click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust. Adjacent to the National Mall in Washington, D. C. the USHMM provides for the documentation and interpretation of Holocaust history. It is dedicated to helping leaders and citizens of the world confront hatred, prevent genocide, promote human dignity, strengthen democracy; the museum has an operating budget, of $120.6 million. In 2008, the museum had a staff of about 400 employees, 125 contractors, 650 volunteers, 91 Holocaust survivors, 175,000 members, it had local offices in New York City, Boca Raton, Los Angeles, Dallas. Since its dedication on April 22, 1993, the Museum has had nearly 40 million visitors, including more than 10 million school children, 99 heads of state, more than 3,500 foreign officials from over 211 countries; the Museum's visitors came from all over the world, less than 10 percent of the Museum's visitors are Jewish. Its website had 25 million visits in 2008 from an average of 100 different countries daily.

Thirty-five percent of these visits were from outside the United States. The USHMM's collections contain more than 12,750 artifacts, 49 million pages of archival documents, 85,000 historical photographs, a list of over 200,000 registered survivors and their families, 1,000 hours of archival footage, 93,000 library items, 9,000 oral history testimonies, it has teacher fellows in every state in the United States and 400 university fellows from 26 countries since 1994. Researchers at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum have documented 42,500 ghettos and concentration camps erected by the Nazis throughout German-controlled areas of Europe from 1933 to 1945. On November 1, 1978, President Jimmy Carter established the President's Commission on the Holocaust, chaired by Elie Wiesel, a prominent author and Holocaust survivor, its mandate was to investigate the creation and maintenance of a memorial to victims of the Holocaust and an appropriate annual commemoration to them. The mandate was created in a joint effort by Richard Krieger.

On September 27, 1979, the Commission presented its report to the President, recommending the establishment of a national Holocaust memorial museum in Washington, D. C. with three main components: a national museum/memorial, an educational foundation, a Committee on Conscience. After a unanimous vote by the United States Congress in 1980 to establish the museum, the federal government made available 1.9 acres of land adjacent to the Washington Monument for construction. Under the original Director Richard Krieger, subsequent Director Jeshajahu Weinberg and Chairman Miles Lerman, nearly $190 million was raised from private sources for building design, artifact acquisition, exhibition creation. In October 1988, President Ronald Reagan helped lay the cornerstone of the building, designed by the architect James Ingo Freed. Dedication ceremonies on April 22, 1993 included speeches by American President Bill Clinton, Israeli President Chaim Herzog, Chairman Harvey Meyerhoff, Elie Wiesel. On April 26, 1993, the Museum opened to the general public.

Its first visitor was the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The museum has been the target of a fatal shooting. In 2002, a federal jury convicted white supremacists Leo Felton and Erica Chase of planning to bomb a series of institutions associated with American black and Jewish communities, including the USHMM. On June 10, 2009, 88-year-old James von Brunn, an anti-Semite, shot Museum Special Police Officer Stephen Tyrone Johns. Special Police Officer Johns and von Brunn were both wounded and transported by ambulance to the George Washington University Hospital. Special Police Officer Johns died of his injuries. Von Brunn, who had a previous criminal record, died during his criminal trial in federal court, in Butner federal prison in North Carolina. Designed by the architect James Ingo Freed of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, in association with Finegold Alexander + Associates Inc, the USHMM is created to be a "resonator of memory"; the outside of the building disappears into the neoclassical and modern architecture of Washington, D.

C. Upon entering, each architectural feature becomes a new element of allusion to the Holocaust. In designing the building, Freed researched post-World War II German architecture and visited Holocaust sites throughout Europe; the Museum building and the exhibitions within are intended to evoke deception and solemnity, in contrast to the comfort and grandiosity associated with Washington, D. C. public buildings. Other partners in the construction of the USHMM included Weiskopf & Pickworth, Cosentini Associates LLP, Jules Fisher, Paul Marantz, all from New York City; the structural engineering firm, chosen for this project was Severud Associates. The Museum's Meyerhoff Theatre and Rubenstein Auditorium were constructed by Jules Fisher Associates of New York City; the Permanent Exhibition was designed by Ralph Appelbaum Associates. The USHMM contains two exhibitions that have been open continuously since 1993 and numerous rotating exhibitions that deal with various topics related to the Holocaust and human rights.

