Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives
Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives known as floor leaders, are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot. With the Democrats holding a majority of seats and the Republicans holding a minority, the current leaders are: Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, Majority Whip James Clyburn, Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, Minority Whip Steve Scalise. Unlike in Westminster-style legislatures or as with the Senate Majority Leader, the House Majority Leader's duties and prominence vary depending upon the style and power of the Speaker of the House; the Speaker does not participate in debate and votes on the floor. In some cases, Majority Leaders have been more influential than the Speaker. In addition, Speaker Newt Gingrich delegated to Dick Armey an unprecedented level of authority over scheduling legislation on the House floor; the current Minority Leader, Kevin McCarthy, serves as floor leader of the opposition party, is the counterpart to the Majority Leader.
Unlike the Majority Leader, the Minority Leader is on the ballot for Speaker of the House during the convening of the Congress. If the Minority Leader's party takes control of the House, the party officers are all re-elected to their seats, the Minority Leader is the party's top choice for Speaker for the next Congress, while the Minority Whip is in line to become Majority Leader; the Minority Leader meets with the Majority Leader and the Speaker to discuss agreements on controversial issues. The Speaker, Majority Leader, Minority Leader, Majority Whip and Minority Whip all receive special office suites in the United States Capitol; the floor leaders and whips of each party are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot. The Speaker-elect is chosen in a closed-door session although they are formally installed in their position by a public vote when Congress reconvenes. Like the Speaker of the House, the Minority Leaders are experienced lawmakers when they win election to this position.
When Nancy Pelosi, D-CA, became Minority Leader in the 108th Congress, she had served in the House nearly 20 years and had served as minority whip in the 107th Congress. When her predecessor, Richard Gephardt, D-MO, became minority leader in the 104th House, he had been in the House for 20 years, had served as chairman of the Democratic Caucus for four years, had been a 1988 presidential candidate, had been majority leader from June 1989 until Republicans captured control of the House in the November 1994 elections. Gephardt's predecessor in the minority leadership position was Robert Michel, R-IL, who became GOP Leader in 1981 after spending 24 years in the House. Michel's predecessor, Republican John Rhodes of Arizona, was elected Minority Leader in 1973 after 20 years of House service. By contrast, party leaders of the United States Senate have ascended to their position despite few years of experience in that chamber, such as Lyndon B. Johnson, William F. Knowland, Bill Frist. Former House Majority Leader Eric Cantor had a comparatively quick rise to the post and was the youngest House Majority Leader in American history.
The House Majority Leader's duties vary, depending upon the political makeup of the majority caucus. In several recent sessions of Congress, with the notable exception of the Pelosi speakership, the Majority Leader has been responsible for scheduling the House floor's legislative calendar and direct management for all House committees. One statutory duty, per 19 U. S. C. § 2191, stipulates that an implementing bill submitted by the President of the United States for a fast-track negotiating authority trade agreement must be introduced in the House by the Majority Leader of the House. Before 1899, the majority party floor leader had traditionally been the Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, the most powerful committee in the House, as it generates the Bills of Revenue specified in the Constitution as the House's unique power; the office of Majority Leader first occupied by Sereno Payne. Speaker David B. Henderson created the position to establish a party leader on the House floor separate from the Speaker, as the role of Speaker had become more prominent, the size of the House had grown from 105 at the beginning of the century to 356.
Starting with Republican Nicholas Longworth in 1925, continued through the Democrats' control of the House from 1931 to 1995, save for Republican majorities in 1947–49 and 1953–55, all majority leaders have directly ascended to the Speakership brought upon by the retirement of the incumbent. The only exceptions during this period were Charles A. Halleck who became Republican House leader and Minority Leader from 1959 to 1965, Hale Boggs who died in a plane crash, Dick Gephardt who became the Democrats' House leader but as Minority Leader since his party lost control in the 1994 midterm elections. Since 1995, the only Majority Leader to become Speaker is John Boehner, though indirectly as his party lost control in the 2006 midterms elections, he subsequently served as Republican House leader and Minority Leader from 2007 to 2011 and was elected Speaker when the House reconvened in 2011. In 1998, with Speaker Newt Gingrich announcing his resignation, both Majority Leader Dick Armey and Majority Whip Tom DeLay did not contest the Speakership which went to Chief Deputy Whip Dennis Hastert.
