Homeland Security Act
The Homeland Security Act of 2002, was introduced in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks and subsequent mailings of anthrax spores. The HSA was cosponsored by 118 members of Congress; the act passed the U. S. Senate by one vote, with the pivotal vote in a tied Senate being cast by Independent Dean Barkley, it was signed into law by President George W. Bush in November 2002. HSA created the United States Department of Homeland Security and the new cabinet-level position of Secretary of Homeland Security, it is the largest federal government reorganization since the Department of Defense was created via the National Security Act of 1947. It includes many of the organizations under which the powers of the USA PATRIOT Act are exercised; the new department assumed a large number of services and other organizations conducted in other departments, such as the Customs Service, Coast Guard, U. S. Secret Service, it superseded, but did not replace, the Office of Homeland Security, which retained an advisory role.
The Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2004 provided the new department its first funding. A major reason for the implementation of HSA is to ensure that the border function remains strong within the new Department; the Act is similar to the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act in reorganizing and centralizing Federal security functions to meet post–Cold War threats and challenges. Like IRTPA, there are some inherent contradictions in the bill not solved by reorganization; these reflect compromises with other committees needed to secure passage, but the result is at times inconsistent or conflicting authorities. For example, the Act identifies the Department of Homeland Security's first responsibility as preventing terrorist attacks in the United States. With Critical Infrastructure Protection, which relates to the preparedness and response to serious incidents, the Act gave DHS broad responsibility to minimize damage but only limited authority to share information and to coordinate the development of private sector best practices.
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 is the foundation for many other establishments, including: the Department of Homeland Security, headed by the Secretary of Homeland Security an established Directorate for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection within the Department of Homeland Security, headed by the Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection. The Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002 the Cyber Security Enhancement Act of 2002 The Homeland Security Act of 2002 documented under Public Law is divided into 17 titles that establishes the Department of Homeland Security and other purposes; each title is broken down into several sections, summarized below. 1. Department of Homeland Security Title I consists of three sections that establish the Department of Homeland Security, which carries out several missions that comply with the United States Code.2. Information Analysis And Infrastructure Protection Title II consists of two subtitles, including the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002, nineteen sections, including the Cyber Security Enhancement Act of 2002.
It is headed by the Under Secretary and used to access and analyze law enforcement information, intelligence information, other information from federal and local government agencies for further use towards the prevention of terrorist acts.3. Science And Technology In Support of Homeland Security Title III consists of thirteen sections, it is described as a plan to develop national policy and strategic plans to develop countermeasures for chemical, radiological and other emerging terrorist threats. It establishes and administers primary research and development.4. Directorate Of Border And Transportation Security Title IV consists of forty-eight sections and regulates what comes in out of United States territory in an effort to prevent terrorists and instruments of terrorism; this is done by securing the borders, territorial waters, terminals and air, sea transportation systems of the United States, including managing and coordinating governmental activities at ports of entry.5. Emergency Preparedness and Response Title V consists of nine sections and it helps to ensure the response time and preparedness of providers for terrorist attacks, major disasters and other emergencies.
In addition, it establishes standards, joint exercises and trainings and providing funds to the United States Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency.6. Treatment of Charitable Trusts For Members Of The Armed Forces Of The United States And Other Governmental Organizations Title VI consists of one section which, through several requirements, designates the late Central Intelligence Agency officer Johnny Michael Spann as a trust fund for distribution towards surviving spouses, children, or dependent parents, grandparents, or siblings of Government related service members.7. Management Title VII consists of six sections, headed by the Under Security to manage the budget, expenditures of funds and finance, human resources, information technology, procurement of the Departments.8. Coordination With Non-Federal Entities.
Thomas P. Bossert is an American lawyer and former Homeland Security Advisor to U. S. President Donald Trump, he is an ABC News Homeland Security analyst. Before, he was a fellow at the Atlantic Council and prior to that he served as Deputy Homeland Security Advisor to President George W. Bush. In that capacity, he co-authored the 2007 National Strategy for Homeland Security. Prior to that, Bossert held positions in the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Small Business Administration, the Office of the Independent Counsel, the House of Representatives, he was appointed as the Director of Infrastructure Protection under Bush, overseeing the security of critical U. S. infrastructure, a post he held for two years. Bossert was appointed the Senior Director for Preparedness Policy within the Executive Office of the President. Bossert was born and raised in Quakertown, where he graduated from Quakertown Community High School in 1993, he attended the University of Pittsburgh, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and Economics in 1997, attended George Washington University Law School, earning his Juris Doctor in 2003.
