United States territorial acquisitions
This is a list of United States territorial acquisitions and conquests, beginning with American independence. Note that this list concerns land the United States of America acquired from other nation-states. Early American expansion was tied to a national concept of manifest destiny; the 1783 Treaty of Paris with Great Britain defined the original borders of the United States. It stretched from the Eastern Seaboard to the Mississippi River in the west. There were ambiguities in the treaty regarding the exact border with Canada to the north that led to disputes that were resolved by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty in 1842. Beginning in the late 18th century, the new nation organized areas west of the Original thirteen states into several United States territories, setting a template for future expansion; the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, was negotiated with Napoleon during Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The territory was acquired from France for $15 million. A small portion of this land was ceded to Britain in 1818 in exchange for the Red River Basin.
More of this land was ceded to Spain in 1819 with the Florida Purchase, but was reacquired through the Texas Annexation and Mexican Cession. West Florida was declared to be a U. S. possession in 1810 by President James Madison after the territory had declared its independence from Spain. Madison ordered the U. S. Army to take control. Six weeks the army entered and occupied the capital, St. Francisville, putting an end to the republic after 74 days of independence. Spain did not relinquish its claim to sovereignty until ratification of the Adams–Onís Treaty. General Andrew Jackson accepted the delivery of West Florida from its Spanish governor on July 17, 1821; the parts of Rupert's Land and the Red River Colony south of the 49th parallel in the basin of the Red River of the North were acquired in 1818 from Britain under the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 with Spain resulted in Spain's cession of East Florida and the Sabine Free State and Spain's surrender of any claims to the Oregon Country.
Article III of the treaty, when properly surveyed, resulted in the acquisition of a small part of central Colorado. Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 with Britain split the disputed territory in Maine and New Brunswick and finalized the border with Canada, including the disputed Indian Stream territory. In 1850 Britain ceded to the U. S. less than one acre of underwater rock in Lake Erie near Buffalo for a lighthouse. Texas Annexation of 1845: The independent Republic of Texas long sought to join the U. S. despite Mexican claims and the warning by Mexican leader Antonio López de Santa Anna that this would be "equivalent to a declaration of war against the Mexican Republic." Congress approved the annexation of Texas on February 28, 1845. On December 29, 1845, Texas became the 28th state. Texas had claimed New Mexico east of the Rio Grande but had only made one unsuccessful attempt to occupy it. S. Army in August 1846 and administered separately from Texas. Mexico acknowledged the loss of territory in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848.
Oregon Country, the territory of North America west of the Rockies to the Pacific, was jointly controlled by the U. S. and Britain following the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 until June 15, 1846 when the Oregon Treaty divided the territory at the 49th parallel. The San Juan Islands were claimed and jointly occupied by the U. S. and the U. K. from 1846–72 due to ambiguities in the treaty. Arbitration led to the sole U. S. possession of the San Juan Islands since 1872. Mexican Cession lands were captured in the Mexican–American War in 1846–48, ceded by Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, where Mexico agreed to the present Mexico–United States border except for the Gadsden Purchase; the United States paid $15 million and agreed to pay claims made by American citizens against Mexico which amounted to more than $3 million. In the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, the United States purchased a strip of land along the Mexico–United States border for $10 million, now in New Mexico and Arizona; the territory was bought as Americans were passing through the land west to California.
After the American Mexican War, over the dispute of border claims, American bought the land to prevent future conflict. Few historians would argue. Alaska Purchase from the Russian Empire for $7.2 million on March 30, 1867, as a vital refueling station for ships trading with Asia. The land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized territory on May 11, 1912, the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The Kingdom of Hawaii was linked by missionary work and trade to the U. S. by the 1880s. In 1893 business leaders sought annexation. President Grover Cleveland disapproved, so Hawaii set up an independent republic, the Republic of Hawaii. Southern Democrats in Congress opposed a non-white addition. President William McKinley, a Republican, secured a Congressional resolution in 1898, the small republic joined the U. S. All its citizens became full U. S. citizens. One factor was the need for advanced naval bases to fend off Japanese ambitions; the Hawaiian Islands became an incorporated territory of the U.