Traditionally, the Speaker is reckoned as the leader of the majority party in the House, with the Majority Leader as second-in-command. For instance, when the Republicans gained the majority in the House after the 2010 elections, Eric Canto
Juan Carlos Vargas is a U. S. politician, the U. S. Representative for California's 51st congressional district since 2013; the district includes all of Imperial County as well as the southernmost portions of San Diego County. He is a Democrat. Vargas served in the California State Senate representing the 40th District, the California State Assembly representing the 79th district, the San Diego City Council. Juan Vargas was born on a chicken ranch in National City, where he grew up poor, he is the third of ten children of Tomas and Celina Vargas, who immigrated to the United States from Mexico in the late 1940s as part of the Bracero program. Vargas graduated Magna Cum Laude with a BA from University of San Diego and earned an MA in Humanities from Fordham University in New York City. After college, Vargas joined the Jesuit Novitiate in Santa Barbara. In the Jesuits, Vargas served in an orphanage in the civil-war-torn jungles of El Salvador. After leaving the Jesuits, he decided on law school and graduated in 1991 with a JD from Harvard Law School.
In 1992, he decided to run for the newly created 50th Congressional District, based in San Diego. He lost the Democratic primary. Bob Filner went on to win the election. Vargas served on the San Diego City Council from 1993–2000. While on the Council, he created "Operation Restore" to employ homeless individuals to remove graffiti and to rehabilitate homes. In 1996, Vargas decided to challenge Filner in the Democratic primary. Vargas wouldn't debate Filner, so the incumbent instead sparred with a life-sized Vargas cardboard cutout. Vargas said. Filner defeated him 55%–45%. In 2000, Vargas decided to run for California's 79th State Assembly district, he defeated Republican Jon Parungao 77%–19%. In 2002, he defeated Republican Mark Fast 66%–30%. In 2004, he defeated Libertarian Eli Wallace Conroe 85%–15%. In his first year in the Assembly, he was appointed Assistant Majority Leader, he authored AB 188, legislation that bans smoking in children's playgrounds. He introduced legislation aimed at protecting children from arcade video games.
Vargas authored legislation to mandate life sentences for people who commit violent sex crimes against children, which served as a model for Chelsea's Law. Business and Professions Insurance In 2006 Vargas decided to challenge Filner for a third time, this time in California's 51st congressional district. Vargas accused Filner of being a part of the culture of corruption of Washington, pointing out that Filner had paid his wife more than $500,000 in campaign funds for consulting services performed from their condominium in Washington. Filner in return argued that Vargas had controversial payments to his brother-in-law, a lobbyist for realtors. Filner defeated Vargas 51%–43%, with Danny Ramirez getting 6% of the vote. After leaving the State Assembly in 2006 due to term limits, Vargas took a job with a home and small business insurance company, where he was tasked with creating jobs and outreach in diverse San Diego Communities as part of the company's diversity initiative. Vargas left that job at the end of 2009 to run as a Democratic candidate for the California State Senate.
In 2010 Vargas narrowly won a seat in 40th District. He defeated Assemblywoman Mary Salas by 22 votes, after recounts in San Diego and Riverside counties, he resigned from the Senate effective January 2, 2013 so that he could take his seat as a Congressman. A special election to fill his seat was held in March 2013. Standing CommitteesBanking & Financial Institutions Agriculture Business and Economic Development Education Public Employment and RetirementSubcommitteeEducation: Sustainable School FacilitiesJoint CommitteeRulesSelect CommitteeRecovery, Re-Alignment In 2012 when Filner announced he would retire from Congress to run for Mayor of San Diego, Vargas endorsed him despite their history of bitter rivalry. Vargas ran for Filner's seat in the 51st district. In the open primary, he ranked first with 46% of the vote. Republican Michael Crimmins ranked second with 20%, Democratic State Senator Denise Moreno Ducheny came in third with 15%, four other candidates received single digit percentages.
In November, he defeated Crimmins 71%–29%. He was sworn in on January 3, 2013. Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research and Foreign Agriculture Committee on Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia Subcommittee on Terrorism and Trade Committee on House Administration New Democrat Coalition Congressional Hispanic Caucus Climate Solutions Caucus He and his wife, live in the Golden Hill area of San Diego and have two daughters, Rosa Celina and Helena Jeanne. During the 1999 armed conflict in Kosovo, Vargas welcomed a Kosovar refugee family into his family's home for nearly two years. List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress Congressman Juan Vargas official U. S. House website Juan Vargas for Congress Juan Vargas at Curlie Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
The Federal Reserve System is the central banking system of the United States of America. It was created on December 23, 1913, with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, after a series of financial panics led to the desire for central control of the monetary system in order to alleviate financial crises. Over the years, events such as the Great Depression in the 1930s and the Great Recession during the 2000s have led to the expansion of the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System; the U. S. Congress established three key objectives for monetary policy in the Federal Reserve Act: maximizing employment, stabilizing prices, moderating long-term interest rates; the first two objectives are sometimes referred to as the Federal Reserve's dual mandate. Its duties have expanded over the years, also include supervising and regulating banks, maintaining the stability of the financial system, providing financial services to depository institutions, the U. S. government, foreign official institutions.
