93rd United States Congress
The Ninety-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1975, during the end of Richard Nixon's presidency, the beginning of Gerald Ford's; this Congress was the first Congress with more than two Senate Presidents, in three. After the resignation of Spiro Agnew, Gerald Ford was appointed under the authority of the newly ratified 25th Amendment. Ford became President the next year and Nelson Rockefeller was appointed in his place; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Nineteenth Census of the United States in 1970. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. January 20, 1973: President Richard Nixon began his second term. January 22, 1973: Supreme Court issued abortion decision, Roe v. Wade January 27, 1973: Paris Peace Accords signed October 10, 1973: Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned October 20, 1973: Saturday Night Massacre December 6, 1973: Vice President Gerald Ford inaugurated August 9, 1974: President Richard Nixon resigned.
Vice President Gerald Ford became President of the United States. November 5, 1974: United States midterm elections: Democrats increased their majorities in both houses December 19, 1974: Vice President Nelson Rockefeller inaugurated August 13, 1973: Federal Aid Highway Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93–87, title I, 87 Stat. 250 September 26, 1973: Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93–112, 87 Stat. 355 October 1, 1973: Domestic Volunteer Services Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93–113, 87 Stat. 394 October 4, 1973: Oil Pollution Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93–119, 87 Stat. 424-2 November 3, 1973: Amtrak Improvement Act, Pub. L. 93–146, 87 Stat. 548 November 7, 1973: War Powers Resolution, Pub. L. 93–148, 87 Stat. 555 November 29, 1973: Hobby Protection Act, 87 Stat. 686 December 28, 1973: Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, Pub. L. 93–203 December 28, 1973: Endangered Species Act, Pub. L. 93–205, 87 Stat. 884 December 29, 1973: Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93–222 March 7, 1974: Water Resources Development Act of 1974, Pub.
L. 93–251, 88 Stat. 34 May 22, 1974: Disaster Relief Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–288, 88 Stat. 143 July 12, 1974: Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, 88 Stat. 297 July 25, 1974: Legal Services Corporation Act, Pub. L. 93–355, 88 Stat. 378 August 21, 1974: Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, Pub. L. 93–380, title V, §513, 88 Stat. 571 September 2, 1974: Employee Retirement Income Security Act, Pub. L. 93–406, 88 Stat. 829 September 7, 1974: Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–415, 88 Stat. 1109 October 29, 1974: Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–498, 88 Stat. 1535 November 26, 1974: National Mass Transportation Assistance Act, Pub. L. 93–503, 88 Stat. 1565 December 3, 1974: Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act, Pub. L. 93–508, 88 Stat. 1578 December 16, 1974: Safe Drinking Water Act, Pub. L. 93–523, 88 Stat. 1660 December 31, 1974: Privacy Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–579, 88 Stat. 1896 January 2, 1975: An Act to Establish Rules of Evidence for Certain Courts and Proceedings, Pub.
L. 93–595, 88 Stat. 1926 January 3, 1975: Trade Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–618, 88 Stat. 1978 January 3, 1975: Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, Pub. L. 93–633, title I, 88 Stat. 2156 January 4, 1975: National Health Planning and Resources Development Act, Pub. L. 93–641, 88 Stat. 2225 May 17, 1973: Watergate hearings began May 9, 1974: Hearings on the Impeachment of President Nixon began President of the Senate: Spiro Agnew until October 10, 1973 Gerald Ford December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974 Nelson Rockefeller from December 19, 1974 President pro tempore: James Eastland Permanent Acting President pro tempore: Lee Metcalf Majority Leader: Mike Mansfield Majority Whip: Robert Byrd Caucus Secretary: Frank Moss Minority Leader: Hugh Scott Minority Whip: Robert P. Griffin Republican Conference Chairman: Norris Cotton Republican Conference Secretary: Wallace F. Bennett National Senatorial Committee Chair: Bill Brock Policy Committee Chairman: John Tower Speaker: Carl Albert Majority Leader: Tip O'Neill Majority Whip: John J. McFall Democratic Caucus Chairman: Olin E. Teague Caucus Secretary: Leonor Sullivan Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Wayne Hays Minority Leader: Gerald Ford until December 6, 1973 John Jacob Rhodes from December 7, 1973 Minority Whip: Leslie C.
