Habitat conservation is a management practice that seeks to conserve and restore habitats and prevent species extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range. It is a priority of many groups that cannot be characterized in terms of any one ideology. For much of human history, nature was seen as a resource that could be controlled by the government and used for personal and economic gain; the idea was that animals only existed to feed humans. The value of land was limited only to the resources it provided such as fertile soil and minerals. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, social views started to change and conservation principles were first applied to the forests of British India; the conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: 1) human activities damage the environment, 2) there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, 3) scientific, empirically-based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out. Sir James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing numerous medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the damage from large-scale deforestation and desiccation, lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments.
The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation program based on scientific principles. This was the first case of state conservation management of forests in the world. Governor-General Lord Dalhousie introduced the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well to the United States, where Yellowstone National Park was opened in 1872 as the world’s first national park. Rather than focusing on the economic or material benefits from nature, humans began to appreciate the value of nature itself and the need to protect it. By the mid-20th century, countries such as the United States and Britain instigated laws and legislation in order to ensure that the most fragile and beautiful environments would be protected for posterity. Today, with the help of NGO’s and governments worldwide, a strong movement is mobilizing with the goal of protecting habitats and preserving biodiversity on a global scale.
The commitments and actions of small volunteer associations in villages and towns, that endeavour to emulate the work of well known Conservation Organisations, are paramount in ensuring generations that follow understand the importance of natural resource conservation. The natural environment is a source for a wide range of resources that can be exploited for economic profit, for example timber is harvested from forests and clean water is obtained from natural streams. However, land development from anthropogenic economic growth causes a decline in the ecological integrity of nearby natural habitat. For instance, this was an issue in the northern rocky mountains of the USA. However, there is economic value in conserving natural habitats. Financial profit can be made from tourist revenue, for example in the tropics where species diversity is high, or in recreational sports which take place in natural environments such as hiking and mountain biking; the cost of repairing damaged ecosystems is considered to be much higher than the cost of conserving natural ecosystems.
Measuring the worth of conserving different habitat areas is criticized as being too utilitarian from a philosophical point of view. Habitat conservation is important in maintaining biodiversity, an essential part of global food security. There is evidence to support a trend of accelerating erosion of the genetic resources of agricultural plants and animals. An increase in genetic similarity of agricultural plants and animals means an increased risk of food loss from major epidemics. Wild species of agricultural plants have been found to be more resistant to disease, for example the wild corn species Teosinte is resistant to 4 corn diseases that affect human grown crops. A combination of seed banking and habitat conservation has been proposed to maintain plant diversity for food security purposes. Pearce and Moran outlined the following method for classifying environmental uses: Direct extractive uses: e.g. timber from forests, food from plants and animals Indirect uses: e.g. ecosystem services like flood control, pest control, erosion protection Optional uses: future possibilities e.g. unknown but potential use of plants in chemistry/medicine Non-use values: Bequest value Passive use value Habitat loss and destruction can occur both and through anthropogenic causes.
Events leading to natural habitat loss include climate change, catastrophic events such as volcanic explosions and through the interactions of invasive and non-invasive species. Natural climate change, events have been the cause of many widespread and large scale losses in habitat. For example, some of the mass extinction events referred to as the "Big Five" have coincided with large scale such as the Earth entering an ice age, or alternate warming events. Other events in the big five have their roots in natural causes, such as volcanic explosions and meteor collisions; the Chicxulub impact is one such example, which has caused widespread losses in habitat as the Earth either received less sunlight or grew colder, causing certain fauna and flora to flourish whilst others perished. Known warm areas in the tropics, the most sensitive habitat
Hanford Reach National Monument
The Hanford Reach National Monument is a national monument in the U. S. state of Washington. It was created in 2000 from the former security buffer surrounding the Hanford Nuclear Reservation; the area has been untouched by development or agriculture since 1943. Because of that it is considered an involuntary park; the monument is named after the Hanford Reach, the last non-tidal, free-flowing section of the Columbia River in the United States, is one of eight National Monuments administered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. President Bill Clinton established the monument by presidential decree in 2000. In May 2017, the Interior Department announced that Hanford Reach was one of 27 National Monuments under review for possible rescinding of their designation. Ancestors of the Wanapum People, Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes of the Colville, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation and the Nez Perce used the land for hunting and resource collecting. Geographically, the area is part of the Columbia River Plateau, formed by basalt lava flows and water erosion.