Following the end of the Bush administration, Bossert was made a Nonresident Zurich Cyber Risk Fellow at the Atlantic Council's Cyber Security Initiative, a position he held until 2016. He became president of the risk management consulting firm Civil Defense Solutions. On December 27, 2016, the Trump transition team announced that President-elect Donald Trump intended to appoint Bossert to the post of Homeland Security Advisor, a position that would not require Senate confirmation. Bossert was appointed on January 20, 2017, the date of President Trump's entrance into office. In July 2017, a British hacker spear-phished Bossert into thinking he was Jared Kushner by sending an email to Bossert; the hacker received Bossert's private email address without asking for it. On April 10, 2018, Bossert resigned a day after John R. Bolton, the newly-appointed National Security Advisor, started his tenure. Greenberg, Andy. "Trump's Cybersecurity Chief Could Be a'Voice of Reason'". Wired. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
Media related to Tom Bossert at Wikimedia Commons
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the President of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the Vice President presides over joint sessions of Congress. The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.
The Vice President is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.
Mike Pence of Indiana is the current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that, "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.
Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed that individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another. So they created the office of vice president and required that electors vote for two candidates, requiring that at least one of their votes must be for a candidate from outside the elector's state, believing that this second vote could be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that some electors might strategically throw away their second vote in order to bolster their favorite son's chance of winning, it was specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president. Creating this new office imposed a political cost on strategically discarded electoral votes, incentivizing electors to make their choices for president without resort to electoral gamesmanship and to cast their second ballot accordingly.
The resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency; the person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.
Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties.
Corporation for National and Community Service
The Corporation for National and Community Service is a U. S. federal government agency that engages more than five million Americans in service through AmeriCorps and Serve America, Senior Corps, other national service initiatives. The agency's mission is to "support the American culture of citizenship and responsibility". While a government agency, CNCS acts much like a foundation and is the nation’s largest annual grant maker supporting service and volunteering. CNCS known as the "Corporation for National Service" or "CNS," was created as an independent agency of the United States government by the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993. CNCS delivers several programs that are designed to help communities address poverty, the environment and other unmet human needs; the programs include: AmeriCorps is a national service program designed to engage Americans in a variety of service. Programs under the AmeriCorps umbrella include AmeriCorps National and AmeriCorps State programs, National Civilian Community Corps, VISTA.
On April 21, 2009, the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act was signed into law which reauthorized and expanded the AmeriCorps volunteer service program; the new law would more than triple the number of available AmeriCorps volunteer slots from current 75,000 to 250,000 by fiscal year 2017 with 50% of these positions becoming full-time. The measure would tie college tuition aid to demonstrated favorable community impacts. National Civilian Community Corps Volunteers in Service to America Senior Corps USA Freedom Corps President's Volunteer Service Award Presidential Freedom Scholarship Program FEMA Corps On September 12, 2014, President Barack Obama launched the Employers of National Service initiative at the 20th Anniversary of AmeriCorps event on the South Lawn of the White House. Employers participating in the initiative connect to the talent pipeline of AmeriCorps, Peace Corps, other service year alumni, by indicating in their hiring processes that they view national service experience as a plus.
The initiative is a collaboration between CNCS with the Peace Corps, Service Year Alliance, AmeriCorps Alums, the National Peace Corps Association. To date, over 500 employers have joined the initiative; the Commission on National and Community Service was a new, independent federal agency created as a consequence of the National and Community Service Act of 1990, signed into law by President George H. W. Bush; the Commission was intentioned to mean to bring about a renewed focus on encouraging volunteering in the United States and was charged with supporting four streams of service: Service-learning programs for school-aged youth Higher education service programs Youth corps National service demonstration modelsIn 1993 the Corporation for National and Community Service was created by merging another agency, ACTION, the Commission on National and Community Service together, thus ending the Commission. Known as Serve America and Serve America engaged students in community-based organizations and schools in service learning programs.
