Shreveport is a city in the U. S. state of Louisiana. It is the most populous city in the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area. Shreveport ranks third in population in Louisiana after New Orleans and Baton Rouge and 126th in the U. S; the bulk of Shreveport is in Caddo Parish. Shreveport extends along the west bank of the Red River into neighboring Bossier Parish; the population of Shreveport was 199,311 as of the 2010 U. S. Census; the United States Census Bureau's 2017 estimate for the city's population decreased to 192,036. Shreveport was founded in 1836 by the Shreve Town Company, a corporation established to develop a town at the juncture of the newly navigable Red River and the Texas Trail, an overland route into the newly independent Republic of Texas. Prior to Texas becoming independent, this trail entered Mexico; the city grew throughout the 20th century and, after the discovery of oil in Louisiana, became a national center for the oil industry. Standard Oil of Louisiana and United Gas Corporation were headquartered in the city until the 1960s and 1980s.
After the loss of jobs in the oil industry, the close of Shreveport Operations, other economic problems the city struggled with a declining population, poverty and violent crime. Since Cedric Glover's tenure as mayor of Shreveport, the city has revitalized its neighborhoods and roads to end its population decline, revive the economy through diversification, lower crime. Shreveport is the educational and cultural center of the Ark-La-Tex region, where Arkansas and Texas meet, it is the location of Centenary College of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Louisiana Tech University Shreveport, Southern University at Shreveport, Louisiana Baptist University. Its neighboring city Bossier is the location of Bossier Parish Community College; the city forms part of the I-20 Cyber Corridor linking Shreveport, Bossier and Monroe to Dallas and Tyler and Atlanta, Georgia. Companies with significant operations or headquarters in Shreveport are AT&T, Chase Bank, Capital One, Regions Financial Corporation, SWEPCO, UPS, General Electric, UOP LLC, Calumet Specialty Products Partners, APS Payroll.
Shreveport was established to launch a town at the meeting point of the Brown Bricks and the Texas Trail. The Red River was made navigable by Captain Henry Miller Shreve, who led the United States Army Corps of Engineers effort to clear the Red River. A 180-mile-long natural log jam, the Great Raft, had obstructed passage to shipping. Shreve used the Heliopolis, to remove the log jam; the company and the village of Shreve Town were named in Shreve's honor. Shreve Town was contained within the boundaries of a section of land sold to the company in 1835 by the indigenous Caddo Indians. In 1838 Caddo Parish was created from the large Natchitoches Parish, Shreve Town became its parish seat. On March 20, 1839, the town was incorporated as Shreveport; the town consisted of 64 city blocks, created by eight streets running west from the Red River and eight streets running south from Cross Bayou, one of its tributaries. Shreveport soon became a center of steamboat commerce, carrying cotton and agricultural crops from the plantations of Caddo Parish.
Shreveport had a slave market, though slave trading was not as widespread as in other parts of the state. Steamboats plied the Red River, stevedores loaded and unloaded cargo. By 1860, Shreveport had a population of 1,300 slaves within the city limits. During the American Civil War, Shreveport was the capital of Louisiana from 1863 to 1865, having succeeded Baton Rouge and Opelousas after each fell under Union control; the city was a Confederate stronghold throughout the war and was the site of the headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederate Army. Fort Albert Sidney Johnston was built on a ridge northwest of the city; because of limited development in that area, the site is undisturbed in the 21st century. Isolated from events in the east, the Civil War continued in the Trans-Mississippi theater for several weeks after Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, the Trans-Mississippi was the last Confederate command to surrender, on May 26, 1865. "The period May 13-21, 1865, was filled with great uncertainly after soldiers learned of the surrenders of Lee and Johnston, the Good Friday assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the rapid departure of their own generals."
