Alameda is a city in Alameda County, United States. It is located on Alameda Island and Bay Farm Island, is adjacent to and south of Oakland and east of San Francisco across the San Francisco Bay. Bay Farm Island, a portion of, known as "Harbor Bay Isle", is not an island, is part of the mainland adjacent to the Oakland International Airport; the city's estimated 2017 population was 79,928. Alameda is a charter city, rather than a general law city, allowing the city to provide for any form of government. Alameda became a charter city and adopted a council–manager government in 1916, which it retains to the present; the island Alameda occupies what was a peninsula connected to Oakland. Much of it was low-lying and marshy, but on higher ground than the peninsula and adjacent parts of what is now downtown Oakland were home to one of the largest coastal oak forests in the world; the area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for "forest of evergreen oak". Alameda is Spanish for "grove of poplar trees" or "tree-lined avenue", was chosen in 1853 by popular vote.
The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a local band of the Ohlone tribe. The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted in 1820 to Luis Peralta by the Spanish king who claimed California; the grant was confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain. Over time, the place became known as Encinal de San Antonio; the city was founded on June 6, 1853, the town contained three small settlements. "Alameda" referred to the village at Encinal and High Streets, Hibbardsville was at the North Shore ferry and shipping terminal, Woodstock was on the west near the ferry piers of the South Pacific Coast Railroad and the Central Pacific. The Central Pacific's ferry pier became the Alameda Mole, featuring transit connections between San Francisco ferries, local trollies and Southern Pacific commuter lines; the first post office opened in 1854. The first school, Schermerhorn School, was opened in 1855, Encinal School was opened in 1860.
The San Francisco and Alameda Railroad opened the Encinal station in 1864. The Encinal area was known as Fasskings Station in honor of Frederick Louis Fassking. Encinal's own post office opened in 1876, was renamed West End in 1877, closed in 1891; the West End area was called Bowman's Point in honor of Charles G. Bowman, an early settler; the Alameda Terminal was the site of the arrival of the first train via the First Transcontinental Railroad into the San Francisco Bay Area on September 6, 1869. The transcontinental terminus was switched to the Oakland Mole two months on November 8, 1869; the borders of Alameda were made coextensive with the island in 1872, incorporating Woodstock into Alameda. Mark Twain described Alameda as being "The Garden of California." In 1917, an attraction called. Compared to Coney Island, the park was a major attraction in the 1920s and 1930s; the original owners of the facility, the Strehlow family, partnered with a local confectioner to create tastes unique to Neptune Beach.
Both the American snow cone and the popsicle were first sold at Neptune Beach. The Kewpie doll, hand-painted and dressed in unique hand-sewn dresses, became the original prize for winning games at the beach – another Neptune Beach invention; the Strehlows owned and operated the beach on their own filling in a section of the bay to add an additional Olympic-size swimming pool and an exceptional roller coaster which must have given riders a tremendous view of the bay. The Cottage Baths were available for rent. Neptune Beach's two large outdoor pools hosted swimming races and exhibitions by swimmers such as Olympian Johnny Weissmuller, who starred as the original Tarzan, Jack LaLanne, who started a chain of health clubs; the park closed down in 1939 because of the Great Depression, the completion of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, people circumventing paying the admission price, the rise of car culture. Once the Bay Bridge was complete, the rail lines, which ran right past the entrance to Neptune Beach on the way to the Alameda Mole and the Ferry, lost riders in droves.
People began using their cars to escape the city and the immediate suburbs like Alameda and traveling further afield in California. Alameda lost its resort status as more distant locations became more attractive to cash-rich San Francisco tourists. Youngsters in town became aware of ways to avoid paying the dime for admission to the park. Strong swimmers or waders could sneak in on the bay side just by swimming around the fence; some of the resort homes and buildings from the Neptune beach era still exist in present-day Alameda. The Croll Building, on the corner of Webster Street and Central Avenue, was the site of Croll's Gardens and Hotel, used as training quarters for some of the greatest fighters in boxing history from 1883 to 1914. James J. Corbett, Bob Fitzsimmons, Jim Jefferies, Jack Johnson, several other champions all stayed and trained here. Today this preserved building is home to the 1400 Bar & Grill Restaurant. Neptune Court, a block away on the corner of Central Ave. and McKay Ave. provides another glimpse of what resort life was like in Alameda in the 1920s.
