for the Legislative Council. Prior to the Acts Amendment Act 1987 which came into force at the 1989 election, it was necessary for a by-election to be held to fill any vacancy. An imminent Council election allowed the vacancy to remain until the inauguration of the new Council on the following 22 May; until a constitutional amendment in 1947, it was necessary for members who were appointed as a Minister to resign their seat and contest their seat at a ministerial by-election. This was because the Ministers became members of the Executive Council, which reported to the Governor of Western Australia and was therefore deemed an "office of profit" under the Crown. Most ministerial by-elections were a formality with the Minister being re-elected unopposed, but on one occasion, in 1901, a Minister from the Council was defeated at the by-elections; the changes of names of electoral provinces at the 1950 election, effected by the Electoral Districts Act 1947, were as follows: Central Province → Midland Province East Province → Central Province Metropolitan-Suburban Province → Suburban Province South ProvinceSouth-East Province South-East Province → South Province List of Western Australian state by-elections Black, David.

Legislative Council of Western Australia: membership register, electoral law and statistics, 1890-1989. Perth: Parliamentary History Project. ISBN 0-7309-3641-4. Hughes, Colin A.. Voting for the Australian State Upper Houses, 1890-1984. Canberra: Australian National University. ISBN 0-909779-18-X. Black, David. Biographical Register of Members of the Parliament of Western Australia, Volume Two, 1930-1990. Parliament House: Parliament of Western Australia. ISBN 0731697839

1989 NCAA Division I Outdoor Track and Field Championships

The 1989 NCAA Division I Outdoor Track and Field Championships were contested May 31−June 3 at the Clarence F. Robison Track and Field Complex at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah in order to determine the individual and team national champions of men's and women's collegiate Division I outdoor track and field events in the United States; these were the eighth annual women's championships. This was the Cougars' fourth time hosting the event and the first since 1982. LSU topped both the men's and women's standings, the first time this occurred in the eight years since the NCAA expanded the championship to include women's events in 1982; this would go on to be the third of LSU's eleven consecutive women's national championships in track and field between 1987 and 1997. Note: Top 10 only = Hosts Full results