The shrub-steppe landscape is dry, receiving between 5 and 10 inches of rain per year. The sagebrush-bitterbrush-bunchgrass lands are home to a wide variety of plants and animals, the Hanford Reach provides one of the Northwest's best salmon spawning grounds. Forty-eight rare, threatened, or endangered animal species have found refuge on the monument, as well as several insect species found nowhere else in the world. There are two main habitats in the Hanford Reach National Monument: river. Islands, gravel bars, oxbow ponds and backwater sloughs provide support to forty-three species of fish. Large numbers of fall Chinook salmon spawn in the Hanford reach. Federally threatened species such as the Upper Columbia River Spring Chinook, the Middle Columbia River Steelhead and the Upper Columbia River Steelhead use the reach for migration purposes; the refuge is famous for the elk located on the Arid Lands Ecology Area. Herd numbers vary by time of year with 150 seen during the spring/summer and 350 to 375 during the fall.
The elk population reaches its peak in the winter with an average of 670. Archaeologists believed. During the mid-19th century, first hand accounts mentioned the disappearance of the species. Rocky Mountain elk were reintroduced into the region during the 1930s; the dry, desert region is home to forty-two mammal species. Mice are the most abundant and include the deer mouse, western harvest mouse, northern grasshopper mouse. Mammals that inhabit this refuge include coyotes, beavers, mule deer, river otters, minks and badgers. Hanford Reach is home to nine nuclear reactors. Plutonium from the reactor was used in the first nuclear explosion at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range in New Mexico and in the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan; the reactor’s significance has led to many distinctions including a place on the National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark, National Register of Historic Places, Nuclear Historic Landmark, National Civil Engineering Landmark and National Historic Landmark.
The monument is open from two hours before sunrise to two hours after sunset. Columbia River Corridor – shore and open water is open to the public. McGee Ranch and Riverlands – public day use. Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, located at 46°41′18″N 119°37′39″W – access permitted for ecological research, closed to the public. Vernita Bridge – open to the public. Wahluke Slope – open to the public; the Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act is a bill, introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress which would change some of the access to this site. The bill would require the United States Secretary of the Interior to provide public access to the summit of Rattlesnake Mountain in the Hanford Reach National Monument in the state of Washington; the bill is supposed to help with tourism and scientific undertakings. It was sent to the Senate. Several sites in the adjacent Hanford Site including the B Reactor are part of the Manhattan Project National Historical Park and are accessible on public tours.
Fws.gov: Official Hanford Reach National Monument website Landsat image overlaid with map White House Press Release Washington State precipitation map Pacific Northwest National Laboratory resource cards
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory
The National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory is located in Ashland, United States. Founded in 1988 and run by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the forensics laboratory is the only such laboratory in the world devoted to wildlife law enforcement. By treaty, the forensics laboratory is the official crime lab for CITES and the Wildlife Group of Interpol; the laboratory maintains an online feather database, called the Feather Atlas, available on their website. Ken Goddard serves as the current Lab Director; the primary mission of the laboratory is to identify the species or subspecies of pieces, parts or products of an animal to determine cause-of-death of an animal, to help wildlife officers determine if a violation of law has occurred and to identify and compare physical evidence in an attempt to link suspect and crime scene. The laboratory was established as a result of the need for a wildlife crime laboratory for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the need for this laboratory was brought to the attention of the Fish and Wildlife Service by Terry Grosz and Ken Goddard.
