David F. Houston
David Franklin Houston was an American academic and conservative Democratic politician. He served under President Wilson as the 5th Secretary of Agriculture and the 48th United States Secretary of the Treasury. Houston was born in Monroe, North Carolina, on February 17, 1866, he was the son of William Henry Houston, a horse dealer and grocer, his wife, the former Pamela Ann Stevens. He graduated from the University of South Carolina in 1887 and did graduate work at Harvard University, where he received a M. A. in political science in 1892. Houston married Helen Beall on December 11, 1895, they had five children: David Franklin, Jr. Duval, Elizabeth and Lawrence Reid Houston. Houston taught political science at University of Texas, he became an adjunct member of the faculty in 1894 and was named dean of the faculty in 1899. He became president of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas from 1902 until 1905. In 1905 he returned to UT to become that institution's president, serving until 1908.
During his tenure at UT Austin, the school opened a law school. Houston left Texas to serve as chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis, a position he held from 1908 to 1913. During his tenure he established the School of Architecture and strengthened the medical school through partnerships with Children's and Barnes hospitals, he left the university to become the U. S. Secretary of Agriculture. Under President William McKinley he was on the board of visitors of the United States Military Academy at West Point. In life, he was an overseer of Harvard University and on the Columbia University Board of Trustees. Houston served as President Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of Agriculture from 1913 to 1920. During his time as Agriculture Secretary many important agricultural laws were passed by the U. S. Congress, including the Smith-Lever Act, the Farm Loan Act, the Warehouse Act, the Federal Aid Road Act; however following the Food and Fuel Control Act responsibility for food was handed over to Herbert Hoover at the United States Food Administration.
Hoover only accepted the position on the basis. He became the Secretary of the Treasury from 1920–1921 shortly following the First World War, his brief tenure was marked by stormy controversies over federal monetary policies. As ex officio Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, he issued severe warnings and, increased rediscount rates in order to prevent the inflation that the European allies were experiencing. Houston predicted a fall in U. S. prices of farm products, after the optimism of the Armistice wore off. He urged them to produce less, but when prices fell more than expected in 1920, farm spokesmen unfairly accused Houston of deliberately wrecking agrarian prosperity. Abroad and France were pushing to cancel their war debts. Houston, the U. S. Congress and the President, against cancellation, converted the short-term debts to long-term loans. Houston resigned after only a year in office. After leaving the U. S. federal government, Houston became as the president of the Bell Telephone Securities and a vice president at AT&T. Houston served as a director of AT&T, the Guaranty Trust Company and the United States Steel Corporation.
He was president of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York for ten years. Houston died of a heart attack on September 2, 1940 at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City, he was buried next to his wife at Saint John's Church Cemetery in New York. Houston published A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina to establish his place in academia, he published a two-volume memoir of his experiences as a cabinet member, Eight Years with Wilson's Cabinet. Media related to David F. Houston at Wikimedia Commons Works written by or about David Franklin Houston at Wikisource
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election; as president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism." Born in Staunton, Wilson spent his early years in Augusta and Columbia, South Carolina. After earning a Ph. D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University, Wilson taught at various schools before becoming the president of Princeton. As governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913, Wilson broke with party bosses and won the passage of several progressive reforms, his success in New Jersey gave him a national reputation as a progressive reformer, he won the presidential nomination at the 1912 Democratic National Convention.
Wilson defeated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to win the 1912 presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to serve as president since the American Civil War. During his first term, Wilson presided over the passage of his progressive New Freedom domestic agenda, his first major priority was the passage of the Revenue Act of 1913, which lowered tariffs and implemented a federal income tax. Tax acts implemented a federal estate tax and raised the top income tax rate to 77 percent. Wilson presided over the passage of the Federal Reserve Act, which created a central banking system in the form of the Federal Reserve System. Two major laws, the Federal Trade Commission Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act, were passed to regulate and break up large business interests known as trusts. To the disappointment of his African-American supporters, Wilson allowed some of his Cabinet members to segregate their departments. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
He won re-election by a narrow margin in the presidential election of 1916, defeating Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes. In early 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany after Germany implemented a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, Congress complied. Wilson presided over war-time mobilization but devoted much of his efforts to foreign affairs, developing the Fourteen Points as a basis for post-war peace. After Germany signed an armistice in November 1918, Wilson and other Allied leaders took part in the Paris Peace Conference, where Wilson advocated for the establishment of a multilateral organization known as the League of Nations; the League of Nations was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles and other treaties with the defeated Central Powers, but Wilson was unable to convince the Senate to ratify that treaty or allow the United States to join the League. Wilson suffered a severe stroke in October 1919 and was incapacitated for the remainder of his presidency.
