The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the United States government responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, is equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration, administers several federal law enforcement agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States Marshals Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration; the department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system. The department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994; the department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
As of February 2019, the Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress, as well as the President; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early attorneys general supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts in 1830 and 1846 to make attorney general a full-time job, in 1867, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first solicitor general the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office, there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873, during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of
Collider is the fourth studio album by American rock band Cartel. In 2008 Cartel left Epic to sign with Wind-Up. Following this the group released Cycles. Bassist Jeff Lett left to focus on school, the band parted ways with Wind-Up. In October 2011 the group self-released In Stereo; the band called the idea of self-releasing music as "experiment". Following a tour with Set Your Goals in March and April 2012 the group started writing new material. In August, the band started recording, they finished in January 2013; the album was produced by guitarist Joseph Pepper. After making a few songs available for streaming, the album was self-released on March 26, 2013, it charted at number 141 on the Billboard 200 chart. To support the album, the band toured the U. S. and the UK alongside New Found Glory, State Champs, Kids in Mayday Parade. In July 2008 Cartel signed with Wind-Up. While on Wind-Up the group released Cycles. In April 2011 it was announced. Nic Hudson took over Lett's position. Shortly afterwards, the group left Wind-Up.
In August 2011 the band revealed. The band realized that they needed to release new music or else they "wouldn't be validating ourselves", according to vocalist Will Pugh; the band "experiment" with the concept of self-releasing their music. The recording process for, not that different to their previous efforts, besides the fact Hudson was playing bass; the band saw the release of an EP as suitable due to the momentum of continuing without a record label. Pugh mentioned; the group planned to have another EP out in March/April time. However, when the band realized they were going on tour, they decided to release a new song, "Disconnect", to help promote the tour. Cartel toured alongside Set Your Goals in March and April 2012. In a March 2012 interview, Pugh mentioned that the band were going to write new material after the tour was over. Pugh revealed. Pugh didn't want the material to be "a bunch of girl songs". From a lyrical point of view, Pugh stated that the lyrics would be written from a different perspective due to him being married.
The album's title is a summary of events. Cartel viewed the album as a "culmination of 3 years worth of life and reflection". Cartel was hoping to record this new material after they had toured the UK and have it released "by the end of the summer". On August 12, the band announced they had finished pre-production and were going to start recording a new album on August 20; the band recorded at Kenneth Zack Odom's studio while the pair were away on vacation. Pugh took the role of producer with guitarist Joseph Pepper co-producing. Pugh engineered the album. Cartel took a break from recording to support The Early November on their tour of the U. S. in October. On November 20, it was announced. A week it was announced that Mount and Odom were mixing the album. In early January 2013 the album was being mastered. On January 15, the band revealed they had finished recording and that the artwork and track listing would be revealed soon. On January 19, 2013 "Uninspired" was released as a single. Several songs were made available for streaming prior to the release of the album: "Mosaic", "First Thing's First", "Disconnect" Initially planned for a fall/winter release, Collider was self-released by the band on March 26.
The band had brought the album to a handful of labels that turned it down due to them not "hav anything to with it." The album was available for streaming the day before on AOL. In the UK and Europe, the album was available with a bonus track, an acoustic version of "Thin Air". Pugh revealed that the album had "a solid first week" since "this entire project being helmed by 5 people." The group paid a promotion/publicity to take control of duties a record label would perform. Guitarist Joseph Pepper was unsure, he named informing people about the album "the biggest challenge". The band knew. On April 25, a lyric video was released for "Uninspired"; the band supported New Found Glory on their Sticks and Stones anniversary tour in June. In the same month, Cartel toured with State Champs. Cartel toured the UK with support act Kids in Glass Houses in October; the band supported Mayday Parade on the Glamour Kills Tour in November. Reviewing the album for Idobi, Hannah Pierangelo said upon hearing it for the first time, it came across as "slightly bland", due to only half of the material "really carry any punch."
Pierangelo noted that it was missing "the dynamic Cartel have proven they are capable of in previous albums." She counted that after several listens, the songs "grow on you" and show off more "substance beneath the surface". Overall, she said the band achieved "to make an impact once again". Collider received a positive reaction from Cartel's fans, it charted at number 141 on the Billboard 200 chart, number 28 on the Independent Albums chart, number 40 on the Rock Albums chart. "Uninspired" was included in Alternative Press' "Mid-Year Report 2013 – Best Songs" list. "Second Chances" – 3:07 "Take Me with You" – 3:22 "First Things First" – 4:16 "Best Intentions" – 4:14 "Thin Air" – 3:37 "Uninspired" – 3:13 "Sympathy" – 3:46 "Mosaic" – 3:22 "Disconnect" – 3:15 "Collider" – 3:37 "A Thousand Suns" – 3:59Bonus tracks Footnotes Citations Collider (deluxe ed
Arcos is a former civil parish in the municipality of Vila do Conde, Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into a newer parish. In 2011 the population was 819 in an area of 5.81 km². It is situated on the Ave River near the north-eastern frontier with the municipality of Barcelos, resides in the shadow of its larger municipal neighbor; the exact toponymy of this parish is not certain. It may have been named after a Casais Moorish castle with the same name, a Roman bridge near Monte da Reguenga, or a subterranean road that led to the Este River, where travelers stopped to water their horses, it is likely that a medieval castle existed in Argifonso, since multiple structures and a castro were discovered in the vicinity, but Moorish influences in the Iberian peninsula only occurred at the end of 711. During Roman occupation, any settlements would have maintained cultivated fields, causing the abandonment of the castros; the Castro of Casais still presents vestiges of Roman artifacts. Legend refers to an ecclesiastical parish dedicated to Sant'Iago in Moldes, although no documented proof of this legend exists.
The parish's landmark, the bridge spanning the Ave River, dates back to the 12th century, though historians suggest that an ancient bridge spanned the river prior to 1140. Medieval documents refer to this bridge as the via vecteris. In 1836, Arcos was included. There is a reference to São Miguel de Arcos in the ecclesiastical census in Braga and Guimarães during the 11th century. However, neither records from the census administered by bishop D. Pedro, in the Sé Cathedral in Braga, nor the 1220 inventory of Afonso II of Portugal refer to Arcos as an ecclesiastical parish. Arcos is situated north of the Ave River and alongside the Este River in the north-eastern portion of Vila de Condo, near the municipality of Barcelos; the Roman-style Ponte d'Ave that crosses the Ave River north in the direction of Rates, to Santiago de Compostela. Bridge of São Miguel - Saint Michael's Bridge, along the regional EN306 roadway outside Arcos; the medieval bridge is of a cantilever construction of granite with three arches dating back to the 12th century.
The voussoir are straight, extra-hard but irregular, with the central arch the largest of the construction. Estate of Quinta de São Miguel de Arcos Chapel of Senhor dos Desamparados Church of São Miguel José Maria Campos Trocado - responsible for contributing a memorial in the form of a cross to mark the parish's Christianity in the area of Rego, it was inaugurated in December 2009. Notes SourcesPinho, Manuel Fernando Soares. "Nos 150 anos da Igreja Paroquial de S. Miguel de Arcos – Vila do Conde". Arcos, Portugal: Fábrica da Igreja Paroquial de S. Miguel de Arcos