In 1986, the location of the laboratory was selected to be Ashland, Oregon due to the efforts of Dr. Wehinger, a chiropractor from Eagle Point, Oregon. By September, 1987, construction had begun on the laboratory, finished a year later; the laboratory was dedicated as the National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory in 1989, only to be re-dedicated as the Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory two years to honor former Fish and Wildlife Service Law Enforcement Chief Clark Bavin. In 2006, a 17,000 square foot addition was constructed to house their new wildlife pathology and genetics labs, along with an isolated room for theirdermestid beetles. In 2007, the laboratory complied with a Homeland Security mandate to protect the building by using landscaping and gardens instead of conventional methods, such as fences and buffers; the laboratory utilizes various equipment, including: Dermestid Beetle Colonies Laser Surface Scanner Ballistics Tank Mass Spectrometers Liquid Chromatograph Infrared Spectrometer X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Various Microscopes The forensics laboratory is divided into six major units: Administration Budget/Purchasing and Personnel Clerical Support Evidence Processing Quality Assurance Facilities Management Chemistry Genetics Morphology Herpetology Ornithology Mammalogy Pathology National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory
Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters are traditionally regarded as the significant factors determining the stock's population dynamics, while extrinsic factors are traditionally ignored. All species have geographic limits to their distribution, which are determined by their tolerance to environmental conditions, their ability to compete with other species. In marine environments this may be less evident than on land because there are fewer topographical boundaries, discontinuities still exist, produced for example by mesoscale and sub-mesoscale circulations that minimize long-distance dispersal of fish larvae. For fish, it is rare for an individual to reproduce randomly with all other individuals of that species within its biological range. There is a tendency to form a structured series of discrete populations which have a degree of reproductive isolation from each other in space, in time, or in both; this isolation is reflected in the development between sub-populations of genetic differences, morphological variations and exposure to different chemical regimes and parasitic species.
Sub-populations respond to fishing in such a way that fishing on one population appears to have no effect on the population dynamics of a neighbouring population. The accepted definition of a stock in fisheries science, is that of Begg et al. “… describes characteristics of semi-discrete groups of fish with some definable attributes which are of interest to fishery managers.” Stock identification is a field of fisheries science which aims to identify these subpopulations, based on a number of techniques. The United Nations defines straddling stocks as "stocks of fish such as pollock, which migrate between, or occur in both, the economic exclusion zone of one or more states and the high seas". Sovereign responsibility must be worked out in collaboration with neighbouring coastal states and fishing entities; this is done through the medium of an intergovernmental regional organisation set up for the purpose of coordinating the management of that stock. Straddling stocks are pelagic, rather than demersal.
Demersal species move less than pelagic species. Pelagic species are more mobile, their movements influenced by ocean temperatures and the availability of zooplankton as food. Example pelagic fish are capelin, whiting and redfish, There are, however, a few demersal species that are straddling, such as the Greenland halibut migrates in feeding/spawning migrations to Greenland in the west and to the Faeroes in the east. Straddling stock can be compared with transboundary stock. Straddling stock range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas. Transboundary stock range in the EEZs of at least two countries. A stock can be both straddling. In fisheries science and ecology, stock assessment is an important tool in fisheries management. In particular, to ensure continued, fish stocks, measurements of the Spawning Stock Biomass allows sensible conservation strategies to be developed and maintained through the application of sustainable fishing quotas; the World Wildlife Fund and the Zoological Society of London jointly issued their "Living Blue Planet Report" on 16 September 2015 which states that there was a dramatic fall of 74% in world-wide stocks of the important scombridae fish such as mackerel and bonitos between 1970 and 2010, the global overall "population sizes of mammals, reptiles and fish fell by half on average in just 40 years."