In the confusion there was a breakdown of military rioting by soldiers. They destroyed buildings containing service records, a loss that made it difficult for many to gain Confederate pensions from state governments. Throughout the war, women in Shreveport did much to assist the soldiers fighting far to the east. Historian John D. Winters writes of them in The Civil War in Louisiana: "The women of Shreveport and vicinity labored long hours over their sewing machines to provide their men with adequate underclothing and uniforms. After the excitement of Fort Sumter, there was a great rush to get the volunteer companies ready and off to New Orleans... Forming a Military Aid Society, the ladies of Shreveport requested donations of wool and cotton yarn for knitting socks. Joined by others, the Society collected blankets for the wounded and gave concerts and tableaux to raise funds. Tickets were sold for a diamond ring given by the mercantile house of Hyams and Brothers..."A Confederate minstrel show gave two performances to raise mon
F. Edward Hébert
For the U. S. Senator from Rhode Island, see Felix Hebert. Felix Edward Hébert was an American congressman from Louisiana, he represented the New Orleans-based 1st congressional district as a Democrat for 18 consecutive terms, from 1941 until his retirement in 1977. He remains Louisiana's longest-serving U. S. representative. Hébert was born in New Orleans to Felix Joseph Hébert, a streetcar conductor, the former Lea Naquin, a teacher; as a boy he loved sports, but after a shooting accident left him blind in his left eye at the age of nine, he could not play. However, at Jesuit High School he compensated by becoming manager of all the athletic teams, he reported on prep-school sports for The Times-Picayune, becoming the paper's assistant sports editor before he was out of high school, at Tulane University he was the first sports editor of the Hullabaloo. At Tulane he was the Young Men's Business Club of New Orleans. Hébert graduated from Tulane in 1924, he pursued a career in public relations for Loyola University in New Orleans and journalism for the Times-Picayune and the New Orleans States, a paper purchased by The Times-Picayune while Hébert worked there.
As a front-page columnist and political editor, he covered the candidacy and election of Governor Huey Long, elected to the United States Senate. Hébert's coverage of the Louisiana Hayride scandals of 1939 — which put a spotlight on corruption among followers of the Long political family — contributed to the eventual convictions of Governor Richard W. Leche and James Monroe Smith, president of Louisiana State University; the Times-Picayune won the Sigma Delta Chi plaque for "courage in journalism" as a result of Hébert's work. In life, Hébert said he never considered himself a politician, he described himself as "an old reporter on a long sabbatical". In 1969 he said, "I had no political ambition whatsoever. I never intended to enter public office. In this time, it looked to me like a pretty good chance to be a better reporter if I came to Washington, they got me on sabbatical leave for two years because I knew I would never be re-elected." Hébert's work led to his election in 1940 to the 77th United States Congress.
He developed a lock on his district. In 1946, he polled 91.8 percent of the vote against Republican Dennis Suarez in what was otherwise a Republican year at the national level. Hébert served in the United States House of Representatives until the end of the 94th United States Congress, having chosen not to seek a nineteenth term in 1976; that longevity set a Louisiana record for the service in the United States House of Representatives. Hébert was temporarily succeeded by the Democrat Richard Alvin Tonry, who in turn was replaced by Bob Livingston, the first Republican to represent the district since the Reconstruction Era; the seat has remained in Republican hands since, passing from Livingston to David Vitter to Bobby Jindal to Steve Scalise. Hébert had serious opposition. In 1952, the Republican George W. Reese Jr. a lawyer from New Orleans, challenged him and drew a third of the general election vote. In 1954, Reese tried again, but in the low turnout off-year election, he polled only a sixth of the vote.
In 1960, Reese the Republican national committeeman from Louisiana, was the Republican standard bearer in the United States Senate election against Allen J. Ellender but secured only a fifth of the ballots cast, as John F. Kennedy won Louisiana's ten electoral votes. Hébert opposed school desegregation and signed the Southern Manifesto in opposition to the United States Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, he joined the United States House Committee on Armed Services and was named chairman of the committee's Special Investigations subcommittee. Hébert was the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services from 1971 to 1975; when Chairman L. Mendel Rivers died, on December 29, 1970, lame duck committee member Philip J. Philbin took his place. Hébert brought millions of dollars in military investment to his district in Louisiana, he was removed from the chairmanship in a revolt of the young and liberal House Democratic Caucus against the seniority system. Many of the younger Democrats were not pleased when he addressed the new members from the Watergate Class of 1974 as "boys and girls".
Governor Edwin Edwards, New Orleans Mayor Moon Landrieu and the Louisiana House delegation chided the caucus for ousting Hebert as his years of political experience had generated thousands of jobs and brought millions of dollars into the state. On August 1, 1934, Hébert married Gladys Bofill; the couple had one daughter, Dawn Marie, who married a future judge of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, John Malcolm Duhé Jr. of Iberia Parish. Dawn Hébert was the first woman president of the Greater Iberia Chamber of Commerce. In 1975 he broke his arm. In 1979 he began to suffer congestive heart failure, he died on December 29 in New Orleans at Hôtel-Dieu Hospital. A requiem mass was said for him at St. Louis Cathedral by Archbishop Philip Hannan. Hébert is entombed beside his wife in Lake Lawn Park Mausoleum in New Orleans. Hébert is responsible for founding the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland; that university's medical school, the F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, is named for him.