The Fed conducts research into the economy and provides numerous publications, such as the Beige Book and the FRED database. The Federal Reserve System is composed of several layers, it is governed by the presidentially appointed board of Federal Reserve Board. Twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks, located in cities throughout the nation and oversee owned commercial banks. Nationally chartered commercial banks are required to hold stock in, can elect some of the board members of, the Federal Reserve Bank of their region; the Federal Open Market Committee sets monetary policy. It consists of all seven members of the board of governors and the twelve regional Federal Reserve Bank presidents, though only five bank presidents vote at a time. There are various advisory councils. Thus, the Federal Reserve System has both private components, it has a structure unique among central banks, is unusual in that the United States Department of the Treasury, an entity outside of the central bank, prints the currency used.
The federal government sets the salaries of the board's seven governors. The federal government receives all the system's annual profits, after a statutory dividend of 6% on member banks' capital investment is paid, an account surplus is maintained. In 2015, the Federal Reserve earned net income of $100.2 billion and transferred $97.7 billion to the U. S. Treasury. Although an instrument of the US Government, the Federal Reserve System considers itself "an independent central bank because its monetary policy decisions do not have to be approved by the President or anyone else in the executive or legislative branches of government, it does not receive funding appropriated by the Congress, the terms of the members of the board of governors span multiple presidential and congressional terms." The primary motivation for creating the Federal Reserve System was to address banking panics. Other purposes are stated in the Federal Reserve Act, such as "to furnish an elastic currency, to afford means of rediscounting commercial paper, to establish a more effective supervision of banking in the United States, for other purposes".
Before the founding of the Federal Reserve System, the United States underwent several financial crises. A severe crisis in 1907 led Congress to enact the Federal Reserve Act in 1913. Today the Federal Reserve System has responsibilities in addition to ensuring the stability of the financial system. Current functions of the Federal Reserve System include: To address the problem of banking panics To serve as the central bank for the United States To strike a balance between private interests of banks and the centralized responsibility of government To supervise and regulate banking institutions To protect the credit rights of consumers To manage the nation's money supply through monetary policy to achieve the sometimes-conflicting goals of maximum employment stable prices, including prevention of either inflation or deflation moderate long-term interest rates To maintain the stability of the financial system and contain systemic risk in financial markets To provide financial services to depository institutions, the U.
S. government, foreign official institutions, including playing a major role in operating the nation's payments system To facilitate the exchange of payments among regions To respond to local liquidity needs To strengthen U. S. standing in the world economy Banking institutions in the United States are required to hold reserves—amounts of currency and deposits in other banks—equal to only a fraction of the amount of the bank's deposit liabilities owed to customers. This practice is called fractional-reserve banking; as a result, banks invest the majority of the funds received from depositors. On rare occasions, too many of the bank's customers will withdraw their savings and the bank will need help from another institution to continue operating. Bank runs can lead to a multitude of economic problems; the Federal Reserve System was designed as an attempt to prevent or minimize the occurrence of bank runs, act as a lender of last resort when a bank run does occur. Many economists, following Nobel laureate Milton Friedman, believe that the Federal Reserve inappropriately refused to lend money to small banks during the bank runs of 1929.
Because some banks refused to clear checks from certain other banks during times of economic uncertainty, a check-clearing system was created in the Federal Reserve System. It is described in
History of the United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives known as the lower chamber of the United States Congress, along with the United States Senate known as the upper chamber, are the two parts of the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States. Like its counterpart, the House was established by the United States Constitution and convened for its first meeting on March 4, 1789 at Federal Hall in New York City; the history of this institution begins several years prior to that date, at the dawn of the American Revolutionary War. The First Continental Congress was a meeting of representatives of twelve of Great Britain's seventeen North American colonies, in the autumn of 1774; the Continental Congress sent a list of grievances to King George III. When the King failed to respond, the American Revolutionary War began in April 1775, the Second Continental Congress was convened—this time with thirteen colonies in attendance. A year on 4 July 1776, the Continental Congress declared the thirteen colonies free and independent states, referring to them as the "united States of America."
