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United States Reports

The United States Reports are the official record of the Supreme Court of the United States. They include rulings, case tables, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner and by the name of the respondent, other proceedings. United States Reports, once printed and bound, are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case are prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially; the Court's Publication Office oversees the binding and publication of the volumes of United States Reports, although the actual printing and publication are performed by private firms under contract with the United States Government Publishing Office. For lawyers, citations to United States Reports are the standard reference for Supreme Court decisions. Following The Bluebook, a accepted citation protocol, the case Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, for example, would be cited as: Brown v. Bd. of Educ.

347 U. S. 483. This citation indicates that the decision of the Court in the case entitled Brown v. Board of Education, as abbreviated in Bluebook style, was decided in 1954 and can be found in volume 347 of the United States Reports starting on page 483; the early volumes of the United States Reports were published by the individual Supreme Court Reporters. As was the practice in England, the reports were designated by the names of the reporters who compiled them: Dallas's Reports, Cranch's Reports, etc; the decisions appearing in the entire first volume and most of the second volume of United States Reports are not decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period and the first decade after Independence. Alexander Dallas, a lawyer and journalist, of Philadelphia, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals, he subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume, which he called Reports of cases ruled and adjudged in the courts of Pennsylvania and since the Revolution.

This would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports. When the United States Supreme Court, along with the rest of the new Federal Government moved, in 1791, from New York City to the nation's temporary capital in Philadelphia, Dallas was appointed the Supreme Court's first unofficial, unpaid, Supreme Court Reporter. Dallas continued to publish Pennsylvania decisions in a second volume of his Reports; when the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the second volume, 2 Dallas Reports, with West v. Barnes. Dallas went on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter; when the Supreme Court moved to Washington, D. C. in 1800, Dallas remained in Philadelphia, William Cranch took over as unofficial reporter of decisions. In 1817, Congress made the Reporter of Decisions an official, salaried position, although the publication of the Reports remained a private enterprise for the reporter's personal gain.

The reports themselves were the subject of an early copyright case, Wheaton v. Peters, in which former reporter Henry Wheaton sued current reporter Richard Peters for reprinting cases from Wheaton's Reports in abridged form. In 1874, the U. S. government began creating the United States Reports. The earlier, private reports were retroactively numbered volumes 1–90 of the United States Reports, starting from the first volume of Dallas Reports. Therefore, decisions appearing in these early reports have dual citation forms: one for the volume number of the United States Reports. For example, the complete citation to McCulloch v. Maryland is 17 U. S. 316. Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume National Reporter System United States Supreme Court: Information About Opinions United States Supreme Court: Bound Volumes – Lists of PDFs Torrents of United States Reports 502–550

Stephen Mitchell (judge)

Sir Stephen George Mitchell QC, styled The Hon. Mr Justice Mitchell, is a former judge of the High Court of England and Wales assigned to the Queen's Bench Division. Mitchell was born in Nottingham, the son of Sydney Mitchell and Joan Dick, he was educated at Hertford College, Oxford. He became a member of the Middle Temple, he was appointed as Second Prosecuting Counsel to the Crown at the Inner London Crown Court in 1975, a Junior Prosecuting Counsel to the Crown at the Central Criminal Court in 1977. He was a Senior Prosecuting Counsel to the Crown between 1981 and 1986, a Recorder between 1985 and 1989, a Circuit Judge between 1989 and 1993, he was appointed as Queen's Counsel in 1986 and as a Bencher of the Middle Temple in 1993. He was a Judge of the High Court of Justice, Queen's Bench Division between 1993 and 2003, President of the National Security Appeals Panel, Information Tribunal between 2004 and 2007. Editor of Phipson on Evidence, 11th edition, 1970, editor of Archbold’s Criminal Pleading Evidence and Practice, 1971–1988, author of The Marks on Chelsea-Derby and Early Crossed-Batons Useful Wares, 1770–c1790, 2007

Cythara (gastropod)

Cythara is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Mangeliidae. This name is considered a nomen dubium. Hedley and Powell summarized the arguments against using the earlier name Cythara Schumacher, 1817, with much uncertainty regarding the identity of its type species, against Eucythara Fischer, 1883; the name has been used by European authors for species classified now in Mangelia Risso, 1826. The tropical shell is large, it is columbelliform and longitudinally costellated. The spire is short; the aperture is elongated. The outer lip is denticulated within; the columellar lip is striated. Species within the genus Cythara include: Cythara strigata Pease, 1863: a synonym of Cythara paucicostata Pease, 1867 † Cythara anthera J. Gardner, 1937 † Cythara caimitica Maury 1917 Cythara citharoedus Cythara coniformis Cythara diconus O. Böttger, 1895 Cythara glareosa Gould, A. A. 1860 Cythara hanleyi Cythara milia Cythara oriza Cythara paucicostata † Cythara polygona Gabb 1873 Cythara striata Schumacher, 1817 Cythara thapsiae Oberling, 1970 Cythara thetis Turton, W.