The stocks for individual marine species can "boom and bust" in linked and compensatory ways. For example, in billfish longline fisheries, the Atlantic catch of blue marlin declined in the 1960s; this was accompanied by an increase in sailfish catch. The sailfish catch declined from the end of the 1970s to the end of the 1980s, compensated by an increase in swordfish catch; as a result, the overall billfish catch remained stable. At Georges Bank, a decline in cod during the 1960s was accompanied by a rise in flatfish, more with the collapse of the predatory Atlantic cod, lobster catches in Maine have boomed. Lake Pohjalampi List of harvested aquatic animals by weight Overfishing Begg GA, Friedland KD and Pearce JB "Stock identification and its role in stock assessment and fisheries management: an overview." Fisheries Research, 43:1–8. Booke HE "The stock concept revisited: perspectives on its history in fisheries" Fisheries Research, 43: 9–11. Doi:10.1016/S0165-783600063-6 Cadrin SX, Friedland KD and Waldman JR Stock Identification Methods: Applications in Fishery Science.
ISBN 0-12-154351-X Pintassilgo, P and Lindroos, M "Management of Straddling Fish Stocks: A Bioeconomic Approach" In: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems – Volume 5, UNESCO. Identification of stocks of horse macekerel, Trachurus trachurus Identification of stocks of herring, Clupea harengus FAO Fisheries Department and its SOFIA report addressing fish stocks
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter and mates for reproduction; the physical factors are for example soil, range of temperature, light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are specific in their requirements. A habitat is not a geographical area, it can be the interior of a stem, a rotten log, a rock or a clump of moss, for a parasitic organism it is the body of its host, part of the host's body such as the digestive tract, or a single cell within the host's body. Habitat types include polar, temperate and tropical; the terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, grassland, semi-arid or desert. Fresh water habitats include marshes, rivers and ponds, marine habitats include salt marshes, the coast, the intertidal zone, reefs, the open sea, the sea bed, deep water and submarine vents.
Habitats change over time. This may be due to a violent event such as the eruption of a volcano, an earthquake, a tsunami, a wildfire or a change in oceanic currents. Other changes come as a direct result of human activities; the introduction of alien species can have a devastating effect on native wildlife, through increased predation, through competition for resources or through the introduction of pests and diseases to which the native species have no immunity. The word "habitat" has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold. Habitat can be defined as the natural environment of an organism, the type of place in which it is natural for it to live and grow, it is similar in meaning to a biotope. The chief environmental factors affecting the distribution of living organisms are temperature, climate, soil type and light intensity, the presence or absence of all the requirements that the organism needs to sustain it. Speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities.
Some plants and animals are generalists, their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations. The small white butterfly for example is found on all the continents of the world apart from Antarctica, its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. The large blue butterfly is much more specific in its requirements. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats. In the absence of disturbance, a climax vegetation cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Wildflower meadows are sometimes created by conservationists but most of the flowering plants used are either annuals or biennials and disappear after a few years in the absence of patches of bare ground on which their seedlings can grow. Lightning strikes and toppled trees in tropical forests allow species richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created. Coastal habitats can become dominated by kelp until the seabed is disturbed by a storm and the algae swept away, or shifting sediment exposes new areas for colonisation.
Another cause of disturbance is when an area may be overwhelmed by an invasive introduced species, not kept under control by natural enemies in its new habitat. Terrestrial habitat types include forests, grasslands and deserts. Within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils and vegetation types. Many of these habitats grade into each other and each one has its own typical communities of plants and animals. A habitat may suit a particular species well, but its presence or absence at any particular location depends to some extent on chance, on its dispersal abilities and its efficiency as a coloniser. Freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes, ponds and bogs. Although some organisms are found across most of these habitats, the majority have more specific requirements; the water velocity, its temperature and oxygen saturation are important factors, but in river systems, there are fast and slow sections, pools and backwaters which provide a range of habitats.