The vast majority of the Neptune Beach structures – the hand-carved carousel from the world-famed Dentzel Company, the Ferris wheel, the roller coaster, other rides – were auctioned off in 1940 for mere pennies on the dollar of their original cost. Today, a consequence of the Neptune Beach closing around 1940 was a tota
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense and fishing. A "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are distinguished from boats, based on size, load capacity, tradition. Ships have been important contributors to human commerce, they have supported the spread of colonization and the slave trade, but have served scientific and humanitarian needs. After the 15th century, new crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers contributed to the world population growth. Ship transport is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce; as of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, totaling 1.8 billion dead weight tons. Of these 28% were oil tankers, 43% were bulk carriers, 13% were container ships. Ships are larger than boats, but there is no universally accepted distinction between the two.
Ships can remain at sea for longer periods of time than boats. A legal definition of ship from Indian case law is a vessel. A common notion is, but not vice versa. A US Navy rule of thumb is that ships heel towards the outside of a sharp turn, whereas boats heel towards the inside because of the relative location of the center of mass versus the center of buoyancy. American and British 19th Century maritime law distinguished "vessels" from other craft. In the Age of Sail, a full-rigged ship was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. A number of large vessels are referred to as boats. Submarines are a prime example. Other types of large vessel which are traditionally called boats are Great Lakes freighters and ferryboats. Though large enough to carry their own boats and heavy cargoes, these vessels are designed for operation on inland or protected coastal waters. In most maritime traditions ships have individual names, modern ships may belong to a ship class named after its first ship.
In the northern parts of Europe and America a ship is traditionally referred to with a female grammatical gender, represented in English with the pronoun "she" if named after a man. This is not universal usage and some English language journalistic style guides advise using "it" as referring to ships with female pronouns can be seen as offensive and outdated. In many documents the ship name is introduced with a ship prefix being an abbreviation of the ship class, for example "MS" or "SV", making it easier to distinguish a ship name from other individual names in a text; the first known vessels could not be described as ships. The first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails. Affixed to the top of a pole set upright in a boat, these sails gave early ships range; this allowed men to explore allowing for the settlement of Oceania for example. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians knew, they used woven straps to lash the planks together, reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams.
The Greek historian and geographer Agatharchides had documented ship-faring among the early Egyptians: "During the prosperous period of the Old Kingdom, between the 30th and 25th centuries BC, the river-routes were kept in order, Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as far as the myrrh-country." Sneferu's ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded to a ship being referred to by name. The ancient Egyptians were at ease building sailboats. A remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills was the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC and found intact in 1954, it is known that ancient Nubia/Axum traded with India, there is evidence that ships from Northeast Africa may have sailed back and forth between India/Sri Lanka and Nubia trading goods and to Persia and Rome. Aksum was known by the Greeks for having seaports for ships from Yemen. Elsewhere in Northeast Africa, the Periplus of the Red Sea reports that Somalis, through their northern ports such as Zeila and Berbera, were trading frankincense and other items with the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula well before the arrival of Islam as well as with Roman-controlled Egypt.
A panel found at Mohenjodaro depicted a sailing craft. Vessels were of many types; this treatise gives a technical exposition on the techniques of shipbuilding. It sets forth minute details about the various types of ships, their sizes, the materials from which they were built; the Yukti Kalpa Taru sums up in a condensed form all the available information. The Yukti Kalpa Taru gives sufficient information and dates to prove that, in ancient times, Indian shipbuilders had a good knowledge of the materials which were used in building ships. In addition to describing the qualities of the different types of wood and their suitability for shipbuilding, the Yukti Kalpa Taru gives an elaborate classification of ships based on their size; the oldest discovered sea faring hulled boat is the Late Bronze Age Uluburun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey, dating back to 1300 BC. The Phoenicians, the first to sail around
Green Cove Springs, Florida
Green Cove Springs is a hydrological spring and a city in Clay County, United States. The population was 5,378 at the 2000 census; as of 2010, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau was 6,908, it is the county seat of Clay County. The city is named after the portion of the St. Johns River upon; the river bends here, the area is sheltered by trees that are perennially green. The area was first inhabited over 7,000 years ago by natives drawn by the warm mineral spring; the spring, locally known as the "Original Fountain of Youth", attracted guests in the 19th century. Today the sulfur-scented spring water feeds an adjacent public swimming pool before flowing the short distance to the St. Johns River; the Green Cove Springs area was first developed by George J. F. Clarke in 1816 when he was provided land, under a Spanish land grant, to build a sawmill. Green Cove Springs was established in 1854 as White Sulfur Springs. Renamed in 1866, it became the Clay County seat in 1871. Agriculture and tourism were two of the primary economic ventures until the end of the 19th century, when Henry Flagler's railroad began taking tourists further south into Florida.