The Hall of Remembrance is the USHMM's official memorial to the victims and survivors of the Holocaust. Visitors can memorialize the event by lighting candles, visiting an eternal flame, reflecting in silence in the hexagonal hall. Using more than 900 artifacts, 70 video monitors, four theaters showing

Xi'an International Studies University

Xi'an International Studies University is a public Chinese university located in the northwestern city of Xi'an, China's ancient capital well known for the Terracotta Warriors and a key city in the Western China. XISU is one of the universities with well-known foreign language departments and a member of G8 Universities; the university has three campuses, the north Yanta campus, the South Chang'an campus and Yahe campus, where the university's high school is located. Established in 1952 as the Northwest College of Russian and Xi'an Foreign Languages Institute, XISU is one of the four oldest foreign language teaching institutions in P. R. China, and the only international studies-based university in the northwest region of the country, covering a large geographical area spanning from Shaanxi to Xinjiang. In 1958, it was renamed Xi'an Foreign Languages Institute, in 1979, the university initiated graduate programs in Linguistics and Literature. In 1995, it merged Shaanxi Foreign Language School, its current Yanta campus and, in 2005, the Chang'an campus was completed.

Approved by the MOE, it was renamed Xi'an International Studies University in 2006. XISU offers its 24,000 students 43 undergraduate degree programs, with the humanities as the core of its curriculum while covering other areas such as social sciences, law, international relations, mass communication and education. At the graduate level, XISU offers 26 Master of Arts programs, with majors in linguistics, cross-cultural communication, translation studies, business and teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages. Besides the Ph. D. programs jointly offered with other three institutions in France and Germany, XISU has been approved by the central government to offer its own Ph. D. programs in linguistics and literature and began enrolling students in 2014. The university experienced three phases of development in its history. During the first one, from 1952 to 1958, the academy produced many Russian graduates who were the main force in the early construction of new China; the second one was from 1958 to 2006 when the institution used the name of Xi'an Foreign Languages Institute.

During this period, the institute experienced dramatic progress in its development with the introduction of undergraduate majors in English, Russian, Italian, Portuguese, Arabic, Hindi,and Thai at different times after the Cultural Revolution, with the Education Ministry's approval master's degree programs in English, French and Japanese. The current and ongoing phase began in 2006 when the Education Ministry upgraded the institute to a university, because of its comprehensive majors and minors, its academic force. Several generations of people at XISU started from scratch and forged ahead with enterprise, creating a success story of perseverance. XISU is a recognized foreign studies university, with a salient focus on Literature, Management, Education and Art, it is an important base for foreign language education and teacher development, playing an irreplaceable role in the country's northwest and enjoying a positive reputation in the world. Now the university has 30 academic schools and departments with 41 majors and 7 minors.

It has 19 graduate programs of different foreign languages. It is now considered by many to be one of the top five foreign language universities in China. There are 25 centers in fields such as foreign languages and literature, foreign language and teaching, human geography, bilingual dictionary compiling and editing. Presently there are about 24,000 students studying in the university, its graduates are well recognized in terms of “foreign language competence, interpersonal skills, work adaptability and great potentialities”, thus ushering in a good influx of job opportunities. Alumni of XISU work all over the world in education. Many of them are working at universities in the U. S. England, Japan and France; the university has established cooperative programs such as exchange programs with faculty and students with most countries. It places stress on international cooperation and exchange, opening up to the global context of education. To date, it maintains close scholarly ties with 157 institutions of higher learning in the world, conducts a Confucius Institute in Kazakhstan and Argentina delivers dual-campus PhD, MA and BA programs in collaboration with seventy-two overseas universities, runs several internship bases in the US, Thailand and the UK.

The current motto of Xi'an International Studies University is'爱国 勤奋 博学 创新', which translates into'Patriotism Diligence Education and Innovation'. Sun Tianyi, 1986–1998 Du Ruiqing, 1998–2005 Hu Sishe, 2005–2014 Liu Yuelian, 2014–2015 Wang Junzhe, 2015–present Official homepage of Xi'an International Studies University Campus Aroma (2006.