He retired from public office in 1921, died in 1924. Scholars rank Wilson as one of the better U. S. presidents, though he has received strong criticism for his actions regarding racial segregation. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born to a Scots-Irish family in Staunton, Virginia, on December 28, 1856, he was the third of four children and the first son of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow, who were slaveholders. Wilson's paternal grandparents had immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland in 1807, settling in Steubenville, Ohio, his grandfather James Wilson published a pro-tariff and anti-slavery newspaper, The Western Herald and Gazette. Wilson's maternal grandfather, Reverend Thomas Wodrow, migrated from Paisley, Scotland to Carlisle, before moving to Chillicothe, Ohio in the late 1830s. Joseph met Jessie while she was attending a girl's academy in Steubenville, the two married on June 7, 1849. Soon after the wedding, Joseph was ordained as a Presbyterian priest and assigned to serve as a pastor in Staunton.
Before he was two years old, Woodrow Wilson and his family moved to Georgia. Wilson's earliest memory was of standing near the front gate of the Augusta parsonage on an autumn day in 1860, when a strange passerby said that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming. By 1861, both of Wilson's parents had come to identify with the Southern United States and they supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War. Wilson's father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States after it split from the Northern Presbyterians in 1861, he became minister of the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta, the family lived there until 1870. After the end of the Civil War, Wilson began attending a nearby school, where classmates included future Supreme Court Justice Joseph Rucker Lamar and future ambassador Pleasant A. Stovall. Though Wilson's parents placed a high value on education, he struggled with reading and writing until the age of thirteen because of developmental dyslexia.
From 1870 to 1874, Wilson lived in Columbia, South Carolina, where his father was a theology professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary. In 1873, Wilson became a communicant member of the Columbia First Presbyterian Church. Wilson attended Davidson College in North Carolina for the 1873–74 school year, but transferred as a freshman to the College of New Jersey, he studied political philosophy and history, joined t
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
George Ervin "Sonny" Perdue III is an American veterinarian and politician serving as the 31st United States Secretary of Agriculture since 2017. He served as the 81st Governor of Georgia from 2003 to 2011, he was the first Republican Governor of Georgia since Reconstruction. Founder and partner in an agricultural trading company, Perdue served from 2012 to 2017 on the Governors' Council of the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, D. C, he is the second Secretary of Agriculture from the Deep South. On January 18, 2017, President-elect Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Perdue to be Secretary of Agriculture, his nomination was transmitted to the U. S. Senate on March 9, 2017, his nomination was approved by the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry on March 30 by a 19–1 voice vote, by the entire Senate in a vote of 87–11 on April 24. Perdue was born in Perry, the son of Ophie Viola, a teacher, George Ervin Perdue Jr. a farmer. He still lives in Bonaire, an unincorporated area between Perry and Warner Robins.
Born George Ervin Perdue III, Perdue has been known as Sonny since childhood, prefers to be called by that name. Perdue is the first cousin of U. S. Senator David Perdue. Perdue played quarterback at Warner Robins High School and was a walk-on at the University of Georgia, where he was a member of the Beta-Lambda chapter of Kappa Sigma Fraternity. In 1971, Perdue earned his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, worked as a veterinarian before becoming a small business owner starting three small businesses. Perdue is not related to the family that operates Perdue Farms. Perdue served in the U. S. Air Force, rising to the rank of captain before his discharge. After serving as a member of the Houston County Planning & Zoning Commission in the 1980s, Perdue ran as a Democrat for a seat in the Georgia General Assembly, he defeated Republican candidate Ned Sanders in 1990 and succeeded Democratic incumbent Ed Barker as the senator representing the 18th district.
