SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

United States Seated Liberty coinage

The Seated Liberty portrait designs appeared on most regular-issue silver United States coinage during the mid- and late nineteenth century, from 1836 through 1891. The denominations which featured the Goddess of Liberty in a Seated Liberty design included the half dime, the dime, the quarter, the half dollar, until 1873 the silver dollar. Another coin that appeared in the Seated Liberty design was the twenty cent piece; this coin was produced from 1875 to 1878, was discontinued because it looked similar to the quarter. Seated Liberty coinage was minted at the main United States Mint in Philadelphia, as well as the branch mints in New Orleans, San Francisco, Carson City; the basic obverse design of the Seated Liberty coinage, designed by Mint engraver Christian Gobrecht and drawn by Thomas Sully, consisted of the figure of Liberty clad in a flowing dress and seated upon a rock. In her left hand, she holds a Liberty pole surmounted by a Phrygian cap, a pre-eminent symbol of freedom during the movement of Neoclassicism.

Although it had fallen out of favor in Europe by 1830, Neoclassicism remained in vogue in the United States until after the American Civil War. Liberty's right hand rested on the top corner of a striped shield with a diagonal banner inscribed with the word "Liberty"; the shield represented preparedness in the defense of freedom. The date of the coin appeared on the bottom below Liberty; the basic reverse design of Seated Liberty coins depended on the denomination. The size of half dimes and dimes necessitated a smaller array of elements. On these coins, the reverse featured a wreath around the words "half dime" or "one dime". Before 1860, this wreath consisted of laurel leaves, a traditional Neoclassical image, but beginning that year, the wreath was enlarged and was filled not only with leaves, but traditional American agricultural products, such as corn and wheat. On quarter, half dollars, silver dollar coins, the reverse featured a central eagle about to take flight, with a striped shield upon its breast.

The eagle clutched an olive branch of peace in its right talons and a group of arrows in its left talons. Above the eagle around the rim were the words "United States of America" and below the eagle around the rim lay the coin denomination. Beginning in 1866, the coins featured a ribbon with the motto "In God We Trust" above the eagle; when the first Seated Liberty half dimes and dimes appeared in 1837, the obverse contained no stars. There are two varieties. For the dime, these two types can be distinguished by noting the "7" in the date. In the large date variety, the "3" has a pointy serif at top, the horizontal element of the "7" is straight. In the small date variety, the "3" has a rounded serif, there is small a knob, or bulge, in the "7" horizontal element. Only the Philadelphia Mint made both varieties; the small date is rarer. The New Orleans Mint made only one variety. For the half dime, the small date can be distinguished by the fact that it is bent in a "smile" orientation, similar to the Bust type of half dime.

The large date can be distinguished by the fact that the date is more in a straight line, similar to dates of years for the Seated Liberty. Only the Philadelphia Mint made half dimes in this year; the Liberty Seated dime of 1838 minted in New Orleans, was the first U. S. coin struck anywhere outside of Philadelphia. In other words, this is the first branch mint coin; the next year, the coins featured thirteen six-pointed stars around the rim, commemorating the original thirteen colonies. The Seated Liberty coins featured a few minor design changes over the years. Around 1840, extra drapery was added to Liberty's left elbow. In 1853 and 1873, the U. S. Mint changed the weight of each denomination of silver coins. Both times, arrows were added to the coins on each side of the date; these were removed from coins in 1875, respectively. In 1853, the mint placed rays around the eagle on the reverse of half dollars and quarters, a feature which endured for that one year only. In 1860 the U. S. Mint eliminated the stars on the obverse of Seated Liberty half dimes and dimes, replacing them with the legend "United States of America", which had appeared around the wreath on the reverse of the coins.

Before this time, half dimes and dimes minted in New Orleans and San Francisco had featured their mintmarks inside the wreaths. Afterwards, the "O" and "S" mintmarks were located below the wreath next to the rim. On quarters, half dollars, silver dollars, the mintmarks were always placed below the eagle but above the coin currency on the reverse. Many people collect; this can range from a repunched mintmark to the position of a date on the coin to a die crack at various stages. This type of collecting has been popular with Bust half dollars for well over 100 years. Seated coin collecting by variety has grown over the last 30 years with the formation of the Liberty Seated Collectors Club; the Seated Liberty design remained standard on all American coins ranging from dimes to half dollars for decades, but by the 1880s, as it was approaching the half century mark, there was increased criticism and calls for its replacement due to changing artistic tastes and perceived "blandness". This led to the new "Barber Head" design, approved by President Harrison in 1891 and which began minting a year although it too would soon be criticized for blandness.

Liberty Seated Half Dime Large Date and Small Date Varieties: A Guide Book of United States Coins, by Richard Yeoman, 2007, ISBN 0-7948-2039-5 Liberty S

Vladimir Kovačević (military officer)

Vladimir Kovačević is a Montenegrin Serb military officer, charged with the violation of the laws of war by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia for his actions in the siege of Dubrovnik during the Croatian War of Independence. Kovačević faced six counts of violations of the laws of war all related to the bombing of the UNESCO Heritage Site of Dubrovnik by the Third Battalion of the JNA 472 Motorised Brigade, of which he was in command, his case was to be processed along with Pavle Strugar, a higher-ranking commander of the operation, but the trial was split up on 26 November 2003. On 31 January 2005, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia sentenced Strugar to eight years in prison for his role in the 1991 shelling of Dubrovnik. In 2004 Kovačević was ruled unfit for trial due to mental health problems. On 30 July 2007, the Serbian Office of the War Crimes Prosecutor announced the indictment of former Yugoslavia Army Captain Vladimir Kovačević for war crimes associated with the 1991 Siege of Dubrovnik.