S. in 1900. Following 94% voter approval of the Admission of Hawaii Act, on August 21, 1959 t
NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps, known informally as the NOAA Corps, is one of seven federal uniformed services of the United States, operates under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, a scientific agency overseen by the Department of Commerce. The NOAA Corps is made up of scientifically and technically trained officers and is the smallest of the U. S. uniformed services. It is one of only two––the other being the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps––that consists only of commissioned officers, with no enlisted or warrant officer ranks; the NOAA Corps was established in 1970, though its origins in its predecessor organizations date back to 22 May 1917. It is the successor to the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps and the United States Environmental Science Services Administration Commissioned Officer Corps; the NOAA Corps is the smallest of the seven uniformed services of the United States Government.
It has over 300 commissioned officers. The NOAA Corps today provides a cadre of professionals trained in engineering, earth sciences, meteorology, fisheries science, other related disciplines. NOAA Corps officers operate NOAA ships, fly NOAA aircraft, manage research projects, conduct diving operations, serve in staff positions throughout NOAA, as well as in positions in the United States Merchant Marine, United States Department of Defense, the United States Coast Guard, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the United States Department of State. Like its predecessors, the Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps and the ESSA Corps, the NOAA Corps provides a ready source of technically skilled officers which can be incorporated into the U. S. Armed Forces in time of war, in peacetime supports defense requirements in addition to its purely non-military scientific projects. While civilian personnel could perform many of its functions, the advantage of the NOAA Corps as a commissioned service is the quick response time of its personnel, which NOAA can shift among projects and to various places around the world as the need arises more and more than it could by reassigning or hiring civilian personnel to meet new or changing requirements.
The NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps traces its roots to the United States Geodetic Survey. The Coast and Geodetic Survey's predecessor, the United States Survey of the Coast – renamed the United States Coast Survey in 1836 – was founded in 1807 under President Thomas Jefferson; until the American Civil War, the Coast Survey was manned by civilian personnel working with United States Army and United States Navy officers. During the Civil War, Army officers were withdrawn from Coast Survey duty, never to return, while all but two Navy officers were withdrawn from Coast Survey service for the duration of the war. Since most men of the Survey had Union sympathies, most stayed on with the Survey rather than resigning to serve the Confederate States of America. S. Navy and Union Army, these Coast Surveyors are the professional ancestors of today's NOAA Corps; those Coast Surveyors supporting the Union Army were given assimilated military rank while attached to a specific command, but those supporting the U.
S. Navy operated as civilians and ran the risk of being executed as spies if captured by the Confederates while working in support of Union forces. After the war, U. S. Navy officers returned to duty with the Coast Survey, given authority over geodetic activities in the interior of the United States in 1871, was subsequently renamed the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1878. With the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in April 1898, the Navy again withdrew all of its officers from Coast and Geodetic Survey assignments, they returned after the war ended in August 1898, but the system of U. S. Navy officers and men crewing the Survey's ships that had prevailed for most of the 19th century came to an end when the appropriation law––approved on June 6, 1900––provided for "all necessary employees to man and equip the vessels," instead of Navy personnel; the law took effect on July 1, 1900. From July 1900, the Coast and Geodetic Survey continued as an civilian-manned organization until after the United States entered World War I in April 1917.
To avoid the dangers that Coast Survey personnel had faced during the Civil War of being executed as spies if captured by the enemy, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps was established on 22 May 1917, giving Coast and Geodetic Survey officers a commissioned status so that under the laws of war, they could not be executed as spies if they were captured while serving as surveyors on a battlefield during World War I. The creation of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps ensured that in wartime a set of officers with technical skills in surveying could be assimilated into the United States armed forces so that their skills could be employed in military and naval work essential to the war effort. Before World War I ended in November 1918, over half of all Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps officers had served in the U. S. Army, U. S. Navy, or United States Marine Corps, performing duty as artillery orienteering officers, as minelaying officers in the North Sea, as navigators aboard troop transports, as intelligence officers, as officers on the staff of American Expedit
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th
United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps referred to as the Commissioned Corps of the United States Public Health Service, is the federal uniformed service of the U. S. Public Health Service, is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. Along with the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps, the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps is one of two uniformed services that consist only of commissioned officers and has no enlisted or warrant officer ranks, although warrant officers have been authorized for use within the service. Officers of the PHS are classified as noncombatants, unless directed to serve as and part of the armed forces by the President or detailed to a service branch of the armed forces. Members of the commissioned corps wear the same uniforms as the United States Navy, or the United States Coast Guard, with special PHS Commissioned Corps insignia, hold ranks equivalent to officers of the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard. Officers of the commissioned corps receive their commissions through the PHS Commissioned Corps's direct commissioning program.