Perdue was elected as a Democrat in 1991, 1994, 1996. He served as his party's leader in the Senate from 1994 as president pro tempore. After his first year in office Senator Perdue wrote Lt. Governor Pierre Howard asking for more responsibilities, Howard obliged, he shortly after became a committee chairman climbed the leadership ladder to majority leader Senate Pro-Tempore. Many credit Pierre Howard for helping Perdue build the early foundation of what would become his future political career, his committee assignments included Ethics, Finance & Public Utilities, Health & Human Services and Economic Development, Tourism & Cultural Affairs. He switched party affiliation from Democrat to Republican in 1998 and was reelected to the Senate as a Republican, he won reelection in 2000. 2002In December 2001, Perdue resigned as state senator and devoted himself to running for the office of Governor of Georgia. He won the 2002 Georgia gubernatorial election, defeating Democratic incumbent Roy Barnes 51% to 46%, with Libertarian candidate Garrett Michael Hayes taking 2% of the vote.
He became the first Republican governor of Georgia in over 130 years since Benjamin F. Conley. 2006In 2006, Perdue was re-elected to a second term in the 2006 Georgia gubernatorial election, winning nearly 58% of the vote. His Democratic opponent was Lieutenant Governor Mark Taylor. Libertarian Garrett Michael Hayes was on the ballot. Economic issuesPerdue advocated reforms designed to cut waste in government, most notably the sale of surplus vehicles and real estate. Prior to Perdue's becoming governor, no state agency had compiled an inventory of what assets the state owned. In January 2003, Perdue signed an executive order prohibiting himself and all other state employees from receiving any gift worth more than $25. During his governorship, Perdue collected at least $25,000 in gifts, including sporting event tickets and airplane flights. Late in the evening of March 29, 2005, the penultimate day of the legislative session, Representative Larry O'Neal, who worked part-time as Perdue’s personal lawyer, introduced legislation making capital gains tax owed on Georgia land sales deferrable if the income goes to purchase out-of-state land unusually, making the tax break retroactive.
Perdue signed the legislation into law on April 2005, three days before tax day. Perdue used the new law on his 2004 tax return to defer $100,000 in taxable gains from the sale of land. In 2007, Perdue convinced a skeptical legislature to approve a $19 million fishing tourism program he called Go Fish Georgia. Perdue decided that the Go Fish Education Center would be built down the road from his home. Education reformIn education, Perdue promoted the return of most decision-making to the local level. After Perdue took office, in 2003 and 2004, Georgia moved up from last place in the country in SAT scores. Although it returned to last place in 2005, Georgia rose to 49th place in 2006 in the combined math and reading mean score, including the writing portion added to the test that year. In 2007, Georgia moved up to 46th place. In 2008, Georgia moved up again, to 45th place. Perdue created additional opportunities for charter schools and private schools. Georgia state flagAfter Democratic Governor Roy Barnes replaced the 1956 state flag, adopted by Georgia to protest integration, because it featured a battle flag emblem of the Confede
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881, having served as an American representative and governor of Ohio. Hayes was a lawyer and staunch abolitionist who defended refugee slaves in court proceedings in the antebellum years. During the American Civil War, he was wounded while fighting in the Union Army, he was nominated as the Republican candidate for the presidency in 1876 and elected through the Compromise of 1877 that ended the Reconstruction Era by leaving the South to govern itself. In office he withdrew military troops from the South, ending Army support for Republican state governments in the South and the efforts of African-American freedmen to establish their families as free citizens, he promoted civil service reform, attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction. Hayes, an attorney in Ohio, served as city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861; when the Civil War began, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an officer.
Hayes was wounded five times, most at the Battle of South Mountain. He was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, he served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, from 1868 to 1872, he served a third two-year term, from 1876 to 1877. In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious elections in national history, he lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes; the result was the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayes's election on the condition that he withdraw remaining U. S. troops protecting Republican office holders in the South, thus ending the Reconstruction era. Hayes believed in equal treatment without regard to race, he ordered federal troops to guard federal buildings and in so doing restore order from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.
He implemented modest civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. He vetoed the Bland–Allison Act, which would have put silver money into circulation and raised nominal prices, insisting that maintenance of the gold standard was essential to economic recovery, his policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887. Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, retired to his home in Ohio, became an advocate of social and educational reform. Biographer Ari Hoogenboom said his greatest achievement was to restore popular faith in the presidency and to reverse the deterioration of executive power that had set in after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Although supporters have praised his commitment to civil service reform and defense of civil rights, Hayes is ranked as average or below average by historians and scholars. Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822, to Rutherford Hayes, Jr. and Sophia Birchard.