This was not a formal name, however, so "united" was not capitalized in the Declaration of Independence, "States" being capitalized only because all nouns were capitalized in English before the Industrial Revolution. The Second Continental Congress continued in office while the War for Independence continued, producing the Articles of Confederation— the country's first constitution— in 1777, ratified by all of the states by 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. States could, did, ignore what did pass; the ineffectiveness of the federal government under the Articles led Congress to summon the Convention of 1787. One of the most divisive issues facing the Convention was the structure of Congress. James Madison's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress; the plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population.
The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states. A compromise, known as the Connecticut Compromise or the Great Compromise was reached; the Constitution was ratified by the end of 1788, its full implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House of Representatives began work on April 1, 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, with 59 members elected from 11 states. In 1790, North Carolina and Rhode Island elected representatives, bringing the total count of representatives to 65. In the 1st United States Congress, Frederick Muhlenberg, a Pennsylvania Lutheran minister and politician, was the first Speaker of the House; the early 19th century was marked by frequent clashes between the House of Representatives and the Senate. For most of the first half of the 19th century, a balance between the free North and the slaveholding South existed in the Senate, as the numbers of free and slave states were equal.
However, since the North was much more populous than the South, it dominated the House of Representatives. In 1825, new Speaker of the House Henry Clay officially announced that he and his followers would separate from Andrew Jackson and form the National Republican Party. Clay moved to the Senate. During the Civil War, the key policy-maker in Congress was Thaddeus Stevens, as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee and as Republican floor leader, he took charge of major legislation that funded the war effort and revolutionized the nation's economic policies regarding tariffs, bonds and excise taxes, national banks, suppression of money issued by state banks, greenback currency, western railroad land grants. Stevens was one of the major policymakers regarding Reconstruction, obtained a House vote of impeachment against President Andrew Johnson. Hans Trefousse, his leading biographer, concludes that Stevens "was one of the most influential representatives to serve in Congress; the House with his wit, knowledge of parliamentary law, sheer willpower though he was unable to prevail."
Historiographical views of Stevens have shifted over the years, from the early 20th-century view of Stevens and the Radical Republicans as tools of big business and motivated by hatred of the white South, to the perspective of the neoabolitionists of the 1950s and afterwards, who applauded their efforts to give equal rights to the freed slaves. The Democrats were a weak minority from 1861 to 1874 made a major comeback in 1874 by winning 93 seats held by the GOP and becoming the majority; the Gilded Age was marked by close balances with the parties alternating control. Between 1860 and 1920 the average tenure of House members doubled from four to eight years; this number reflects the growth of "congressional careerism." The House began to develop a more stable culture, sessions of the House became longer, members of the House began to specialize in specific areas of policy. Power was decentralized from the Speaker of the House, seniority nearly assured advancement within the House; the increasing importance of the federal government, an increasing acceptance of leng
Bill Foster (politician)
George William Foster is an American businessman, U. S. Representative for Illinois's 11th congressional district, winning the seat in 2012, he was the U. S. Representative for Illinois's 14th congressional district from 2008 to 2011, he is a member of the Democratic Party. Foster was born in 1955 in Wisconsin; as a teenager, he attended James Madison Memorial High School He received his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1976 and his Ph. D. in physics from Harvard University in 1983. The title of his doctoral dissertation is "An experimental limit on proton decay: p → p o s i t r o n + π 0 ". At age 19, Foster and his younger brother Fred started a business in their basement with $500 from their parents; the company, Electronic Theatre Controls, now has over 650 employees worldwide and manufactures over half of the theater lighting equipment in the United States. Installations include Broadway shows, Rolling Stones tours, opera houses, Super Bowl halftime shows, at schools and community centers around the world.
After completing his Ph. D. Foster moved to the Fox Valley with his family to pursue a career in high-energy physics at Fermilab, a Department of Energy National Laboratory. During Foster's 22 years at Fermilab he participated in several projects, including the design of equipment and data analysis software for the CDF Detector, which were used in the discovery of the top quark, the management of the design and construction of a 3 km Anti-Proton Recycler Ring for the Main Injector, he has been elected a fellow of the American Physical Society, was on the team receiving the 1989 Bruno Rossi Prize for cosmic ray physics for the discovery of the neutrino burst from the supernova SN 1987A, received the Particle Accelerator Technology Prize from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, was awarded an Energy Conservation award from the United States Department of Energy for his application of permanent magnets for Fermilab's accelerators. 2008 special On November 26, 2007, former House Republican Speaker J. Dennis Hastert resigned as the Representative from Illinois' 14th congressional district.