As with its parent division, the Public Health Service, the commissioned corps is under the direction of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The commissioned corps is led by the Surgeon General; the Surgeon General reports directly to the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Health. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps had its beginnings with the creation of the Marine Hospital Fund in 1798, reorganized in 1871 as the Marine Hospital Service; the Marine Hospital Service was charged with the care and maintenance of merchant sailors, but as the country grew, so did the ever-expanding mission of the service. The Marine Hospital Service soon began taking on new expanding health roles that included such health initiatives that protected the commerce and health of America. One such role was quarantine. John Maynard Woodworth, a famous surgeon of the Union Army who served under General William Tecumseh Sherman, was appointed in 1871 as the Supervising Surgeon.
Woodworth's title was changed to "Supervising Surgeon General," which became the Surgeon General of the United States. Woodworth is credited with the formal creation of the Commissioned Corps. Woodworth organized the Marine Hospital Service medical personnel along Army military structure in 1889 to facilitate a mobile force of health professionals that could be moved for the needs of the service and country, he established appointment standards and designed the Marine Hospital Service herald of a fouled anchor and caduceus. That year of 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed an Act into law that formally established the modern Public Health Service Commissioned Corps. At first open only to physicians, over the course of the twentieth century, the Corps expanded to 11 careers in a wide range of specialties to include veterinarians, engineers, nurses, environmental health specialists, scientists and other allied health professionals. Today, the commissioned corps is under the United States Public Health Service, a major agency now of the U.
S. Department of Health and Human Services, established by Congress in 1979-1980, it was established in 1953 as the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare, is still led by the Surgeon General; the commissioned corps allocates officers to all seven uniformed services depending on the health or medical needs of the other uniformed services. The commissioned corps was featured in the 1950 motion picture Panic in the Streets, in which Richard Widmark portrayed a Public Health Service physician tracking down a bubonic plague victim; the stated mission of the Commissioned Corps of the U. S. Public Health Service is "Protecting and advancing the health and safety of the Nation" in accordance with the commissioned corps's four Core Values: Leadership, Excellence and Service. Officers execute the mission of the commissioned corps in the following ways: Help provide healthcare and related services to medically underserved populations: to American Indians, Alaska Natives, to other population groups with special needs.
Plus, the commissioned corps provides officers to other uniformed services the United States Coast Guard and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps. Commissioned corps officers may be detailed to other federal agencies including the Department of Defense, TRICARE, Department of Justice, State Department, Department of Homeland Security, the Department of the Interior. Commissioned corps officers may develop individual memoranda of understanding with other o
Assistant Secretary for Health
The Assistant Secretary for Health serves as the U. S. Secretary of Health and Human Services's primary advisor on matters involving the nation's public health and, if serving as an active member in the regular corps, is the highest ranking uniformed officer in the U. S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps; the ASH oversees all matters pertaining to the U. S. Public Health Service, the main division of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, for the Secretary as well as provide strategic and policy direction for the PHSCC; the PHS comprises all the agency divisions of the HHS as well as the PHSCC, a uniformed service of more than 6,700 health professionals who serve at the HHS, other federal agencies, and/or are assigned details to the armed forces. The ASH is a civilian or a uniformed member of the regular corps and is nominated for appointment by the President; the nominee must be confirmed by the Senate. The ASH serves a four-year term of office at the pleasure of the President.
If the appointee is a serving member of the regular corps, he or she is appointed as a four-star admiral in the regular corps. The President may nominate a civilian appointee to be appointed a direct commission into the regular corps if the nominee so chooses; as such the position of ASH is the only office in the PHS that merits a four-star grade in the regular corps. The Assistant Secretary's office and staff are known as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health; the current Assistant Secretary for Health is Admiral Brett Giroir. The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs was established on January 1, 1967 following the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1966. The plan allowed the Secretary of Health and Welfare to restructure the Public Health Service to better serve public health; the office was renamed to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health following the Department of Education Organization Act in 1972. As of 2018, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health oversees 12 core public health offices, 10 regional health offices, 10 presidential and secretarial advisory committees.