On January 28, 2012, Hébert was posthumously inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield. F. Edward Hébert Hall, Building 7 at Hébert's alma mater, Tulane University, houses Tulane's Center for Academic Equity, its Africana
Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals; the term can be used in other countries with a legislature named "Congress", such as the Congress of the Philippines. In the United States, Acts of Congress are designated as either public laws, relating to the general public, or private laws, relating to specific institutions or individuals. Since 1957, all Acts of Congress have been designated as "Public Law X-Y" or "Private Law X-Y", where X is the number of the Congress and Y refers to the sequential order of the bill. For example, P. L. 111-5 was the fifth enacted public law of the 111th United States Congress. Public laws are often abbreviated as Pub. L. No. X-Y; when the legislation of those two kinds is proposed, it is called public bill and private bill respectively. The word "act", as used in the term "Act of Congress", is a common, not a proper noun.
The capitalization of the word "act" is deprecated by some dictionaries and usage authorities. Some writers, in particular the U. S. Code, capitalize "Act"; this is a result of the more liberal use of capital letters in legal contexts, which has its roots in the 18th century capitalization of all nouns as is seen in the United States Constitution. "Act of Congress" is sometimes used in informal speech to indicate something for which getting permission is burdensome. For example, "It takes an Act of Congress to get a building permit in this town." An Act adopted by simple majorities in both houses of Congress is promulgated, or given the force of law, in one of the following ways: Signature by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception while the Congress is in session, or Reconsideration by the Congress after a presidential veto during its session. The President promulgates Acts of Congress made by the first two methods. If an Act is made by the third method, the presiding officer of the house that last reconsidered the act promulgates it.
Under the United States Constitution, if the President does not return a bill or resolution to Congress with objections before the time limit expires the bill automatically becomes an Act. In addition, if the President rejects a bill or resolution while the Congress is in session, a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Congress is needed for reconsideration to be successful. Promulgation in the sense of publishing and proclaiming the law is accomplished by the President, or the relevant presiding officer in the case of an overridden veto, delivering the act to the Archivist of the United States. After the Archivist receives the Act, he or she provides for its publication as a slip law and in the United States Statutes at Large. Thereafter, the changes are published in the United States Code. An Act of Congress that violates the Constitution may be declared unconstitutional by the courts; the judicial declaration of an Act's unconstitutionality does not remove the law from the statute books.
However, future publications of the Act are annotated with warnings indicating that the statute is no longer valid law. Legislation List of United States federal legislation for a list of prominent acts of Congress. Procedures of the United States Congress Act of Parliament Coming into force Enactment Federal Register http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/glossary.html
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana is a federal trial court based in New Orleans. Like all U. S. district courts, the court has original jurisdiction over civil actions arising under the Constitution and treaties of the United States. It has appellate jurisdiction over a limited class of judgments and decrees. Appeals from the Eastern District of Louisiana are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit; this district comprises the following parishes: Assumption, Lafourche, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. James, St. John the Baptist, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa and Washington. On March 26, 1804, Congress organized the Territory of Orleans and created the United States District Court for the District of Orleans — the only time Congress provided a territory with a district court equal in its authority and jurisdiction to those of the states; the United States District Court for the District of Louisiana was established on April 8, 1812, by 2 Stat.
701, several weeks before Louisiana was formally admitted as a state of the union. The District was thereafter reformed several times, it was first subdivided into Western Districts on March 3, 1823, by 3 Stat. 774. On February 13, 1845, Louisiana was reorganized into a single District with one judgeship, by 5 Stat. 722, but was again divided into Eastern and the Western Districts on March 3, 1849, by 9 Stat. 401. Congress again abolished the Western District of Louisiana and reorganized Louisiana as a single judicial district on July 27, 1866, by 14 Stat. 300. On March 3, 1881, by 21 Stat. 507, Louisiana was for a third time divided into Eastern and the Western Districts, with one judgeship authorized for each. The Middle District was formed from portions of those two Districts on December 18, 1971, by 85 Stat. 741. After the U. S. District Court for the Canal Zone was abolished on March 31, 1982, all pending litigation was transferred to E. D. La; as of August 30, 2018 Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court.
Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. The current United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Louisiana is Peter G. Strasser. Courts of Louisiana List of United States federal courthouses in Louisiana United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit United States District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana U.
S. Attorneys Gerald J. Gallinghouse and John Volz U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana
John Minor Wisdom United States Court of Appeals Building
The John Minor Wisdom U. S. Court of Appeals Building is a historic courthouse located at 600 Camp Street in New Orleans, Louisiana, it is a courthouse for the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2015 for its extensive role in adjudicating issues of the American Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. John Minor Wisdom, for whom it is now named, was a judge on the Fifth Circuit during that period; the John Minor Wisdom U. S. Court of Appeals Building served as the U. S. Post Office and Courthouse. In 1908, the New York architectural firm Hale and Rogers won a design competition for the building and U. S. Treasury Department officials approved their plans in 1909. Workers broke ground that year on the site, which encompasses the block bounded by Lafayette, Camp and Capdeville streets overlooking Lafayette Square. Construction of the elaborate building took many years; the post office occupied the entire first floor, while the Federal District Court and Court of Appeals were located on the second floor.
Executive Branch agencies were on the third level. In 1961, needing additional space, the post office moved to a new facility. Two years the courts vacated; the building was unoccupied until 1965, when it served as a public high school for three years after Hurricane Betsy destroyed McDonough 35 High School. Between 1971 and 1972, the federal building underwent an extensive restoration. Upon completion, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals returned to the building as its only tenant; the building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 and has since been featured in several films and television shows. In 1994, the building was renamed to honor John Minor Wisdom, a respected judge who served on the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals from 1957 until his death in 1999. Wisdom promoted civil rights and issued landmark decisions that supported school desegregation and voter rights. In 1993, President Bill Clinton awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor.
During Hurricane Katrina in 2005, wind and rain damaged the building. The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals judges and staff relocated to other cities and towns in the region because of damage and power outages, but returned to the building in December 2005 when the issues were resolved; the building is an excellent example of the Italian Renaissance Revival style of architecture. During its construction, author Russell F. Whitehead called the building "the most important public building of the New South." Regional building materials were used throughout, including Mississippi and Louisiana pine and Georgia marble, Louisiana gum. The monumental three-story building is faced in white Cherokee, marble atop a gray granite base; the first story is articulated with incised horizontal striations while the marble on the upper stories is cut in smooth ashlar blocks. Round-arch openings dominate the first story. Dramatic colonnades with Ionic columns are on the Camp and Magazine street elevations and support a cornice inscribed with the names of past Chief Justices of the Supreme Court.
Projecting corner pavilions rise above the roofline. The columns support entablatures. Windows with ornately carved hoods featuring split pediments and eagle-and-shield motifs are directly above the arched openings. Ionic order pilasters separate windows on the upper stories of the pavilions. A balustrade runs between each of the pavilions at the roofline, topping the recessed portion of each elevation. Other exterior elements typical to the Italian Renaissance Revival style of architecture include classical features such as pediments and dentils, which are interspersed with foliated and floral designs. A unique detail is the arch keystones; the most striking exterior features of the building are the groupings of four colossal statues placed at each of the building's corners. These identical copper and bronze sculptures are called History, Agriculture and Arts, but are popularly known as The Ladies; each figure holds an item associated with the concept. History wears a bonnet; the figures are seated around an armillary sphere banded by the signs of the zodiac.
Each sculpture weighs one ton. The renowned Piccirilli Brothers, expert marble carvers who executed Daniel Chester French's statue of President Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, created The Ladies from drawings by architect James Gamble Rogers; the emphasis of the 1971 to 1972 restoration effort was on the impressive public interior spaces, which were returned to their original grandeur. The first floor lobby, known as the Great Hall, is an L-shaped space with marble columns that support an elaborate bronzed castplaster vaulted ceiling; the ceiling is richly decorated with bas relief floral medallions and motifs, geometric key designs, allegorical figures. Spherical lights are held in place by bronze pendant fixtures; the court's law library occupies the original postal work area on the first floor. Three courtrooms, each with an entry lobby with marble wainscot walls, are located on the second floor; the courtrooms are paneled in polished gum wood and bronze c
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid