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United States Naval Academy

The United States Naval Academy is a federal service academy adjacent to Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the five U. S. service academies, educates officers for commissioning into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. The 338-acre campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles east of Washington, D. C. and 26 miles southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites and monuments, it replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination from a Member of Congress. Students are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation.

1,200 "plebes" enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer. About 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can be cross-commissioned as officers in other U. S. services, the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary; the academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept; the Navy operates the Naval War College separately. The Naval Academy Preparatory School, in Newport, Rhode Island, is the official prep school for the Naval Academy; the Naval Academy Foundation provides post-graduate high school education for a year of preparatory school before entering the academy for a limited number of applicants.

There are several preparatory schools and junior colleges throughout the United States that host this program. The first nautical school for officers was conceived by Commodore Arthur Sinclair in 1819 while in command of the Norfolk Navy Yard. Due to his zeal and perseverance, the "Nautical School" was opened on board the frigate Guerriere on 3 Dec 1821 with between 40 and 50 midshipmen attached to the ship; the curriculum was diversified with Naval Tactics, Geography, History, English Grammar, International Relations. The school operated until 1828, it was from that small start that the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis grew; the history of the Academy can be divided into four eras: 1) use of original Fort Severn 1845-1861, 2) "Porter's Academy" 1865-1903, 3) "Flagg Academy" 1903-1941, 4) modern era 1941–present. The academy's Latin motto is Ex Scientia Tridens, which means "Through Knowledge, Sea Power." It appears on a design devised by the lawyer, editor and naval academy graduate, Park Benjamin, Jr.

It was adopted by the Navy Department in 1898 due to the efforts of another graduate and collaborator, Jacob W. Miller. Benjamin states: The seal or coat-of-arms of the Naval Academy has for its crest a hand grasping a trident, below, a shield bearing an ancient galley coming into action, bows on, below that an open book, indicative of education, bears the motto,'Ex Scientia Tridens'; the trident, emblem of the Roman god Neptune, represents seapower. The institution was founded as the Naval School on 10 October 1845 by Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft; the campus was established at Annapolis on the grounds of the former U. S. Army post Fort Severn; the school opened with seven professors. The decision to establish an academy on land may have been in part a result of the Somers Affair, an alleged mutiny involving the Secretary of War's son that resulted in his execution at sea. Commodore Matthew Perry had a considerable interest in naval education, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy.

He was a vocal proponent of modernization of the navy. A course of study for five years was prescribed. Only the first and last were spent at the school with the other three being passed at sea; the present name was adopted when the school was reorganized in 1850 and placed under the supervision of the chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. Under the immediate charge of the superintendent, the course of study was extended to seven years with the first two and the last two to be spent at the school and the intervening three years at sea; the four years of study were made consecutive in 1851 and practice cruises were substituted for the three consecutive years at sea. The first class of naval academy students graduated on 10 June 1854, they were considered as passed midshipmen until 1912, when graduates were first sworn in as officers. In 1860, the Tripoli Monument was moved to the academy grounds; that year in August, the model of the USS Somers experiment was resurrected when USS Constitution 60 years old, was recommissioned as a school ship for the fourth-class midshipmen after a conversion and refitting begun in 1857.

She was anchored at the yard, the plebes lived on board the ship

Camberwell Cemeteries

The two Camberwell cemeteries are close to one another in Honor Oak, south London, England. Both have noteworthy burials and architecture, they are an important source of socioeconomic data in recording the historical growth and changing demography in the community for the Southwark area since 1855. 51.4508°N 0.0585°W / 51.4508. It is part of the second wave of mid 19th century cemeteries that were established in London to solve the problem of overcrowding in church yards; the first wave of cemeteries are known as the Magnificent Seven. The site was purchased in 1855 by the Camberwell Cemetery Board from the Trustees of Sir Walter St John's Charity at Battersea for £9,927.00. It was meadow land, designated as a Burial Ground of St Giles, Camberwell; the first interment took place on 3 July 1856. In 1874 the cemetery was expanded by a further seven acres with the inclusion of land bought from the British Land Company for £4,550.00. By 1984, 300,000 interments had been carried out at the cemetery.