Metropolitan Province (Western Australia)

The Metropolitan Province was a multi-member electoral province of the Western Australian Legislative Council, located in the metropolitan region of Perth. It was created by the Constitution Acts Amendment Act 1893, became effective on 22 May 1894 following the first council elections following the granting of responsible government to Western Australia; the seat was safe for its predecessors. Until the 1950 elections, it covered Perth's central business district and nearby environs, but moved at that point to the western and northern suburbs while still extending to include Perth itself. In 1963–1964, electoral changes to the Legislative Council, which abolished the 10 three-member seats and created 15 two-member seats in their place, resulted in the seat shrinking into the wealthy western suburbs region. Thereafter, it was a safe seat for the Liberal Party. In 1989, the province was abolished by the Acts Amendment Act 1987, with two others became part of the North Metropolitan Region under the new proportional voting system.

The province was made up of several complete Legislative Assembly districts, which changed at each distribution. It had a more restrictive franchise than the Legislative Assembly, however, so not all voters in the corresponding Assembly districts were eligible to vote in the Council. Three-member seatTwo-member seat Black, David. Legislative Council of Western Australia: membership register, electoral law and statistics, 1890-1989. Perth: Parliamentary History Project. ISBN 0-7309-3641-4

Edward Maufe

Sir Edward Brantwood Maufe, RA, FRIBA was an English architect and designer. He built private homes as well as commercial and institutional buildings, is noted chiefly for his work on places of worship and memorials, his best known buildings are Guildford Cathedral and the Air Forces Memorial. He was a recipient of the Royal Gold Medal for architecture in 1944 and, in 1954, received a knighthood for services to the Imperial War Graves Commission, which he was associated with from 1943 until his death. Maufe was born Edward Muff in Sunny Bank, Yorkshire, on 12 December 1882, he was the second of three children and youngest son of Henry Muff and Maude Alice Muff née Smithies. Henry Muff was a linen draper who worked for the firm Muff & Co. Ltd.. Maufe's mother was the niece of the founder of Saltaire. Maufe started his education at Wharfedale School in Ilkley and attended Bradford School. During his adolescent years, Maufe became interested in architecture. In 1899 he was sent to London to serve a five-year apprenticeship under the direction of the London architect William A. Pite.

Soon after, the Muff family moved from Yorkshire to the Red House in London. The house was designed by Philip Webb for William Morris, Maufe acknowledged the design as an early architectural influence. After completing his apprenticeship in 1904, he attended St John's College, where he received a B. A. in 1908. In 1909, the family surname was changed by deed poll from Muff to Maufe, by his father Henry and uncles Charles and Frederick Muff "for ourselves and our respective issue", the deed poll stating that they were "desirous of reverting to the old form of our surname"; the following year he moved to 139 Old Church Street, London. On 1 October 1910, he married Prudence Stutchbury, the daughter of Edward Stutchbury of the Geological Survey of India, she was a designer and interior decorator, a director of Heal's. They had a son who died in 1968. During the First World War, Maufe served in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, joined the army in 1917 with Dick Sheppard acting as his guarantor. Maufe enlisted in the Royal Garrison Artillery on 9 January 1917 and was commissioned as a staff lieutenant on that April and saw action in Salonika.

He was discharged on 26 February 1919. Having been an associate member since 1910, Maufe was elected a fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1920, his architectural drawings and correspondence were deposited at the RIBA. In 1940, Maufe commissioned his portrait showing him in front of his winning design for Guildford Cathedral from Gluck. Another oil portrait of him by John Laviers Wheatley was exhibited in 1956 and is in the Primary Collection of the National Portrait Gallery, London. Maufe's first important commission after setting up practice on his own was, in 1912, the design of Kelling Hall, for Sir Henry Deterding; the building shows Maufe's early links with the arts and crafts movement due to its butterfly plan, knapped flint walls, a grey tiled and gabled roof. Maufe's other notable pre-war work included the decoration of St Martin-in-the-Fields, the chapels and alterations at All Saints' Church and restoration at St John's, which first brought him into notice in church circles.

