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George H. Widdows

George H. Widdows was an English architect who pioneered changes to school building design to enhance the health of school children, he was responsible for the design of about 80 schools in Derbyshire, where he became Chief Architect. George H. Widdows was born Francis George Henry Widdows in 1871 in the city of Norwich, he remained in Norwich for 23 years, attending the King Edward VI School and training to become an architect at the office of the Cathedral's Diocesan Surveyor. To gain more experience he spent three years with various architects around England. In 1897, he was appointed as Chief Architectural Assistant at Derby Corporation, he spend 7 years there on minor building projects. In 1904 Widdows was elected an Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 1904, Widdows made a move, he left Derby Corporation and joined Derbyshire County Council's Education Committee as Building Surveyor. The work he did for the Education Committee made an impression on the County Council because, in 1910, they appointed him as Chief Architect across all their services.

The massive school building programme during the subsequent period ensured that Widdows' efforts remained focussed on schools. He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1913. By the time he retired in 1936, he had designed some sixty elementary and seventeen secondary schools in Derbyshire. Widdows designed and built his own house at Allestree near Derby and retired there in 1936, he died at his home in 1946, aged 74. To understand the pioneering work done by Widdows on school building design, it is necessary to understand the environment in which he was working; the growth in industry in the nineteenth century saw many people move around the country from rural to town areas, to gain employment. This resulted in population changes; this was true in the east of Derbyshire where there had been a massive boom in the coal-mining and textile manufacturing industries in the 1890s. School boards were created in boroughs and parishes under the Elementary Education Act 1870.

These boards were semi-independent of the parish councils. School boards were abolished by the Education Act 1902, which replaced them with local education authorities. In the case of Derbyshire the authority was Derbyshire County Council; the 1902 Act ensured that schools now had solid financing from local ratepayers and had to meet uniform standards. This led to a rapid growth of secondary schools; the Education Act 1907 meant. This led to a new working partnership between the medical profession and school architects and designers. Prior to the setting up of school boards in 1870, the mass education that took place happened in buildings not purpose-designed for children e.g. church halls. After 1870, the school boards did construct purpose-built schools to locally determined designs but these were cramped and poorly ventilated. Once local education authorities were set up in 1902, some standardisation of school building design began to take place. In addition, at a national level, medical pressure grew to incorporate building design features to enhance child health and welfare.

The first major national conference on school hygiene was held in 1904. Within Derbyshire County Council, there was a good working relationship between the Medical Officer and the Chief Architect, George Widdows; this relationship nurtured the innovative designs of Widdows. Typical health-related features of Widdows' designs included: Spacious classrooms Large windows, allowing natural daylight and sun to permeate the rooms Wide internal corridors to allow the pupils to exercise in bad weather conditions External verandahs to allow the children to exercise in inclement weather Ventilation from both sides of the school buildings and roomsFurther characteristic features of Widdows-designed schools included: Single storey buildings where the site permitted Use of good materials Standard designs that allowed different configurations depending on school site and size Often designed in an Arts & Crafts / neo-vernacular style The advances Widdows made in school design were recognised by his contemporaries.

In an article on provincial school building in 1913, The Builder periodical stated that his work "constitutes a revolution in the planning and arrangement of school buildings... a real advance which places English school architecture without a rival in any European country or the United States."George Widdows became one of the most respected men in his profession and in 1921 read his paper on'School Design' to the Royal Institute of British Architects. In thanking him, the Head of the Board of Education Felix Clay said "No architect has done more than Mr. Widdows to develop the modern school; the whole emphasis of design has shifted. Instead of the old of compact three-storeyed central hall building we have a bewildering variety of plans from cart-wheels to L-shaped buildings, but all arranged so as to secure the maximum amount of sun and to get air into the classroom from both sides." George Widdows died in 1946, a year before the passing of the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. This legislation was the foundation of the current heritage protection rules and its associated "listing" of historic buildings by English Heritage.

Since 1975, sixteen of Widdows' schools have been designated as Listed Grade II, indicating that the buildings are nationally important and of special interest. Ilk

Circulating water plant

A circulating water plant or circulating water system is an arrangement of flow of water in fossil-fuel power station, chemical plants and in oil refineries. The system is required because various industrial process plants uses heat exchanger, for active fire protection measures. In chemical plants, for example in caustic soda production, water is needed in bulk quantity for preparation of brine; the circulating water system in any plant consists of a circulator pump, which develops an appropriate hydraulic head, pipelines to circulate the water in the entire plant. Circulating water systems are of the wet pit type, but for sea water circulation, both the wet pit type and the concrete volute type are employed. In some industries, one or two stand-by pumps are connected parallel to CW pumps, it is recommended that these pumps must be driven by constant speed squirrel cage induction motors. CW pumps are designed as per IS: standards of the Hydraulic Institute, USA or equivalent. In the present era, mechanical induced draft–type cooling towers are employed in cooling of water.

Performance testing of cooling towers shall be carried out as per ATC-105 at a time when the atmospheric conditions are within the permissible limits of deviation from the design conditions. As guidelines of Central Electricity Authority, two mechanical draft cooling towers Or one natural draft cooling tower must be established for each 500 MW unit in power plants; the cooling towers are designed as per Cooling Tower Institute codes. Some coastal power stations or chemical plants intake water from sea for condenser cooling, they either use closed cycle cooling once through cooling. Selection of type of system is based on the thermal pollution effect on sea water and techno-economics based on the distance of power station from the coast and cost of pumping sea water. Due to high salt concentration, it is necessary for circulating water make up. Source: Five numbers circulating water pumps of vertical wet pit type, mixed flow design and self water lubricated complete along with motors and associated accessories.

Electro-hydraulically operated butterfly valve, isolating butterfly valve and rubber expansion joints at discharge of each pump. Electrically operated butterfly valves for interconnection of standby pumps to operate as common standby for both the units. One number CW re-circulation line for each unit, suitable for handling a flow of 50% of one CW pump flow with electrically operated butterfly valve. Complete piping including discharge piping/header of CW pumps, CW duct from CW pump house to condensers and from condensers to the cooling towers, blow down piping, fittings & valves and other accessories as required. EOT crane for handling & maintenance of CW pumps and monorail and electrically operated pendant control hoist arrangement for maintenance of stoplog gates and trash racks. One number trash rack for CW pump house bay and two numbers of stop logs for CW pump house. Air release valves, in CW piping as per the system requirement. Hydraulic transient analysis of CW system. CW pump CW pump house / sump model studies as required.

Source: Standard Design Criteria/Guidelines for Balance of Plant for Thermal Power Project 2 X Cea.nic.in https://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/S08/is.9137.1978.pdf