The United States Mint is a unit of the Department of the Treasury responsible for producing coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; the Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the first authorization for the establishment of a mint in the United States was in a resolution of the Congress of the Confederation of February 21, 1782, the first general-circulation coin of the United States, the Fugio cent, was produced in 1787 based on the Continental dollar. The current United States Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, placed within the Department of State. Per the terms of the Coinage Act, the first Mint building was in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States. Today, the Mint's headquarters are in Washington D.
C.. It operates mint facilities in Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point, New York and a bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Official Mints were once located in Carson City, Nevada. Part of the State Department, the Mint was made an independent agency in 1799, it converted precious metals into standard coin for anyone's account with no seigniorage charge beyond the refining costs. Under the Coinage Act of 1873, the Mint became part of the Department of the Treasury, it was placed under the auspices of the Treasurer of the United States in 1981. Legal tender coins of today are minted for the Treasury's account; the first Director of the United States Mint was renowned scientist David Rittenhouse from 1792 to 1795. The position is filled by David J. Ryder. Henry Voigt was the first Superintendent and Chief Coiner, is credited with some of the first U. S. coin designs. Another important position at the Mint is that of Chief Engraver, held by such men as Frank Gasparro, William Barber, Charles E. Barber, James B.
Longacre, Christian Gobrecht. The Mint has operated several branch facilities throughout the United States since the Philadelphia Mint opened in 1792, in a building known as "Ye Olde Mint". With the opening of branch mints came the need for mint marks, an identifying feature on the coin to show its facility of origin; the first of these branch mints were the Charlotte, North Carolina, Dahlonega and New Orleans, Louisiana branches. Both the Charlotte and Dahlonega Mints were opened to facilitate the conversion of local gold deposits into coinage, minted only gold coins; the Civil War closed both these facilities permanently. The New Orleans Mint closed at the beginning of the Civil War and did not re-open until the end of Reconstruction in 1879. During its two stints as a minting facility, it produced both gold and silver coinage in eleven different denominations, though only ten denominations were minted there at one time. A new branch facility was opened in Carson City, Nevada, in 1870. Like the Charlotte and Dahlonega branches, the Carson City Mint was opened to take advantage of local precious metal deposits, in this case, a large vein of silver.
Though gold coins were produced there, no base metal coins were. In 1911 the Mint had a female acting director, Margaret Kelly, at that point the highest paid woman on the government's payroll, she stated that women were paid within the bureau. A branch of the U. S. mint was established in 1920 in Manila in the Philippines, a U. S. territory. To date, the Manila Mint is the only U. S. mint established outside the continental U. S. and was responsible for producing coins. This branch was in production from 1920 to 1922, again from 1925 through 1941. Coins struck by this mint bear either the M mintmark or none at all, similar to the Philadelphia mint at the time. A branch mint in The Dalles, was commissioned in 1864. Construction was halted in 1870, the facility never produced any coins, although the building still stands. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint's largest facility is the Philadelphia Mint. The current facility, which opened in 1969, is the fourth Philadelphia Mint.
The first was built in 1792, when Philadelphia was still the U. S. capital, began operation in 1793. Until 1980, coins minted at Philadelphia bore no mint mark, with the exceptions of the Susan B. Anthony dollar and the wartime Jefferson nickel. In 1980, the P mint mark was added to all U. S. coinage except the cent. Until 1968, the Philadelphia Mint was responsible for nearly all official proof coinage. Philadelphia is the site of master die production for U. S. coinage, the engraving and design departments of the Mint are located there. The Denver Mint began in 1863 as the local assay office, just five years after gold was discovered in the area. By the turn of the century, the office was bringing in over $5 million in annual gold and silver deposits, in 1906, the Mint opened its new Denver branch. Denv
Hapoel Lod was an Israeli football club based in Lod. The club spent several seasons in the top division in the 1960s and 1980s, won the State Cup in 1984. After several relegations, they folded in 2002; the club was established in 1949. In 1963 they were promoted to Liga Leumit for the first time. However, in their first season in the league, they finished bottom and were relegated back to Liga Alef, they returned to Liga Leumit in 1983, finishing seventh in their first season back in the top division, reaching the State Cup final for the first time. In the final they beat Hapoel Be'er Sheva 3–2 on penalties after a 0–0 draw; the club was relegated back the second tier at the end of the 1984–85 season, in which they finished second from bottom. The following season they made an immediate return to Liga Leumit. In 1986–87 Hapoel finished fourth, their highest league position. However, the following season they were relegated again. In 1989 -- 90 they were relegated to Liga Alef, they returned to Liga Artzit in 1997, but in 1998–99 finished 14th, were due to be relegated to the third tier.
However, after their budget was not approved by Israel Football Association, the club was demoted a further division, to Liga Alef. At the end of the 2001–02 season the club were relegated to Liga Bet, folded. A new club, Hapoel Maxim Lod was established soon afterwards. In 2006 the new club won the South B division of Liga Bet, in 2007 won the South Division of Liga Alef to earn promotion to Liga Artzit. However, the new club folded in the summer of 2007 and Hapoel Kfar Shalem were promoted in their place. 1Achieved by Hapoel Maxim Lod
Miss Van known as Vanessa Alice, is a graffiti and street artist. Miss Van started painting on the street of Toulouse alongside Mademoiselle Kat at the age of 18. Today, she is now internationally known as a fine artist, her work is marked by the use of unique characters, called poupées, or dolls. Miss Van's work has appeared on streets internationally, although she exhibits canvases in galleries across France and the United States. Today, her work is characterized by both street art and fine art, blurring the lines between both worlds. Miss Van resides in Barcelona, Spain. From Barcelona, she has written and published several books with the publishing house Drago and coordinated several art shows across Europe, she remains one of the most famous female street and graffiti artists in the world, recognized as one of the top figures in early 21st-century street art canon. In her artwork, Miss Van depicts sloe-eyed women, covering a varied array of female forms and expressing many different emotions.
Common themes in her work include eroticism, sexuality and innocence which are represented by animal masks, pastel colors, revealing clothing. Miss Van's work illustrates a dream-like world of female sexuality. Over time the stylization of the women has changed, reflecting Miss Van's artistic and personal evolution as she has grown and matured; this change is paralleled in Miss Van's increased preference for the gallery over the street. In the gallery, Miss Van embraces enclosed and intimate gallery space as part of the artistic experience. Between 2008 and 2016, Miss Van exhibited artwork in many private galleries across the globe. In Asia, she has held a show in Shanghai. In Europe, she has exhibited in London, Berlin and Vienna. In North America, she has held shows in Detroit, Santa Monica, Los Angeles, Montreal and New York. Several Notable Shows include, Still a Little Magic at Upper Playground, San Francisco in 2008; the same year, Miss Van showed at the Atmossphere Biennale in Moscow, where she exhibited a woven wool rug based on an original painting.
Thematically, her work has provoked a negative reaction from some feminists due to the portrayal of women in her graffiti. Although she receives this backlash, her reasoning for her painting is more personal. "Painting on walls was a way to show that I was boycotting the conventional art world". Despite negative critique of her work, some critics perceive her portrayal of sexuality and feminity as a powerful rejection of male supremacy and male-dominated art, her work is appreciated for centering women and increasing the representation of women in street art. Furthermore, the depiction of a full-figured female form in Miss Van's work is representative of body positive politics. Miss Van is regarded as one of the most famous female graffiti and street artists in the world, a genre, considered as having few female artists. In 2013, Miss Van painted a street art piece with collaborators depicting what is referred to as "Blackface." She faced a string of criticism on her personal instagram account @vanessa_alice as a white European woman appropriating the culture of Black Americans.
Despite personal pleas of people of color, the artist chose to delete and censor their posts, causing more of a disruption. In 2016, Miss Van held her first institutional art show at Centro de Arte Contemporáneo de Málaga in Spain, titled "For The Wind in My Hair." The show featured 39 original paintings on canvas. Artnet News calls the show as "interesting discourse between the worlds of fine art and street art." Miss Van displays how meaning changes between these two artistic sites, the street and the gallery. Wild at Heart Drago Twinkles Drago Pop Surrealism: What a Wonderfool World Drago Dorothy Circus Gallery Trilogy: Walk on the Wild Side Drago 2014 – Miss Van: Glamorous Darkness, StolenSpace Gallery, London – Solo Show 2014 – Spectrum: Winter Group Show, StolenSpace Gallery, London – Group Show 2014 – Art Truancy: Celebrating 20 Years of Juxtapoz Magazine, Johnathan LeVine Projects – Group Show 2014 – StolenSpace Gallery at SCOPE Miami Beach 2014 – Fair 2015 – The Reasons for the Seasons, StolenSpace Gallery, London – Group Show 2015 – FESTIN DE ARTE at Isabelle Croxatto Galleria, Isabelle Croxatto Galleria, Santiago – Group Show 2015 –'Freedom' a Group Show, StolenSpace Gallery, Berlin – Group Show 2015 – FIFTY24MX at LA Art Show 2015 – Fair 2016 – Ch. ACO'16, Isabel Croxatto Galería, Santiago – Group Show 2016 – Isabel Croxatto Galeria at Contemporary Istanbul 2016, Şişli – Fair 2017 – Flor de Piel, Victor Lope Arte Contemporaneo, Barcelona – Solo Show 2017 – Welcome to New Jersey, Jonathan LeVine Projects, Jersey City – Group Show 2017 – Isabel Croxatto Galeria at Art Central 2017 – Fair Official Miss Van site Miss Van's Blog Galerie Magda Danysz: Miss Van's main gallery Iguapop Gallery Miss Van Gallery Juxtapoz Magazine Interview Lamono Interview Miss Van – Adri's World Miss Van – Instagram