In 1895, the Great Freeze destroyed the area's citrus crops, tourism all but ended. The 1920s saw renewed development, with automobile traffic bringing in tourists again; the Great Depression of the 1930s saw the end of growth again for the city. The first women's club in the state of Florida was established in Green Cove Springs in 1883; the Village Improvement Association led local efforts to beautify the town, established its first public library. The period before and during World War II again brought new growth to Green Cove Springs. On September 11, 1940, the U. S. Navy opened Naval Air Station Lee Field in honor of Ensign Bejamin Lee who had lost his life in a crash at Killinghome, during World War I. In August 1943, the facility was renamed Naval Air Station Green Cove Springs and consisted of four 5,000-foot asphalt runways. One of the Marine Corps aviators training in the F4U Corsair Operational Training Unit at Lee Field in early 1945 was eventual television personality Ed McMahon. After the war, NAS Green Cove Springs was downgraded in status to a Naval Auxiliary Air Station as part of the greater NAS Jacksonville complex.
A total of 13 piers were constructed along the west bank of the St. Johns River adjacent to NAAS Green Cove Springs to house a U. S. Navy "Mothball Fleet" of some 500 vessels destroyers, destroyer escorts and fleet auxiliaries. In 1960, the Navy decommissioned the pier facility; some of the mothballed vessels were transferred to foreign navies, while others were relocated to other Reserve Fleet locations. In 1984, the city annexed the former naval base into the city to utilize it for further growth and development as the Clay County Port and Reynolds Industrial Park; the air station is now a private airfield known as Reynolds Airpark with a single 5,000-foot asphalt runway operational, although in poor condition. Although the original air traffic control tower is still standing, attached to one of the former Navy aircraft hangars, the airfield remains an uncontrolled facility. Green Cove Springs is the birthplace of Charles E. Merrill, one of the founders of Merrill, Lynch & Company; the town's spring is described by his son James Merrill in the poem "Two From Florida", published in The Inner Room.
Green Cove Springs is the birthplace of Augusta Savage. Savage was an African American sculptor associated with the Harlem Renaissance. Locally, the community is known as the home of Gustafson's Farm, a brand name of milk and dairy products sold throughout Florida; the main Gustafson Dairy Farm is located in Green Cove Springs and is one of the largest owned dairy farms in the southeastern United States. Started in 1908, the main farm occupies nearly 10,000 acres adjacent to the city limits. Gustafson's has many bottling plants across the state, stretching from Tallahassee in the west to Tampa and Cocoa in the south. All Gustafson products have the picture of the husband-and-wife founders and Agnes Gustafson, who along with their first cow on their farm are prominently featured on the packaging of the dairy's products. Scenes for the 1971 "B" monster movie Blood Waters of Dr. Z were filmed here; the movie was satirized on the television program Mystery Science Theater 3000. The following sites are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Clay County Courthouse Green Cove Springs Historic District St. Mary's Church The city of Green Cove Springs is structured in a city council/city manager form of government, with the council functioning as the governing body.
The city has had this form of government since the 1980 charter revision. The city council is composed of five members; the five-member council consists of the vice mayor and three council members. The mayor and vice mayor serve in these positions for one year; as the official representative of the city, the mayor is responsible for all intergovernmental relations and for presiding over all meetings of the council. The vice mayor serves as the presiding officer for all council meetings in the mayor's absence; the Green Cove Springs Police Department provides full law enforcement services within the incorporated city limits of Green Cove Springs. The agency is headed by a chief of police with a lieutenant acting as deputy chief; the department current
Portsmouth is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 95,535, it is part of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area. The Norfolk Naval Shipyard called the Norfolk Navy Yard, is a historic and active U. S. Navy facility, located in Portsmouth rather than Norfolk; the shipyard upgrades and repairs ships of the US Navy and is one of the few facilities in the world with the capability to dry dock an aircraft carrier. Directly opposite Norfolk, the city of Portsmouth has miles of waterfront land on the Elizabeth River as part of the harbor of Hampton Roads. There is a ferry boat that takes riders back and forth across the water between downtown Norfolk and the Portsmouth Olde Towne Historic District. Portsmouth is located on the western side of the Elizabeth River directly across from the City of Norfolk. In 1620, the future site of Portsmouth was recognized as suitable shipbuilding location by John Wood, a shipbuilder, who petitioned King James I of England for a land grant.