Prior to 2010, the Office was known as the Office of Public Science. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health
Hubert H. Humphrey Building
The Hubert H. Humphrey Building is a low-rise Brutalist office building located in Washington, D. C. in the United States. Known as the South Portal Building, the Hubert H. Humphrey Building was dedicated on November 1, 1977, it became the headquarters of the United States Department of Health and Welfare. After the department's education component was given to the newly created United States Department of Education in 1979, the newly named United States Department of Health and Human Services continued to occupy the structure; the Hubert H. Humphrey Building is located at 200 Independence Avenue SW in Washington, D. C, it is named for Hubert H. Humphrey serving as U. S. Senator from Minnesota, Vice President of the United States. Planning for the structure began about 1965; the building was designed by architect Marcel Breuer, in association with his design partner Herbert Beckhard and the architectural firm of Nolen-Swinburne and Associates. In the Brutalist style, it was one of the last buildings Breuer designed before his retirement.
The Interstate-395 tunnel and a major sewer line are situated beneath the structure. The building is designed to act like a bridge over the sewer and tunnel, balancing on a few strategically placed columns. A grid of steel trusses extend outward from these columns, which are clustered toward the interior of the building; the exterior and interior walls and the floors hang from these trusses. The second through sixth floors of the building are clad in precast concrete panels finished with a thin granite veneer, each of which contains two large windows; the ground floor is contained by a glass curtain wall, contains a lobby, exhibition space, an auditorium. The first floor is open space, broken up by the main support columns and three building "cores" which contain elevators and other essential infrastructure; the interior walls were prefabricated to contain electrical wiring, HVAC, plumbing, other essential infrastructure. Due to the prefabricated nature of the interior, the cost of the building was reduced from $40 million to just $30 million.
Dining facilities occupy the penthouse level of the building. There is a balcony around the penthouse, but it is unused; the lobby is paved with travertine, held two tapestries designed by Breuer. Due to objections from the Architect of the Capitol, the Hubert H. Humphrey Building is set back about 135 feet from Independence Avenue SW so that it will not hide or compete with the view of the Rayburn House Office Building up the hill to the east; this creates a large plaza in front of the building. Because plants and trees could not be grown on the plaza due to the deleterious effects their roots would have on the tunnel below, Breuer paved the plaza with concrete and included granite-lined depressions and small granite pyramids as decorative effects. In 1974, Congress passed legislation authorizing a major piece of public art to be placed at the south entrance to the Humphrey Building. In 1977, James Rosati's Heroic Shore Points I, a cubic aluminum piece painted bright red, was dedicated and emplaced.
Construction on the building began in early May 1972. Congress threatened to take over the building and use it for office space for the United States House of Representatives, but instead opted to raze a block of restored 19th century homes on New Jersey Avenue SW. In April 1977, as the Humphrey Building neared completion, one of the welds connecting the hanging interior walls to the roof truss cracked; the roof sagged 19 inches, 200 workers were evacuated from the fifth and seventh floors. The beam was rewelded into place, it was dedicated on November 1, 1977. The concrete work on the structure was poor in some places, with poor joints. Softball-sized chunks came loose from the concrete work; the building was called the South Portal Building, as it served as a sort of gate or portal to the United States Capitol complex. But this was changed, it was named for Hubert H. Humphrey serving as U. S. Senator from Minnesota, Vice President of the United States, it was the first time a federal building had been named for a living person, although at that time it was publicly known that Humphrey was terminally ill with cancer, Humphrey died on January 13, 1978, just seventy-five days after the building was dedicated on November 1, 1977.