In 2011 the United States House Appropriations Committee declined additional funding for Learn and Serve, the program was discontinued. 1990: President George H. W. Bush signs the National and Community Service Act of 1990 into law, ushering in a renewed federal focus on encouraging volunteering in the U. S; this legislation created the new independent federal agency called the Commission on National and Community Service. 1992: Enacted as part of the 1993 National Defense Authorization Act, the National Civilian Community Corps is created as a demonstration program to explore the possibility of using post-Cold War military resources to help solve problems here at home. It is modeled on the United States military. 1993: President Bill Clinton signs into passage The National and Community Service Trust Act, formally merging the federal offices of ACTION and the Commission on National and Community Service, including Serve America and NCCC, to form CNCS, along with the addition of the new AmeriCorps program.
2002: President George W. Bush creates the USA Freedom Corps. Past CEOs of CNCS include: Community service National service in the United States Service learning Gerald Walpin The Corporation for National and Community Service website Corporation for National and Community Service – History Corporation for National and Community Service – Legislation Corporation for National and Community Service in the Federal Register History of Service Learning in Higher Education website Booknotes interview with Steven Waldman on The Bill: How the Adventures of Clinton's National Service Bill Reveal What is Corrupt, Cynical -- and Noble -- About Washington, January 29, 1995
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens and institutions, is regarded as a duty of government. Conceived as protection against military attack, national security is now understood to include non-military dimensions, including the security from terrorism, economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, cyber security etc. National security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states, action by violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations, the effects of natural disasters. Governments rely on a range of measures, including political and military power, as well as diplomacy to enforce national security, they may act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change, economic inequality, political exclusion, nuclear proliferation. The concept of national security remains ambiguous, having evolved from simpler definitions which emphasised freedom from military threat and from political coercion.
Among the many definitions proposed to date are the following, which show how the concept has evolved to encompass non-military concerns: "A nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate ínterests to avoid war, is able, if challenged, to maintain them by war.". "The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation." "National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked." "National security is the ability to preserve the nation's physical integrity and territory. "National security... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy and wellbeing." "National security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience and maturity, human resources, economic structure and capacity, technological competence, industrial base and availability of natural resources and the military might."
" measurable state of the capability of a nation to overcome the multi-dimensional threats to the apparent well-being of its people and its survival as a nation-state at any given time, by balancing all instruments of state policy through governance... and is extendable to global security by variables external to it." " may be understood as a shared freedom from fear and want, the freedom to live in dignity. It implies social and ecological health rather than the absence of risk... a common right." Potential causes of national insecurity include actions by other states, violent non-state actors, organised criminal groups such as narcotic cartels, the effects of natural disasters. Systemic drivers of insecurity, which may be transnational, include climate change, economic inequality and marginalisation, political exclusion, militarisation. In view of the wide range of risks, the security of a nation state has several dimensions, including economic security, energy security, physical security, environmental security, food security, border security, cyber security.
These dimensions correlate with elements of national power. Governments organise their security policies into a national security strategy; some states appoint a National Security Council to oversee the strategy and/or a National Security Advisor. Although states differ in their approach, with some beginning to prioritise non-military action to tackle systemic drivers of insecurity, various forms of coercive power predominate military capabilities; the scope of these capabilities has developed. Traditionally, military capabilities were land- or sea-based, in smaller countries they still are. Elsewhere, the domains of potential warfare now include the air, space and psychological operations. Military capabilities designed for these domains may be used for national security, or for offensive purposes, for example to conquer and annex territory and resources. In practice, national security is associated with managing physical threats and with the military capabilities used for doing so; that is, national security is understood as the capacity of a nation to mobilise military forces to guarantee its borders and to deter or defend against physical threats including military aggression and attacks by non-state actors, such as terrorism.
Most states, such as South Africa and Sweden, configure their military forces for territorial defence. Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver, Jaap de Wilde and others have argued that national security depends on political security: the stability of the social order. Others, such as Paul Rogers, have added that the equitability of the interna
Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB measures the quality of agency programs and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives. While the current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, he is also the acting White House Chief of Staff. Many of his duties and responsibilities have been assigned to Deputy Director Russell Vought; the OMB Director reports to Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, signed into law by president Warren G. Harding; the Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the government's rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War.
James L. Sundquist, a staffer at the Bureau of the Budget described the relationship between the President and the Bureau as close and of subsequent Bureau Directors as politicians and not public administrators; the Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices. OMB prepares the President's budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies. OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules and proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and with administration policies. OMB oversees and coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management and regulatory policies.
In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public. OMB's critical missions are: Budget development and execution is a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President and a device by which a president implements his policies and actions in everything from the Department of Defense to NASA. OMB manages other agencies' financials, IT; the Office is made up of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Six positions within OMB – the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions; the largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the five Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.