Hayes's father, a Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817. He died ten weeks before Rutherford's birth. Sophia took charge of the family, raising Hayes and his sister, the only two of the four children to survive to adulthood, she never remarried, Sophia's younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time. He became a father figure to him, contributing to his early education. Through each of his parents, Hayes was descended from New England colonists, his earliest immigrant ancestor came to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625. Hayes's great-grandfather, Ezekiel Hayes, was a militia captain in Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War, but Ezekiel's son left his Branford home during the war for the relative peace of Vermont, his mother's ancestors migrated to Vermont at a similar time. Most of his close relatives outside Ohio continued to live there. John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his father's business partner in Vermont and was elected to Congress, his first cousin, Mary Jane Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead.
John Humphrey Noyes, the founder of the Oneida Community, was a first cousin. Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio, he did well at Norwalk, the following year transferred to The Webb School, a preparatory school in Middletown, where he studied Latin and Ancient Greek. Returning to Ohio, he attended Kenyon College in Gambier in 1838, he enjoyed his time at Kenyon, was successful scholastically. He addressed the class as its valedictorian. After reading law in Columbus, Hayes moved east to attend Harvard Law School in 1843. Graduating with an LL. B, he opened his own law office in Lower Sandusky. Business was slow at first, but he attracted a few clients and represented his uncle Sardis in real estate litigation. In 1847, Hayes became ill with. Thinking a change in climate would help, he considered enlisting in the Mexican–American War, but on his doctor's advice he instead visited family in New England. Returning from there and his uncle Sardis made a long journey to Texas, where Hayes visited with Guy M. Bryan, a Kenyon classm
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th president of the United States and the tenth chief justice of the United States, the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for re-election by Woodrow Wilson in 1912 after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft to be chief justice, a position in which he served until a month before his death. Taft was born in Cincinnati in 1857, his father, Alphonso Taft, was a U. S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. Taft attended Yale and, like his father, was a member of Bones. After becoming a lawyer, he was appointed a judge while still in his twenties, he continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1901, President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War, he became Roosevelt's hand-picked successor.
Despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important. With Roosevelt's help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908 and defeated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency that November. In the White House, he focused on East Asia more than European affairs and intervened to prop up or remove Latin American governments. Taft sought reductions to trade tariffs a major source of governmental income, but the resulting bill was influenced by special interests, his administration was filled with conflict between the conservative wing of the Republican Party, with which Taft sympathized, the progressive wing, toward which Roosevelt moved more and more. Controversies over conservation and antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to further separate the two men. Roosevelt challenged Taft for renomination in 1912.
Taft used his control of the party machinery to gain a bare majority of delegates and Roosevelt bolted the party. The split left Taft with little chance of re-election and he took only Utah and Vermont in Wilson's victory. After leaving office, Taft returned to Yale as a professor, continuing his political activity and working against war through the League to Enforce Peace. In 1921, President Harding appointed Taft as an office he had long sought. Chief Justice Taft was a conservative on business issues and under him there were advances in individual rights. In poor health, he resigned in February 1930. After his death the next month, he was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the first president and first Supreme Court justice to be interred there. Taft is listed near the middle in historians' rankings of U. S. presidents. William Howard Taft was born September 15, 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Alphonso Taft and Louise Torrey; the Taft family was not wealthy. Alphonso served as a judge, ambassador and in the cabinet, as War Secretary and Attorney General under Ulysses S. Grant.
William Taft was a hard worker. He attended Woodward High School in Cincinnati. At Yale College, which he entered in 1874, the heavyset, jovial Taft was popular, was an intramural heavyweight wrestling champion. One classmate described him succeeding through hard work rather than being the smartest, as having integrity. In 1878, Taft graduated, second in his class out of 121, he attended Cincinnati Law School, graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1880. While in law school, he worked on The Cincinnati Commercial newspaper, edited by Murat Halstead. Taft was assigned to cover the local courts, spent time reading law in his father's office. Shortly before graduating from law school, Taft went to the state capital of Columbus to take the bar examination and passed. After admission to the Ohio bar, Taft devoted himself to his job at the Commercial full-time. Halstead was willing to take him on permanently at an increased salary if he would give up the law, but Taft declined. In October 1880, Taft was appointed assistant prosecutor for Hamilton County, took office the following January.