Whilst Kelling Hall was Maufe's first major project. Prior to this in 1909 he was commissioned by Marie Studholme to design a weekend house on the banks of the River Thames in Laleham, Middlesex; the house, known as The Barn, was influenced by Edwin Lutyens's Homewood, in particular the triple gabled roof, a device he used at Kelling Hall as well. His 1924 proposals for the Palace of Industry at the British Empire Exhibition, Wembley attracted notice though an alternative design was built. Maufe was a silver medallist at the Paris Exhibition in 1925 which resulted in him securing a wide variety of commissions; the church of St Bede Clapham and St Saviour's in Acton, were built for the Royal Association in Aid of the Deaf and Dumb and made. The latter church displays a simple structure and has a likeness to contemporary Swedish architecture. St Saviour's was loosely based on the design by Ivar Tengbom of Högalid Church in Stockholm, which Maufe described as being the most satisfying modern Swedish building he had seen.

During this period, Maufe was a constant champion of modern Swedish architecture, was vocal on this theme in the architectural press, citing his own buildings as having simplified elevations, painted ceilings, applied sculpture, similar to those found in Sweden. Maufe felt that Swedish architecture had a combined freshness without breaking with tradition. In 1932, Maufe won a competition to design the Guildford Cathedral, coming first among 183 entries with a Gothic design in concrete faced in brick. By the time the building was dedicated in 1961, it seemed more of an anachronism; the cathedral's exterior including the nave and aisles together with Maufe's use of space, won him general admiration amongst fellow architects. As a result, he was described as a designer of churches by conviction, as he attempted to produce buildings of austere simplicity aiming directly at the creation of a religious atmosphere. At Guildford, he wanted to produce a design of the times, yet to keep in line with the great English cathedrals established within the United Kingdom.

In 1936 King George VI commissioned Maufe to conduct vari

Adi Kailash

Adi Kailash known as Shiva Kailash, Chota Kailash, Baba Kailash or Jonglingkong Peak, is a mountain located in the Himalayan mountain range near Om Parvat, in the Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand, India. Both Adi Kailash and Om Parvat are considered sacred by Hindus; the Adi Kailash and the Om Parvat and are not the same. The Adi Kailash or Chota Kailash is located in a different direction, near Sin La pass and near Brahma Parvat, the base camp of Adi Kailash is 17 km from the Kutti village at sacred Jolingkong Lake with a Hindu Shiva temple. Om Parvat can be viewed en route to the Kailash Manasarovar Yatra from the last camp below Lipulekh Pass at Nabhidhang India-China border post protected by the Indo-Tibetan Border Police has Public Works Department guest house on the Indian side. Many trekkers to Adi Kailash make a diversion to view Om Parvat. Om Parvat is located near Nabhi Dhang camp on Mount Kailash-Lake Manasarovar yatra route. From Sept 19th to Oct 14th 2002 the first attempt, abandoned 200 m short of the summit because of loose snow and rock conditions, was made by an Indo-Aussie-British-Scottish team including Martin Moran, T. Rankin, M. Singh, S. Ward, A. Williams and R. Ausden.

The climbers promised not to ascend the final 10 metres out of respect for the peak's holy status. On 8 October 2004, the first successful ascent of Adi Kailash was by the British-Scottish-American team composed of Tim Woodward, Jack Pearse, Andy Perkins; the Adi Kailash Yatra Circuit begins by going up the Darma Valley and going to Kuthi Yankti Valley via the Sin La pass to join the Mount Kailash-Lake Manasarovar Tibetan pilgrimage route down the Sharda River

Sibyl Dunlop

Sibyl Dunlop was a British jewellery designer, best known for the jewellery and silver objects in the late Arts and Crafts style that she produced in the 1920s and 1930s. Dunlop was born in Hampstead, London to Scottish parents and finished her schooling in Brussels, where she became interested in jewellery design and underwent some basic training, she established a workshop and shop at 69 Kensington Church Street, London W8, in the early 1920s was joined by W. Nathanson as her principal craftsman. Dunlop's work is characterised by the use of semi-precious and precious gems, such as chalcedony, moonstone, agate and opals cabochon rather than facet-cut gemstones, set in silver in symmetrical patterns inspired by nature. One of her most famous designs is the'Carpet of Gems' symmetrical setting; the gemstones were cut for Dunlop by lapidaries in Germany. Dunlop's work is confused with that of another female jewellery designer of the same period, Dorrie Nossiter; the business closed at the outbreak of World War II in 1939 and Dunlop never returned to work due to ill health.

After the war Nathanson re-started the business and continued producing jewellery and silver under Dunlop's name until he retired in 1971. A collection of her designs