S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships; these staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget, they perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, oversee the aspects of the president's management agenda including agency management scorecards. They are called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member, they provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.
Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president's budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress; the Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the
White House Chief of Staff
The White House Chief of Staff position is the successor to the earlier role of the President's private secretary. The role was formalized as the Assistant to the President in 1946 and acquired its current title in 1961; the current official title is Assistant to the Chief of Staff. The Chief of Staff is a political appointee of the President who does not require Senate confirmation, who serves at the pleasure of the President. While not a required role, all presidents since Harry Truman have appointed chiefs of staff. In the administration of Donald Trump, the current acting Chief of Staff is Mick Mulvaney, who succeeded John Kelly on January 2, 2019, who himself had replaced Reince Priebus as Chief of Staff on July 31, 2017. On December 8, 2018, President Trump announced that Kelly would be stepping down from his post by the end of the year. On December 14, Trump announced on Twitter that OMB director Mick Mulvaney would become the new acting Chief of Staff; the duties of the White House chief of staff vary from one administration to another and, in fact, there is no legal requirement that the president fill the position.
However, since at least 1979, all presidents have found the need for a chief of staff, who oversees the actions of the White House staff, manages the president's schedule, decides, allowed to meet with the president. Because of these duties, the chief of staff has at various times been labeled "The Gatekeeper." The duties now performed by the chief of staff belonged to the president's private secretary and were fulfilled by crucial confidants and advisers such as George B. Cortelyou, Joseph Tumulty, Louis McHenry Howe to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt, respectively; the private secretary served as the president's de facto chief aide in a role that combined personal and professional assignments of delicate and demanding natures, requiring great skill and discretion. The job of gatekeeper and overseeing the president's schedule was separately delegated to the appointments secretary, as with FDR's aide Edwin "Pa" Watson. From 1933 to 1939, as he expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt relied on his "Brain Trust" of top advisers.
Although working directly for the president, they were appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions. It was not until 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, that the foundations of the modern White House staff were created using a formal structure. Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the creation of the Executive Office of the President, which would report directly to the president. During World War II, Roosevelt created the position of "Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief" for his principal military adviser, Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy. In 1946, in response to the rapid growth of the U. S. government's executive branch, the position of "Assistant to the President of the United States" was established. Charged with the affairs of the White House, it was the immediate predecessor to the modern chief of staff, it was in 1953, under Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower, that the president's preeminent assistant was designated the "White House Chief of Staff".
Assistant to the president became a rank shared by the chief of staff with such senior aides as deputy chiefs of staff, the White House counsel, the White House press secretary, others. This new system did not catch on immediately. Democrats Kennedy and Johnson still relied on their appointments secretaries instead, it was not until the Nixon administration that the chief of staff took over maintenance of the President's schedule; this concentration of power in the Nixon and Ford White House led presidential candidate Jimmy Carter to campaign in 1976 with the promise that he would not appoint a chief of staff. And indeed, for the first two and a half years of his presidency, he appointed no one to the post; the average tenure for a White House chief of staff is a little more than 18 months. The inaugural chief of staff, John R. Steelman, under Harry S. Truman, was the last to be a president's only chief of staff, not counting Kenneth O'Donnell during John F. Kennedy's 34 months in office.. Steelman holds the record for longest-serving chief of staff.
Most White House chiefs of staff are former politicians, many continue their political careers in other senior roles. Lyndon Johnson's chief of staff W. Marvin Watson became the Postmaster General in LBJ's term. Richard Nixon's Chief of Staff Alexander Haig, a career U. S. Army officer with his capstone military position being CINCUSEUCOM/SACEUR became Secretary of State under Ronald Reagan. Cheney became a Congressman for Wyoming, Secretary of Defense under George H. W. Bush and vice president in the George W. Bush administration. Donald Rumsfeld was another chief of staff for Ford and subsequently served as Secretary of Defense both in the Ford administration and decades also in the George W. Bush administration. Rahm Emanuel left the House of Representatives to become Barack Obama's chief of staff and subsequently became Mayor of Chicago. Jack Lew, President Obama's fourth chief of staff, was appointed Secretary of the Treasury. Chris Whipple, author of The Gatekeepers: How the White House Chiefs of Staff Define Every Presidency, loosely describes the role of a White House chief of staff