Aquatic plants can be floating, semi-submerged, submerged or grow in permanently or temporarily saturated soils besides bodies of water. Marginal plants provide important habitat for both invertebrates and vertebrates, submerged plants provide oxygenation of the water, absorb nutrients and play a part in the reduction of pollution. Marine habitats include brackish water, bays, the open sea, the intertidal zone, the sea bed and deep / shallow water zones. Further variations include rock pools, sand banks, brackish lagoons and pebbly beaches, seagrass beds, all supporting their own flora and fauna; the benth
National Marine Fisheries Service
The National Marine Fisheries Service is the United States federal agency responsible for the stewardship of national marine resources. The agency conserves and manages fisheries to promote sustainability and prevent lost economic potential associated with overfishing, declining species, degraded habitats; the National Marine Fisheries Service is a United States federal agency, informally known as NOAA Fisheries. A division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in the cabinet-level Department of Commerce, NMFS is responsible for the stewardship and management of the nation's living marine resources and their habitats within the United States' exclusive economic zone, which extends seaward 200 nautical miles from the coastline. NOAA oversees the NMFS. Using the tools provided by the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the NMFS assesses and predicts the status of fish stocks, ensures compliance with fisheries regulations, works to end wasteful fishing practices.
Under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act, the agency monitors recovering protected marine species, such as wild salmon and sea turtles. With the help of the six regional science centers, eight regional fisheries management councils, the coastal states and territories, three interstate fisheries management commissions, NMFS conserves and manages marine fisheries to promote sustainability and to prevent lost economic potential associated with overfishing, declining species, degraded habitats. While the coastal states and territories have authority to manage fisheries within near-shore state waters, the NMFS has the primary responsibility to conserve and manage marine fisheries in the U. S. exclusive economic zone beyond state waters. The agency attempts to balance competing public needs for the natural resources under its management; the NMFS serves as a federal law enforcement agency, working with state enforcement agencies, the United States Coast Guard, foreign enforcement authorities.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Office for Law Enforcement is based in Silver Spring, Maryland. The NMFS regulatory program is one of the most active in the federal government, with hundreds of regulations published annually in the Federal Register. Most regulations are published to conserve marine fisheries under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act; the NMFS regulates fisheries pursuant to decisions of "regional fishery management organizations" and other RFMOs to which the U. S. is a party, such as the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, the Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program, the International Pacific Halibut Commission, etc. In 2007, the NMFS issued regulations to protect endangered whales from fatal fishing-gear entanglements after environmental groups sued to force action on the rules, which were proposed in early 2005.
The rules were enacted to protect the North Atlantic right whale, of which about only 350 remain. Marine-gear entanglements and ship strikes are the top human causes of right whale deaths. On July 1, the shipping lanes in and out of Boston Harbor were rotated to avoid an area with a high concentration of the right whales. In the fiscal year 2017, the Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Program of NOAA's NMFS, Greater Atlantic Regional Fisheries Office, Protected Resources Division, carried out the mandates of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act, was charged with protecting the whales, porpoises and sea turtles that occur within the greater Atlantic region; this program includes marine mammal health and stranding response, large whale disentanglement, sea turtle stranding and disentanglement. To implement this program, NMFS established several networks of volunteer organizations that it authorizes to respond to stranded marine mammals and sea turtles and entangled large whales and sea turtles.
NMFS seeks the submission of proposals addressing Marine Animal Entanglement Response in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The eight domestic regional fisheries management councils make binding regulations for federal waters off various parts of the U. S. coast: North Pacific Fishery Management Council Pacific Fishery Management Council Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council Caribbean Fishery Management Council South Atlantic Fishery Management Council Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council New England Fishery Management Council The NMFSational Marine Fisheries Service operates six fisheries science centers covering marine fisheries conducted by the United States. The science centers correspond to the administrative division of fisheries management into five regions, with the west coast utilizing two fisheries science centers; the Northeast Fisheries Science Center is headquartered in Massachusetts. It operates laboratories at five other locations, an additional marine field station.
Its primary mission is the management of fisheries on the Northeast shelf. However, it oversees the operation of the National Systematics Lab, in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution; the Northeast Fisheries Science Center operates the Woods Hole Science Aquarium in conjunction with the Marine Biological Laboratory. The NMFS maintains the Northwest