On 28 October 2004, the Prosecutor requested that the case against Kovačević be referred to Serbia and Montenegro pursuant to Rule 11bis. On 12 April 2006, the Trial Chamber issued a decision holding that the accused "does not have the capacity to enter a plea and to stand trial, without prejudice to any future criminal proceedings against him should his mental condition change."A referral hearing was held on 15 September 2006 and on 17 November 2006 the Referral Bench ordered that the case against Kovačević be referred to Serbia. On 1 December 2006, the Defence for Kovačević filed a notice of appeal against the decision on the referral. On 28 March 2007, the Appeals Chamber dismissed the appeal and affirmed the decision to refer the case to the Republic of Serbia. Kovačević was charged by the Republic of Serbia, but a decision was rendered finding him unfit to stand trial due to reported poor health. Bosnian War Serbian Office of the War Crimes Prosecutor

Henry E. Lackey

Henry E. Lackey was a rear admiral in the United States Navy. Henry Ellis Lackey served in various capacities as an engineer, inspector and line officer in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rear Admiral Lackey was born in Norfolk, Virginia, 23 June 1876, the son of Navy engineer Oscar Hamilton Lackey, he was appointed to the Naval Academy by the President of the United States, Grover Cleveland, in 1895. Graduated from the Naval Academy in 1899. After seeing active service as a midshipman in New York, Rear Admiral William Thomas Sampson's flagship, during the Battle of Santiago in the Spanish–American War, he made his mark as an engineering officer, following in his father's footsteps. In 1899, he joined Massachusetts and during 1900, served in Eagle and Bancroft. In 1901, he was transferred to Wheeling, in American Samoa, he served in Galveston, placed in commission in February 1905, in June, sailed for the Asiatic Station via Europe. In 1906, he was in Wilmington in the Asiatic Station, in 1908, was ordered to duty at the Naval Proving Ground, Indian Head, Maryland.

He was senior engineer officer of New York from March to August 1910, when he was appointed Fleet Engineer on the staff of Rear Admiral John Hubbard, commander-in-chief, Asiatic Fleet. As Fleet Engineer he surveyed channels in the Yangtze River between Wuchou and Shanghai to enhance the effectiveness of US naval forces overseeing the enforcement of US treaty rights in China, he was on duty at the Norfolk Navy Yard from 1911 until he was assigned as navigator of Georgia, in January 1915, seeing hostilities at Vera Cruz, Mexico. In 1916, he was assigned executive officer of Kansas until the end of the year. For four years he was Inspector of Ordnance in charge of the Naval Ordnance Proving Grounds and Powder Factory, Indian Head and was awarded the Navy Cross'for exceptionally meritorious' service during the World War'in handling and testing the great amount of ordnance material with which that station was called upon to deal, so as to maintain a constant flow of necessary material to the service.'

In April 1920, he assumed command of San Francisco, in October 1920, was given additional duty as Commander Mine Force, Atlantic Fleet. He was Director of Ships Movements, Office of Naval Operations, from 1921 until 1924, had additional duty as the Navy's representative at the Interstate Petroleum Meeting in 1921 and 1922. In 1924, he was assigned to duty at the shipyard of William Cramp & Sons Company in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the oversight officer for the building of the light cruiser Memphis which he took command of upon her commissioning in December 1924, during her service as flagship of United States Naval Forces in Europe. In April 1925, Lackey was the US naval representative at the opening of the Oliver Hazard Perry Memorial Gateway in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. During the summer months of 1925, Lackey sailed Memphis, as part of the US Pacific Fleet, to Australia and New Zealand to show the flag and reaffirm US goodwill; the next year, he sailed Memphis to the Mediterranean, relieving Pittsburgh as the flagship of Commander, US Naval Forces in Europe.

Showing the flag was the principal duty for Memphis as she made port calls along the North African littoral and European shores. In August 1926, during a port call in Santander, Lackey hosted King Alfonso XIII during his visit to the US squadron. During this tour of the Mediterranean, Lackey was made a Commander of the Order of the Savior by the government of Greece and was further awarded, in December 1926, the Spanish Order of Naval Merit and Efficiency, 3rd Class by King Alfonso XIII. Continuing into Northern European waters, Memphis made port calls in Dublin and Kiel, completing her European tour of duty by embarking Charles A. Lindbergh in Southampton, England, on 3 June 1927, Lindbergh's aircraft, Spirit of St. Louis, at Cherbourg on 11 June 1927, sailing for the United States. Rear Admiral Lackey was in command of the Naval Station Norfolk, from 1927 to 1930, when he assumed command of California, flagship of the Battle Force. On 16 January 1932, he was given charge of the Branch Hydrographic Office, San Francisco, in May of that year was transferred to duty as Senior member of the Board of Inspection and Survey, San Francisco.

He was Commander, Cruiser Division Four, Scouting Force, from 1933 until 1935, when he was appointed Director of Shore Establishments. He served in that capacity until late in 1937, assumed duty on 4 December 1937, as Commander, Squadron 40-T operating in European waters, he returned to the United States in September 1939, on 30 October 1939, reported for duty as President General Court Martial, Third Naval District. Lackey retired from the US Navy on 1 July 1940, due to deteriorating health, he settled in Temple, New Hampshire, died in Peterborough, New Hampshire, on 15 October 1952. He is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery, District of Columbia