Foster announced his candidacy to fill the vacancy on May 30, 2007. In the March special election, Foster defeated Republican nominee and Hastert-endorsed candidate Jim Oberweis 53%–47%. 2008 general In November, Oberweis ran against Foster again in a rematch. Foster won re-election to a full term 58%–42%. 2010 Foster was challenged by Republican nominee State Senator Randy Hultgren and Green Party nominee Daniel Kairis. Despite winning the endorsements from the Chicago Tribune, the Chicago Sun-Times and The Daily Herald, Foster lost to Hultgren 51%–45%. 2012 In May 2011, Foster sold his home in Geneva, moved to Naperville and announced plans to run for Congress in the 11th District, which encompasses Aurora, Lisle in addition to Naperville. It includes a quarter of his old district; the district had been the 13th, represented by seven-term Republican Judy Biggert. Although Biggert's home in Hinsdale had been shifted to the Chicago-based 5th District, Biggert opted to seek election in the 11th, which contained half of her old territory.
On November 6, 2012, Foster won the election for the 11th district with 58% of the vote. 2014 Foster ran again and was unopposed in the Democratic primary in March 2014. For the general election, he faced Republican nominee, State Representative Darlene Senger, defeated her with 53.5% of the vote to her 46.5% of the vote. Although it was thought that Foster would not be sworn in until April due to the need to count absentee ballots before the first election would be certified, he took the oath of office on March 11. Foster joined Vern Ehlers and Rush Holt Jr. as the only research physicists to be elected to Congress. On his first day in office, he cast the deciding vote to keep from tabling an ethics bill that would create an independent outside panel to investigate ethics complaints against House members. FundraisingAccording to the Center for Responsive Politics, Bill Foster received $637,050 from labor related political action committees during his runs for Congress. $180,000 of this money came from PACs linked to public sector unions.
$110,000 of these donations came from PACs linked to industrial labor unions. According to the Federal Election Commission, Nancy Pelosi gave $4,000 to Bill Foster’s 2012 campaign committee. PACs under the control of Pelosi have donated $10,000 to his 2012 campaign; the US ConstitutionFoster is on record as saying the Constitution is a document that needs to be re-interpreted "every two years or so", that the 2nd Amendment is subject to "adjustment to the technical changes in firearms as they relate to any right to have firearms of higher technology". TaxesFoster supports allowing. During a debate with his opponent in the 2012 election Foster said, “The tax cuts were promised to generate job growth, but did not. If you follow the money, when you give a dollar to a wealthy person, they won’t put it back into the local economy.” He said the tax benefits spent on luxury purchases. Bill Foster has opposed efforts to repeal the estate tax. On 31 August 2005, U. S. Newswire reported that Foster said, "The proponents of estate tax repeal are fond of calling it the ‘death tax’.
It’s not a death tax, it’s a Rich Kids’ tax." In 2009, just before the estate tax was scheduled for a one-year repeal, Foster voted to permanently ex
Carolyn Bosher Maloney is the U. S. Representative from New York's 12th congressional district and a member of the Democratic Party; the district, numbered as the 14th District from 1993 to 2013 and popularly known as the "silk stocking district", includes most of Manhattan's East Side. Born in Greensboro, North Carolina, the daughter of Christine Elizabeth and Ralph George Bosher, she attended Greensboro College. After graduating, she decided to stay. For several years, she worked as a teacher and an administrator for the New York City Board of Education. In 1977, she obtained a job working for the New York State Legislature and held senior staff positions in both the State Assembly and the State Senate. Maloney was the first woman to represent New York City's 7th Council district. Nicholas Kristof said of her work in the battle against human trafficking: "No one has been a greater champion than Carolyn Maloney" in the fight against human trafficking, her question: "Where are the women?", asked at a hearing by the Government Oversight Committee created a minor controversy in 2012.