The Gothic Revival lodge and two chapels were designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott's architectural firm. When burials were transferred to the New Cemetery the chapel fell into disrepair and both were demolished in the 1960s. A third chapel was demolished in the 1970s; the architectural importance of the lodge was recognised and when it was destroyed by fire in the 1970s it was restored rather than being torn down. The lodge was used in the 1970 film adaptation of Joe Orton's play Entertaining Mr Sloane. There are 288 Commonwealth service war graves from the First World War, 160 of whom are in a war graves plot in cemetery's north-east corner where there are two Screen Wall memorials, one listing those buried in the plot and the other those buried elsewhere in the cemetery whose graves could not be marked by headstones. There is a group of special memorials to 14 casualties buried in the Second World War. There is an unusual First World War memorial dedicated to 21 civilians who were killed in a Zeppelin raid on Camberwell in 1917.

On 1 July and 21 July 1944 V1 flying bombs landed in the cemetery. The blasts caused damage to surrounding no casualties. On 3 November 2011 Azezur Khan, was shot dead following a funeral in the cemetery. Police believe. James John Berkeley, chief engineer of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway Frederick John Horniman, founder of the Horniman Museum, died 1906 Able Seaman Albert Edward McKenzie VC in Zeebrugge Raid, died October 1918 Elizabeth Mary Anne Eagle Skinner, founder of the Mystical Church of the Comforter William Stanlake VC in Battle of Inkerman, died 1904 Charles Waters, founder of the International Bible Reading Association Jack Whicher, noted detective and founder member of the Detective Branch of the Metropolitan Police, died 1881 Liam MacCarthy. Https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liam_MacCarthy_Cup is best known for having the Gaelic Athletic Association Liam MacCarthy Cup named after him. He was elected chairman of a position he held for 10 years. Michael Collins and Sam Maguire were members of the London county board.

Despite his advanced years he joined the London branch of the Irish Volunteers along with his sons. In conjunction with two of his sons, Liam commissioned the manufacture of a trophy based on an ancient Irish drinking cup; this cup was gratefully accepted. It is awarded annually and in perpetuity to the winners of the All-Ireland Senior Hurling final. 51.4542°N 0.0477°W / 51.4542. In the early 20th Century it was recognised that the original cemetery would be at capacity in the near future; the land for the new cemetery was purchased in three lots in 1901: The central portion of 24 acres was bought from Alfred Stevens and landowner of Peckham Rye for £11,305 The western portion, 32 acres, next to One Tree Hill was bought in 1901 from Alfred Stevens for £19,469 A final 12 acres, adjoining the Brockley footpath were bought from the Governors of Christ's Hospital for £6,325Following its acquisition much of the 68 acres of land was rented out for other uses, including a golf club and a fireworks factory run by Joseph Wells.

Although much of the land was used for interments there are large portions that remain unused for burials. Some of this land is now a recreation ground and there now is strong local opposition to this land being used for its original purpose of burials. In 1926 the first part of the land was laid out as a cemetery and was consecrated by the Right Reverend William Woodcock Hough, Bishop of Woolwich; the first interment took place on 23 May 1927. A smaller section was set aside for use of Free Churches; the lodge, waiting mortuary chapels were designed by Sir Aston Webb and his son, Maurice. Maurice Webb was the architect for the crematorium, built in 1939 to meet a growing demand for cremations, it is situated in ten acres of which were landscaped as memorial gardens. The crematorium is a listed building and is notable for its beautiful stained glass window. By 1984 over 91,000 cremations had been conducted. In addition to one grave from the First World War, there are 198 Commonwealth service war graves of the Second, some 80 of the latter in war graves plot in Squa

Jacob Siegel

Jacob Siegel known as Kid Jigger or Jigger, was an American gunman-turned-gambler who operated one of the most successful stuss parlors in Manhattan's East Side during the early 20th century. He was one of the few gamblers not under the control of the many street gangs active in the city due to his reputation, ran his operations free of interference from more powerful underworld figures. In May 1910, he was confronted by Johnny Spanish who attempted to intimidate Siegel into making him a partner; when Siegel refused, Spanish said that he would return the following night to "bump youse off tomorrow night". Indeed the following night Spanish returned with his partner Hyman Benjamin and confronted Siegel as he was leaving his Forsyth Street headquarters, between Hester and Grand Street, called on him to fight. Spanish pulled out his revolver and shot at Siegel, who ran off retreating into his stuss house, which instead hit 8-year-old Rachel Rooten, playing across the street. Siegel served as the principal witness against Johnny Spanish and Hyman Benjamin, although Spanish fled the city.

Siegel appeared as a minor character in the 2003 historical novel And All the Saints by Michael Walsh