As of 2012, all of HHS's managerial and supervisory offices are contained in the building, but none of its operating divisions. In April 2014, the General Services Administration said it would spend $6.74 million to renovate the Humphrey Building into open workspace. This would allow the Office of the Chief Information Officer to move into the structure. Hill and Hill, Gerald N. Encyclopedia of Federal Agencies and Commissions. New York: Facts on File, 2004. Miller, Jonathan. Compassionate Community: Ten Values to Unite America. New York: St Martin's Press, 2007. Moore, Arthur Cotton; the Powers of Preservation: New Life for Urban Historic Places. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. Thalacker, Donald W; the Place of Art in the World of Architecture. New York: Chelsea House, 1980
Surgeon General of the United States
The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U. S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States; the Surgeon General's office and staff are known as the Office of the Surgeon General, housed within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health. The U. S. Surgeon General is confirmed by the Senate; the Surgeon General must be appointed from individuals who are members of the Regular Corps of the U. S. Public Health Service, have specialized training or significant experience in public health programs; the Surgeon General serves a four-year term of office and, depending on whether the current Assistant Secretary for Health is a Public Health Service commissioned officer, is either the senior or next most senior uniformed officer of the commissioned corps, holding the rank of a vice admiral. The current Surgeon General is Jerome Adams, having taken office on September 5, 2017.
The Surgeon General reports to the Assistant Secretary for Health, who may be a four-star admiral in the commissioned corps, who serves as the principal adviser to the Secretary of Health and Human Services on public health and scientific issues. The Surgeon General is the overall head of the Commissioned Corps, a 6,500-member cadre of uniformed health professionals who are on call 24 hours a day, can be dispatched by the Secretary of HHS or the Assistant Secretary for Health in the event of a public health emergency; the Surgeon General is the ultimate award authority for several public health awards and decorations, the highest of which that can be directly awarded is the Surgeon General's Medallion. The Surgeon General has many informal duties, such as educating the American public about health issues and advocating healthy lifestyle choices; the office periodically issues health warnings. The best known example of this is the Surgeon General's warning label, present on all packages of American tobacco cigarettes since 1966.
A similar health warning has appeared on alcoholic beverages labels since 1988. In 1798, Congress established the Marine Hospital Fund, a network of hospitals that cared for sick and disabled seamen; the Marine Hospital Fund was reorganized along military lines in 1870 and became the Marine Hospital Service—predecessor to today’s United States Public Health Service. The service became a separate bureau of the Treasury Department with its own staff, headquarters in Washington, D. C, the position of Supervising Surgeon. After 141 years under the Treasury Department, the Service came under the Federal Security Agency in 1939 the Department of Health and Welfare in 1953, the United States Department of Health and Human Services; some Surgeons General are notable for being outspoken and/or advocating controversial proposals on how to reform the U. S. health system. The office is not a powerful one, has little direct statutory impact on policy-making, but Surgeons General are vocal advocates of precedent-setting, far-sighted, unconventional, or unpopular health policies.
On January 11, 1964, Rear Admiral Luther Terry, M. D. published a landmark report saying that smoking may be hazardous to health, sparking nationwide anti-smoking efforts. Terry and his committee defined cigarette smoking of nicotine as not an addiction; the committee itself consisted of physicians who themselves smoked. This report went uncorrected for 24 years. In 1986, Vice Admiral Dr. C. Everett Koop's report on AIDS called for some form of AIDS education in the early grades of elementary school, gave full support for using condoms for disease prevention, he resisted pressure from the Reagan administration to report that abortion was psychologically harmful to women, stating he believed it was a moral issue rather than one concerning the public health. In 1994, Vice Admiral Dr. Joycelyn Elders spoke at a United Nations conference on AIDS, she was asked whether it would be appropriate to promote masturbation as a means of preventing young people from engaging in riskier forms of sexual activity.
She replied, "I think that it is part of human sexuality, it should be taught." Elders spoke in favor of studying drug legalization. In a reference to the national abortion issue, she said, "We need to get over this love affair with the fetus and start worrying about children." She was fired by President Bill Clinton in December 1994. The U. S. Army and Air Force have officers overseeing medical matters in their respective services who hold the title Surgeon General; the insignia of the Surgeon General, the USPHS, use the caduceus as opposed to the Rod of Asclepius. The Surgeon General is a commissioned officer in the U. S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, by law holds the rank of vice admiral. Officers of the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps are classified as non-combatants, but can be subjected to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and the Geneva Conventions when designated by the Commander-in-Chief as a military force or if they are detailed or assigned to work with the armed forces.
Officer members of these services wear uniforms that are similar to those worn by the United States Navy, except that the commissioning devices and insignia are unique. Officers in the U. S. Public Health Service wear unique devices that are similar to U. S. Navy, Staff Corps Officers