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United States Deputy Secretary of Defense

The deputy secretary of defense is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The deputy secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the secretary of defense, is appointed by the president, with the advice and consent of the Senate; the deputy secretary, by statute, is designated as the DoD chief management officer and must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment. The current deputy secretary of defense is David Norquist, effective July 31, 2019. Public Law 81-36, April 2, 1949 established this position as the under secretary of defense, however Public Law 81-2 16, August 10, 1949, a.k.a. the 1949 Amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, changed the title to Deputy Secretary of Defense. Former assistant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Stephen Early, became the first officer holder when he was sworn-in on May 2, 1949.

Public Law 92-596, October 27, 1972, established a second deputy secretary of defense position, with both deputies performing duties as prescribed by the secretary of defense. The second deputy position was not filled until December 1975. Robert F. Ellsworth, serving from December 23, 1975, until January 10, 1977, was the only one to hold that office. Public Law 95-140, October 21, 1977, established two under secretaries of defense and abolished the second deputy position. By delegation, the deputy secretary of defense has full power and authority to act for the secretary of defense and to exercise the powers of the secretary of defense on any and all matters for which the secretary is authorized to act pursuant to statute or executive order; the deputy secretary is first in the line of succession to the secretary of defense. The typical role of the deputy secretary of defense is to oversee the day-to-day business and lead the internal management processes of the $500-billion-plus Department of Defense budget, as its chief operating officer.

Prior to February 1, 2018, the deputy secretary of defense served as the department's chief management officer, to whom the deputy chief management officer reported, but those responsibilities were split into a new chief management officer of the Department of Defense position. The deputy secretary, among the office's many responsibilities, chairs the Senior Level Review Group, before 2005 known as Defense Resources Board, which provides department-wide budgetary allocation recommendations to the Secretary and the President. Traditionally, the deputy secretary has been the civilian official guiding the process of the Quadrennial Defense Review; the deputy secretary of defense chairs the Special Access Program Oversight Committee, which has oversight responsibilities and provides recommendations with respect to changes in status of the Department's Special Access Programs, for either the deputy secretary defense or the secretary of defense to make. Defense Acquisition Board Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee Deputy's Advisory Working Group, a panel chaired by the Deputy Secretary of Defense Packard Commission Department of Defense Directive 5100.1: Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components.

Department of Defense Directive. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of Defense. December 21, 2010. Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historical Office. 2015. Deputy Secretary of Defense position profile at Prunes Online

Trigrad Gorge

The Trigrad Gorge is a canyon of vertical marble rocks in the Rhodope Mountains. It is in one of the southernmost provinces of Bulgaria; the gorge encloses the course of the Trigrad River, which plunges into the Devil's Throat Cave and 530 metres further emerges as a large karst spring. It flows into the River Buynovska; the gorge's west wall reaches 300 metres in height. The two walls are about 300 m apart, but the gorge narrows to about 100 metres in the northern section; the gorge is 1.2 kilometres from the village of Trigrad at 1,450 metres above sea level and has a total length of 7 kilometres, of which the gorge proper comprises 2–3 kilometres. Trigrad Gap on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, is named after Trigrad settlement and gorge

Massachusetts's 9th congressional district

Massachusetts's 9th congressional district is located in eastern Massachusetts. It is represented by Democrat William R. Keating; the 9th district is the least Democratic Congressional District in Massachusetts according to the PVI. Redistricting after the 2010 census eliminated Massachusetts's 10th congressional district and moved many of the district's communities here; the district added some Plymouth County communities from the old 4th district, some Bristol County communities from the old 3rd and 4th districts. It eliminated a few easternmost Norfolk County communities and northernmost Plymouth County communities. All of Barnstable County, Dukes County, Nantucket County; the following municipalities in Bristol County: Acushnet, Fairhaven, Fall River: Wards 1–3, Ward 6, Precincts A and B in Ward 4, Precincts A and B in Ward 5, New Bedford, Westport. The following municipalities in Plymouth County: Carver, Halifax, Hanson, Marion, Mattapoisett, Norwell, Plymouth, Rochester and Wareham. 1849: "The towns in the County of Plymouth, excepting Abington, Hull, North Bridgewater and Wareham.

1862: "The towns of Ashburnham, Barre, Brookfield, Clinton, Dudley, Gardner, Holden, Lancaster, Leominster, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oxford, Princeton, Shrewsbury, Spencer, Sturbridge, Templeton, West Boylston and Winchendon, the city of Worcester, in the county of Worcester." 1893: Boston, Wards 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19. 1916: In Middlesex County: Everett, Somerville. In Suffolk County: Chelsea, Winthrop. 1953: "Counties: Barnstable and Nantucket. Bristol County: City of Fall River, ward 6, city of New Bedford. Norfolk County: Town of Cohasset. Plymouth County: Towns of Abington, Carver, East Bridgewater, Hanover, Hingham, Kingston, Marion, Mattapoisett, Norwell, Plymouth, Rochester, Scituate, West Bridgewater, Whitman." 1963: Boston. 1977: "Norfolk County: Towns of Canton, Dover, Norwood and Westwood. Suffolk County: City of Boston: Wards 3, 4, 6—14, 19, 20." 1985: "Bristol County: City of Taunton. Towns of Dighton and Raynham. Norfolk County: Towns of Canton, Needham, Norwood and Westwood.

Plymouth County: Towns of Bridgewater, Halifax and Middleborough. Suffolk County: City of Boston: Wards 3, 6–14, 19, 20." In Bristol County: Easton. In Norfolk County: Avon, Canton, Holbrook, Milton, Norwood, Stoughton, Westwood. In Plymouth County: Bridgewater, East Bridgewater, Precincts 1 and 3, West Bridgewater, Whitman. In Suffolk County: Boston, Ward 3, Precincts 5 and 6; as of January 2019, there is one living former member of the House. The most recent representative to die was Hastings Keith on July 19, 2005; the most serving representative to die was Joe Moakley, who died in office on May 28, 2001. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Map of Massachusetts's 9th Congressional District, via Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth 2004 election results 2006 election results