Taft served for a year as assistant prosecutor. He resigned in January 1882 after President Chester A. Arthur appointed him Collector of Internal Revenue for Ohio's First District, an area centered on Cincinnati. Taft refused to dismiss competent employees who were politically out of favor, resigned effective in March 1883, writing to Arthur that he wished to begin private practice in Cincinnati. In 1884, Taft campaigned for the Republican candidate for president, Maine Senator James G. Blaine, who lost to New York Governor Grover Cleveland. In 1887, Taft aged 29, was appointed to a vacancy on the Superior Court of Cincinnati by Governor Joseph B. Foraker; the appointment was good for just over a year, after which he would have to face the voters, in April 1888, he sought election for the first of three times in his lifetime, the other two being for the presidency. He was elected to a full five-year term; some two dozen of Taft's opinions as a state judge survive, the most significant being Moores & Co. v. Bricklayers' Union No. 1 if only because it was used against him when he ran for president in 1908.
The case involved bricklayers who refused to work for any firm that de
Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson assumed the presidency as he was vice president of the United States at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded, he favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the former slaves, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote. Johnson's main accomplishment as president is the Alaska purchase. Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina, never attended school. Apprenticed as a tailor, he worked in several frontier towns before settling in Greeneville, Tennessee, he served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835. After brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms, he became Governor of Tennessee for four years, was elected by the legislature to the U.
S. Senate in 1857. In his congressional service, he sought passage of the Homestead Bill, enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862; as Southern slave states, including Tennessee, seceded to form the Confederate States of America, Johnson remained with the Union. He was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his state's secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as military governor of Tennessee. In 1864, Johnson, as a War Democrat and Southern Unionist, was a logical choice as running mate for Lincoln, who wished to send a message of national unity in his reelection campaign; when Johnson was sworn in as vice president in March 1865, he gave a rambling speech, after which he secluded himself to avoid public ridicule. Six weeks the assassination of Lincoln made him president. Johnson implemented his own form of Presidential Reconstruction – a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to reform their civil governments.
When Southern states returned many of their old leaders, passed Black Codes to deprive the freedmen of many civil liberties, Congressional Republicans refused to seat legislators from those states and advanced legislation to overrule the Southern actions. Johnson vetoed their bills, Congressional Republicans overrode him, setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency. Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1866, Johnson went on an unprecedented national tour promoting his executive policies, seeking to destroy his Republican opponents; as the conflict between the branches of government grew, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, restricting Johnson's ability to fire Cabinet officials. When he persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, he was impeached by the House of Representatives, narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate and removal from office. After failing to win the 1868 Democratic presidential nomination, Johnson left office in 1869. Returning to Tennessee after his presidency, Johnson sought political vindication, gained it in his eyes when he was elected to the Senate again in 1875, making Johnson the only former president to serve in the Senate.
He died months into his term. While some admire Johnson's strict constitutionalism, his strong opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans is criticized, he is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, on December 29, 1808, to Jacob Johnson and Mary McDonough, a laundress, he was of English, Scots-Irish, Irish ancestry. He had a brother William, four years his senior, an older sister Elizabeth, who died in childhood. Johnson's birth in a two-room shack was a political asset in the mid-19th century, he would remind voters of his humble origins. Jacob Johnson was a poor man, as had been his father, William Johnson, but he became town constable of Raleigh before marrying and starting a family. Both Jacob and Mary were illiterate, had worked as tavern servants, while Johnson never attended school. Johnson grew up in poverty. Jacob died of an apparent heart attack while ringing the town bell, shortly after rescuing three drowning men, when his son Andrew was three.
Polly Johnson became the sole support of her family. Her occupation was looked down on, as it took her into other homes unaccompanied. There were rumors that Andrew, who did not resemble his brother or sister, had been fathered by another man. Polly Johnson remarried, to Turner Doughtry, as poor as she was. Johnson's mother apprenticed her son William to James Selby. Andrew became an apprentice in Selby's shop at age ten and was bound to serve until his 21st birthday. Johnson lived with his mother for part of his service, one of Selby's employees taught him rudimentary literacy skills, his education was augmented by citizens who would come to Selby's shop to read to the tailors as they worked. Before he became an apprentice, Johnson came to listen; the readings caused a lifelong love of learning, one of his biographers, Annette Gordon-Reed, suggests that Johnson a gifted public speaker, learned the art as he threaded needles and cut cloth. Johnson was not happy at James Selby's, after about five years, both he and his brother ran away.
Selby responded by placing a r