Maloney was elected to the New York City Council in 1982, defeating incumbent Robert Rodriguez in a Spanish-speaking district based in East Harlem and parts of the South Bronx. She served as a Councilmember for 10 years. On the council, she served as the first Chair of the Committee on Contracts, investigating contracts issued by New York City in sludge and other areas, she authored legislation creating the City's Vendex program, which established computerized systems tracking information on City contracts and vendors doing business with the City. Maloney introduced the first measure in New York to recognize domestic partnerships, including those of same-sex couples, she was the first person to give birth while serving as a City Councilmember, the first to offer a comprehensive package of legislation to make day care more available and affordable. Committee on Financial Services Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government-Sponsored Enterprises Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on TARP, Financial Services and Bailouts of Public and Private Programs Joint Economic Committee House 9/11 Commission Caucus House Caucus on Women's Issues United States Congressional International Conservation Caucus Congressional Arts Caucus Americans Abroad Caucus - founder and co-chair Congressional Progressive Caucus.
House Baltic Caucus Co-Chair, Congressional Hellenic Caucus Afterschool Caucuses Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus U. S.-Japan Caucus In 2011, a Daily News survey found that Rep. Maloney ranks first among New York's 28 representatives for activity with 36 proposed bills and amendments. In the 2013 legislative session, Govtrack.us scored her 3rd among House Democrats for "Leadership," 3rd among all representatives for "Powerful Co-sponsors," 3rd highest in the New York delegation for "Working with the Senate," and 5th highest among all representatives for "Bills Sponsored."In the midst of the 2014 election cycle, the New York Daily News ran a story that noted "Maloney has proposed more legislation than any other House member, according to records." And calling her "James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act, giving compensation to Ground Zero workers who have fallen ill, as big a bill for the New York area as any in the last decade."For the 2015 legislative session, Govtrack.us scored Maloney 1st for "Leadership" among House Democrats, based on sponsoring the most bills.
They scored her 2nd among all Representatives for having the most co-sponsors, 2nd among all Representatives for "Working with the Senate" and 4th among House Democrats for having Powerful Cosponsors. She was ranked in the highest 10 percent of all Representatives for bills introduced, noting that "Maloney introduced 26 bills and resolutions in 2015."Politically, Maloney is ranked in the National Journal's annual ranking as the 114th most liberal member of Congress, with more liberal scores on foreign policy than on economic and social policy. Her score of 75.5 ranks her as modestly more liberal than the New York Congressional delegation as a whole. As a Congressional Representative, Maloney was a super delegate at Presidential Conventions. In the 2016 election cycle she was an early supporter of former Secretary of State and New York Senator Hillary Clinton. Maloney was a major force behind the passage of an extension of the James B. Zadroga Health and Compensation Act passed by Congress in December 2015.
The bill extends the World Trade Center Health Program to 2090, provides full compensation to survivors and first responders through the September 11 Victim Compensation Fund. The two programs were in the process of shutting down after Congress missed a reauthorization deadline. Maloney had been the lead House sponsor of the original bill and she joined forces with first responders and other members of the New York delegation in a months long battle to extend the program. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Maloney worked to ensure that the Bush administration maintained its commitment to New York's recovery and security efforts, prompting Wayne Barrett of the Village Voice to write that Maloney was "like a tiger in the House on every dollar due New York." After the 9/11 Commission published its fi
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It is located on Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Though no longer at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District's street-numbering system and the District's four quadrants; the original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded with the addition of the massive dome, expanded chambers for the bicameral legislature, the House of Representatives in the south wing and the Senate in the north wing. Like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are formally referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors and dignitaries. Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.
C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, a number of other locations. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781. After adopting the Articles of Confederation in York, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia; as a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783, met in Annapolis and Trenton, New Jersey, before ending up in New York City.
The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital; the decision of where to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years, until the nation's capital in Washington, D. C. would be ready. Pierre Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city. L'Enfant chose Jenkin's Hill as the site for the "Congress House", with a "grand avenue" connecting it with the President's House, a public space containing a broader "grand avenue" stretching westward to the Potomac River.
In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome; the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House; the word "capitol" has since been adopted, following the example of the United States Capitol, in many jurisdictions for other government buildings, for instance the "capitols" in the individual capitals of the states of the United States. This, in turn, has led to frequent misspellings of "capitol" and "capital"; the former refers to a building. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the "President's House", set a four-month deadline; the prize for the competition was a lot in the Federal City.
At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol. The most promising of the submissions was by a trained French architect. However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, were deemed too costly. A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the center portion of the design. Thornton's design was approved in a letter dated April 5, 1793, from Washington, Thornton served as the first Architect of the Capitol. In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes