The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the United States and the safety of U. S. citizens. The secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet; the position was created by the Homeland Security Act following the attacks of September 11, 2001. The new department consisted of components transferred from other cabinet departments because of their role in homeland security, such as the Coast Guard, the Federal Protective Service, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Secret Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, it did not include either the Federal Bureau of the Central Intelligence Agency. The current Acting Secretary of Homeland Security is Chad Wolf, who began in that role on November 13, 2019. Traditionally, the order of the presidential line of succession is determined by the order of the creation of the cabinet positions, the list as mandated under 3 U.
S. C. § 19 follows this tradition. On March 7, 2006, 43rd President George W. Bush signed H. R. 3199 as Pub. L. 109–177, which renewed the Patriot Act of 2001 and amended the Presidential Succession Act of 1947 to include the newly created Presidential Cabinet position of Secretary of Homeland Security in the line of succession after the authorized Secretary of Veterans Affairs. In the 109th Congress, legislation was introduced to place the Secretary of Homeland Security into the line of succession after the Attorney General but that bill expired at the end of the 109th Congress and was not re-introduced. Prior to the establishment of the U. S. Department of Homeland Security, there existed an Assistant to the President for the Office of Homeland Security, created following the September 11 attacks in 2001. Parties Republican Democratic Independent Status Denotes Acting Homeland Security Secretary 1 James Loy served as acting secretary in his capacity as Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security. 2 Rand Beers served as acting secretary in his capacity as confirmed Undersecretary of Homeland Security for National Protection and Programs and Acting Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security.
3 Elaine Duke served as acting secretary in her capacity as Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security. 4 Kevin McAleenan served as acting secretary in his capacity as Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection. 5 Chad Wolf serves as acting secretary in his capacity as Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Strategy and Plans. While appointment of acting officials is governed by the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 creates exceptions to FVRA, mandating that the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Management is third in the line of succession for Secretary of Homeland Security, establishes an alternate process by which the Secretary can directly establish a line of succession outside the provisions of the FVRA; as a result of Executive Order 13753 in 2016, the order of succession for the Secretary of Homeland Security was as follows: Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Management Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency Under Secretary of Homeland Security for National Protection and Programs Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Science and Technology Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis Commissioner of U.
S. Customs and Border Protection Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration Director of U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Director of U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Assistant Secretary for Policy General Counsel of the Department of Homeland Security Deputy Under Secretary for Management Deputy Commissioner of U. S. Customs and Border Protection Deputy Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration Deputy Director of U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Deputy Director of U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Director of the Federal Law Enforcement Training CenterThe April 10, 2019 update to the DHS Orders of Succession, made pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, provided a different order in the case of unavailability to act during a disaster or catastrophic emergency: Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security Under Secretary for Management Commissioner of U. S. Customs and Border Protection Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Under Secretary for Science and Technology Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration Director of U.
S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Director of U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Under Secretary for Strategy and Plans General Counsel Deputy Under Secretary for Management Deputy Commissioner of U. S. Customs and Border Protection Deputy Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration Deputy Director of U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Deputy Director of U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Director of the Federal Law Enforcement Training CentersA November 8, 2019 update replaced the above orders of succession with the following. However, the legality of this update was challenged. Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security Under Secretary for Management Commissioner of the U. S. Customs and Border Protection Under Secretary for Strategy, Policy
A licensed practical nurse, in much of the United States and Canada, is a nurse who cares for people who are sick, convalescent, or disabled. In the United States, LPNs work under the direction of physicians, mid-level practitioners, registered nurses. In Canada, LPNs/RPNs work autonomously similar to the registered nurse in providing care and are responsible for their individual actions and practice. In California and Texas, such a nurse is referred to as a licensed vocational nurse. Another title provided is "registered practical nurse" in the Canadian province of Ontario. A person can become an LPN with one to two years of training in the United States. S state and territorial boards require passage of the NCLEX-PN exam. In Canada, the education program ranges from two to three years of post-secondary and students must pass the intensive Canadian Practical Nurse Registration Exam; the education completed in Canada is equivalent to the associate degree in nursing which qualifies nurses as registered nurses in the United States.
According to the 2010–2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook published by the Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, licensed practical nurses care for patients in many ways: Often, they provide basic bedside care. Many LPNs measure and record patients' vital signs such as weight, temperature, blood pressure and respiratory rate. A licensed practical nurse in much of the United States and most Canadian provinces is a nurse who cares for people who are sick, convalescent, or disabled. LPNs work under the direction of registered physicians, they prepare and give injections and enemas and perform placement of catheters, dress wounds, give alcohol rubs and massages. To help keep patients comfortable, they assist with bathing and personal hygiene, moving in bed and walking, they might feed patients who need help eating. Experienced LPNs may supervise nursing assistants and aides, other LPNs; as part of their work, LPNs collect samples for testing, perform routine laboratory tests, record food and fluid intake and output.
They monitor medical equipment. Sometimes, they help registered nurses perform tests and procedures; some LPNs help to deliver, care for, feed infants. LPNs monitor their patients and report adverse reactions to medications or treatments. LPNs gather information from patients, including their health history and how they are feeling, they may use this information to complete insurance forms, pre-authorizations, referrals, they share information with registered nurses and doctors to help determine the best course of care for a patient. LPNs teach family members how to care for a relative or teach patients about good health habits. According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook, while most LPNs are generalists and will work in any area of health care, some LPNs work in specialized settings, such as nursing homes, doctor's offices, or in home care. In some American states, LPNs are permitted to administer prescribed medicines, start intravenous fluids, provide care to ventilator-dependent patients.
While about 18 percent of LPNs/LVNs in the United States worked part-time in 2008, most work a 40-hour week. The Occupational Outlook Handbook states that LPNs may have to work nights and holidays. Licensed vocational nurses read vital signs such as pulse, blood pressure and respiration, they monitor catheters and give massages or alcohol rubs. They may apply hot water bottles and ice packs, they help patients treat bedsores and change soiled bed sheets. LVNs feed patients and record their food consumption, while monitoring the fluids they take in and excrete. In May 2008, the median annual wages of LPNs/LVNs in the United States was $39,030, with the middle 50 percent earning between $33,360 and $46,710, the lowest 10 percent earning less than $28,260, the highest 10 percent earning more than $53,580. Median annual wages differed by setting: According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook, in 2008 there were some 753,600 jobs held by LPNs/LVNs in the United States, with about 25 percent working in hospitals, 28 percent in nursing care facilities, 12 percent in physicians' offices.
Other LPNs/LVN worked for home health care services. In the United States, employment of LPNs is projected to grow by 21 percent between 2008 and 2018, much faster than average; the growth is expected to be driven by the "long-term care needs of an increasing elderly population and the general increase in demand for healthcare services". By contrast hospitals are phasing out licensed practical nurses. While LPN jobs were expected to decline, in 2010 the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the job growth rate of Licensed Practical Nurses as 22%, far above the national average of 14%. Median annual salary was reported as $44,090 per year, hourly salary was reported as $19.42. In the United States, training programs to become a LPN/LVN last about one year and are offered by vocational/technical schools and by community colleges; the Occupational Outlook Handbook states that in order to be eligib
Looking Like the Enemy: Japanese Mexicans, the Mexican State, US Hegemony, 1897-1945 is a 2014 non-fiction book by Jerry García, published by The University of Arizona Press. It discusses the treatment of Mexicans of Japanese descent and Japanese nationals in Mexico during World War II, as well as the overall history from 1897 to the war; this book is the first one in English that focuses on the Japanese Mexicans. The author argued that Mexico had more lenient actions towards the ethnic Japanese during the war than the United States. García is a professor of Mexican American Studies at Eastern Washington University; the book has interviews, with the text containing excerpts of two of them. J. M. Starling of Choice Reviews stated that these two stated that the Japanese Mexican people removed to internment camps perceived their experiences to be "humane" and that the interviews "frame several of the book's key arguments"; the author used the 1976 book México y Japón en el siglo XIX and the 1982 book Siete migraciones japonesas en México, both by María Elena Ota Mishima, as well as the 1990 book Relaciones entre México y Japón durante el Porfiriato by Enrique Cortés, as the bases of his research.
García used content, including descriptions from people and government documents, from the archives of Mexico and the United States. Toake Endoh of Hawaii Tokai International College wrote that material from Japan in the research "is disproportionately scarce"; the book, using chronological order, has an introduction, six chapters, a conclusion. The book talks about the genesis and evolution of the Mexican Japanese community before World War II, while at a point it discusses the consequences of the war; each chapter follows the introduction and conclusion format. The introduction discusses the said creation and/or the international relations between the mother country, the destination country, the bordering United States. Chapter 1 deals with some of the same topics as the introduction. Chapter 2 refers to the Mexican Revolution. Chapter 3 discusses the political environment between the revolution and the entry of the United States in World War II. Chapter 4 discusses the anti-Japanese sentiment that arrived as a consequence of U.
S. involvement in World War II. Chapter 5 discusses downward social mobility of the Japanese as a result of the war, as does Chapter 6. Jeffrey Lesser of Emory University wrote that the book "avoids the trap of treating the history of Japanese Mexicans as so unique as to be of self-contained importance" and instead compares them with other immigrant groups in Latin America. Page five of the book stated that the processes of the community formation occurred among "Mexican modernity and reconstruction", the book explores identity politics and whiteness. Yuichiro Onishi of the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities wrote that the analysis presented by the author is "compelling" due to the author's "attention to local circumstances", he added that the discussion on integration into the Mexican community being "Particularly interesting", with the book containing "a myriad of little known episodes" of historical events. Starling gave three stars, he argued. Palencia-Roth wrote that "This book should be required reading in the fields of Asian immigration and of borderland studies."
Of the chapters he stated that they were "lucidly presented, well-researched but somewhat repetitive". Endoh wrote that "the work is engaging and accessible reading for both general and scholarly audiences" and that the "ﬁndings and wealth of documents are valuable additions to the study of Japanese migration, should inspire future research." He praised the use of archival material and added that the pre-World War II immigration discussion is "One of the major strengths of this book". Endoh criticized what he perceived as a lack of explanation of certain issues such as relations between Japan and the Japanese Mexicans and explaining how different Mexican communities had different responses to the Japanese in World War II. Lesser wrote that he was "so engrossed in" the work that he forgot to disembark at his planned bus stop, concluded the work "is a strong addition to a growing literature on Latin Americans of immigrant descent." He criticized the lack of precision in some vocabulary, such as what was meant with the word "Japanese", but characterized that as one of several minor "quibbles" reviewers of academic literature have.
He praised portions discussing Mexican adaptation of anti-Japanese propaganda from the U. S. and the involvement of ethnic Japanese in the Mexican Revolution. Eric Boime of San Diego State University Imperial Valley Campus wrote that the book "proves more than up to the task to recover the Japanese experience in Mexico through World War II." The Japanese in Latin America - Discusses various ethnic Japanese communities in Latin America