H. 1932 Cythara triticea Kiener, L. C. 1840 Cythara abyssicola: synonym of Eucithara vittata Cythara adansoni Knudsen, 1952: synonym of Mangelia adansoni Cythara africana: synonym of Citharomangelia africana Cythara alfredi: synonym of Pseudorhaphitoma alfredi Cythara altenai Brackman, 1938: synonym of Mangelia costulata Risso, 1826 Cythara amplexa: synonym of Guraleus amplexus Cythara angiostoma Pease, 1868: synonym of Eucithara angiostoma Cythara angulata: synonym of Leiocithara angulata Cythara angulosa E. A. Smith, 1871: synonym of Anacithara angulosa Cythara articulata G. B. Sowerby III, 1894: synonym of Eucithara articulata Cythara atlantidea Knudsen, 1952: synonym of Bela atlantidea Cythara attenuata: synonym of Mangelia attenuata † Cythara barbadoides Gardner, 1938: synonym of † Mangelia barbadoides J. Gardner, 1938 Cythara bartlettii: synonym of Tenaturris bartlettii Cythara bicolor: synonym of Eucithara bicolor Cythara callosa Nordsieck, 1977: synonym of Mangelia callosa Cythara capillacea: synonym of Eucithara capillacea Cythara chionea Melvill, J.

C. & R. Standen, 1899: synonym of Eucithara coronata Cythara citharella: synonym of Cythara striata Schumacher, 1817 Cythara citharella Smith, 1876: synonym of Eucithara lyra Cythara compacta Nordsieck, 1977: synonym of Rissomangelia compacta Cythara congoensis Thiele, J. 1925: synonym of Mangelia congoensis Thiele, 1925 Cythara cylindrica: synonym of Gingicithara cylindrica Cythara cylindrica E. A. Smith, 1884: synonym of Gingicithara lyrica Cythara dagama Barnard, 1963: synonym of Gymnobela dagama Cythara dautzenbergi Knudsen, 1952: synonym of Gymnobela dautzenbergi Cythara debilis Pease, 1868: synonym of Eucithara debilis Cythara decussata Pease, 1868: synonym of Eucithara decussata Cythara derelicta: synonym of Mangelia unifasciata Cythara dubiosa Nevill & Nevill, 1875: synonym of Eucithara dubiosa Cythara duplaris Melvill, 1923: synonym of Eucithara duplaris Cythara edithae Melvill & Standen, 1901: synonym of Eucithara edithae Cythara elegantissima Melvill & Standen, 1903: synonym of Paraclathurella gracilenta Cythara farina Nordsieck, 1977: synonym of Mangelia farina Cythara fasciata Reeve, L.

A. 1846: synonym of Eucithara fasciata Cythara glaucocreas Barnard, 1963: synonym of Gymnobela glaucocreas Cythara gradata Nevill & Nevill, 1875: synonym of Eucithara gradata Cythara grisea Nordsieck, 1977: synonym of Mangelia grisea Cythara guentheri G. B. Sowerby III, 1893: synonym of Eucithara guentheri Cythara guestieri S. M. Souverbie in S. M. Souverbie & R. P. Montrouzier, 1872: synonym of Eucithara novaehollandiae Cythara ima Bartsch, 1915: synonym of Haedropleura ima Cythara interstriata Smith E. A. 1876: synonym of Eucithara interstriata Cythara isseli Nevill & Nevill, 1875: synonym of Eucithara isseli Cythara kingensis: synonym of Antiguraleus kingensis Cythara lota Gould, 1860: synonym of Eucithara lota Cythara lyrica: synonym of Gingicithara lyrica Cythara maccoyi Petterd, 1879: synonym of Guraleus tasmanicus Cythara metadata Brazier, 1876: synonym of Eucithara alacris Hedley, 1922 Cythara merlini: synonym of Agathotoma merlini Cythara metria Dall, 1903: synonym of Vitricythara metria Cythara nevilliana Preston, 1904: synonym of Eucithara nevilliana Cythara optabilis G. B.

Sowerby III, 1907: synonym of Eucithara coronata Cythara ossea Nordsieck, 1968: synonym of Mangelia ossea Cythara paciniana: synonym of Mangelia paciniana Cythara pallaryi Nordsieck, 1977: syno