The surrounding area was soon settled as a plantation community. Portsmouth was founded by a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, it was established as a town in 1752 by an act of the Virginia General Assembly and was named for Portsmouth, England. In 1767, Andrew Sprowle, a shipbuilder, founded the Gosport Shipyard adjacent to Portsmouth; the Gosport Shipyard at Portsmouth was owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia after the American Revolutionary War and was sold to the new United States federal government. In 1855, the Portsmouth and Norfolk area suffered an epidemic of yellow fever which killed 1 of every three citizens, it became an independent city from Norfolk County in 1858. During the American Civil War, in 1861, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America. Fearing that the Confederacy would take control of the shipyard at Portsmouth, the shipyard commander ordered the burning of the shipyard; the Confederate forces did in fact take over the shipyard, did so without armed conflict through an elaborate ruse orchestrated by civilian railroad builder William Mahone.
The Union forces withdrew to Fort Monroe across Hampton Roads, the only land in the area which remained under Union control. In early 1862, the Confederate ironclad warship CSS Virginia was rebuilt using the burned-out hulk of USS Merrimack. Virginia engaged the Union ironclad USS Monitor in the famous Battle of Hampton Roads during the Union blockade of Hampton Roads; the Confederates burned the shipyard again when they left in May 1862. Following the recapture of Norfolk and Portsmouth by the Union forces, the name of the shipyard was changed to Norfolk Naval Shipyard; the name of the shipyard was derived from its location in Norfolk County. The Norfolk Naval Shipyard today is located within the city limits of Portsmouth, Virginia; the Norfolk Naval Shipyard name has been retained to minimize any confusion with the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, which itself is located in Kittery, across the Piscataqua River from Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Portsmouth was the county seat of Norfolk County until 1963 when the new city of Chesapeake was formed in a political consolidation with the city of South Norfolk.
Portsmouth's other county neighbor, the former Nansemond County consolidated with a smaller city, forming the new city of Suffolk in 1974. One of the older cities of Hampton Roads, in the early 21st century, Portsmouth was undergoing moderate urban renewal in the downtown; the APM "MAERSK" marine terminal for container ships opened in 2007 in the West Norfolk section. The Olde Towne Historic District features one of the largest collections of significant homes between Alexandria and Charleston, South Carolina; the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church was built by slaves and free men and is the second-oldest building in Portsmouth and the city's oldest black church. The city contains a number of other historic buildings, as well, including the Pass House, built in 1841 by Judge James Murdaugh and occupied by Union troops from 1862 to 1865. Federal forces required Portsmouth residents to obtain a written pass to travel across the Elizabeth River and beyond; these passes were issued from the English basement and thus.
The Naval Hospital Portsmouth, the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth is a United States Navy medical center adjacent to the Olde Towne Historic District and Park View Historic District. Founded in 1827, it is the oldest continuously running hospital in the Navy medical system with the motto "First and Finest." Located at 1 High Street in the Olde Towne Historic District, the Seaboard Coastline Building is a historic train station and former headquarters of the Seaboard Air Line railroad company. A four-story 1825 English basement home furnished with original family belongings, it is evident from the furnishings that the Hill family were avid collectors and lived graciously over a period of 150 years. The house remains with limited renovation through the years. Established in 1832, Cedar Grove Cemetery is the oldest city-owned cemetery in Portsmouth. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Portsmouth, the cemetery is noted for its funerary art and the civic, maritime and military leaders who are buried there.
Historical markers placed throughout the cemetery allow for self-guided tours. The cemetery is located between Fort Lane in Olde Towne Portsmouth. Entrance is through the south gate to the cemetery, located on London