Arends Conference Chair: John B. Anderson Policy Committee Chairman: Barber Conable Congressional Black Caucus House Democratic Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Skip down to House of Representatives Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1976; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. There were three deaths. Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the artic
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
Robert Charles Mardian was a United States Republican party official who served in the administration of Richard Nixon, was embroiled in the Watergate scandal as one of the Watergate Seven who were indicted by a grand jury for campaign violations. His conviction for conspiracy was overturned because of procedural unfairness and he was not subsequently retried. Mardian's father, was from the Armenian town of Hadjin in the Velayat of Adana in the Ottoman Empire, he was born Samuel Zeligian into a Christian family and was a member of Second Congregational Church in Hadjin. Following the massacre of 35,000 Armenians in Adana in 1909 and the siege of Christian Hadjin Samuel moved his family and was in the United States by 1912. Samuel settled in California and supported progressive politicians such as Hiram Johnson and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Samuel Mardian's four sons, adopted free-market politics. Robert Mardian's brother, Daniel Mardian Sr. founded Mardian Construction Company, a multi-million dollar concern, which contributed to Arizona's prominence and Samuel Mardian Jr. joined him as the vice president.
Samuel Mardian served as mayor of Phoenix, Arizona from 1960 to 1964, was a leading supporter of Barry Goldwater. Robert Mardian went to public school in Pasadena, California followed by Columbia University, North Dakota State Teachers College, the University of California, Los Angeles. While serving in the United States Navy he met and married Dorothy Denniss in 1946, they had three sons. Mardian was awarded a law degree from the University of Southern California in 1949. After leaving law school he went into private practice as a corporate lawyer. In 1956, Mardian active in the Republican Party, was appointed to a vacant seat on the Pasadena School Board, he resigned shortly afterwards through pressure of work. From 1962, Mardian left his law practice to become vice president and chief legal officer of a savings and loan association. In the 1964 presidential election he managed the Goldwater campaign in four western states; this time, of the four western states, the Republicans carried all but Washington.
In the intervening years, he served as chairman of Ronald Reagan's state advisory committee during his 1966 gubernatorial campaign in California. His work on the 1968 campaign led to Mardian becoming close to John N. Mitchell, in charge of the campaign overall. Mardian was appointed as general counsel to the Department of Health and Welfare in the Nixon administration, he supported Mitchell's'Southern strategy' and advised the Department on ways of easing the pace of school integration. His success in this post led to a promotion as Assistant Attorney General under Mitchell. Mardian was in charge of the Internal Security Division, which headed up the fight against the radical left, prosecuting draft dodgers, he was trusted to handle the transfer to the White House of wiretap logs, discovered among J. Edgar Hoover's possessions in the Federal Bureau of Investigation after his death. Mardian became involved in the Nixon administration's unorthodox campaigns early when he headed the federal prosecution of Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg in 1971.
Although passed over for the appointment as deputy manager of CRP, Mardian was appointed as a'political coordinator' with an uncertain role, as well as counsel for the committee. The offence for which Mardian was convicted, but cleared, occurred on June 17, 1972. Mardian was with other campaign officials in California preparing for a fundraising dinner. Having learnt of the arrest of the five men in the Watergate complex, Jeb Stuart Magruder testified that at John N. Mitchell's suggestion Mardian telephoned G. Gordon Liddy and told Liddy to contact Attorney General Kleindienst, with an order that James W. McCord, Jr. should be released before his identity was discovered. Liddy insisted. Mardian always insisted on his innocence and since the trial has said that John Dean had the idea of calling Kleindienst. Mardian stated that he could have played no role in getting the burglars released, given his location and the difference in time zones. On June 20, Mardian and Fred LaRue met with Liddy in LaRue's apartment in the Watergate complex, where Liddy told him the full story of all the activities of'the plumbers'.
Mardian suggested to Liddy that he was to be traced and ought to give himself up. When Jeb Stuart Magruder decided to cooperate with the prosecution on April 10, 1973, it became certain that Mardian would be indicted, although he had first to go before the Ervin Senate committee. Before the Senators, Mardian was an effective witness in defense of his actions; the grand jury nonetheless indicted him on March 1, 1974. In January 1975, Mardian was convicted on one count of conspiracy to hinder the investigation, he was sentenced to 10 months to 3 years on February 21, 1975, but on appeal in 1976 the conviction was quashed. The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit held that Mardian ought to have been tried separately because his lawyer, David Bress, fell ill two weeks into the trial, because of Mardian's limited alleged role; the special prosecutor declined to retry him. After leaving his campaign position, Mardian moved to Phoenix, Arizona t
1972 United States presidential election
The 1972 United States presidential election was the 47th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. Incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon defeated Democratic Senator George McGovern of South Dakota. Nixon swept aside challenges from two Republican congressmen in the 1972 Republican primaries to win re-nomination. McGovern, who had played a significant role in reforming the Democratic nomination system after the 1968 election, mobilized the anti-war movement and other liberal supporters to win his party's nomination. Among the candidates he defeated were early front-runner Edmund Muskie, 1968 nominee Hubert Humphrey, Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm, the first African-American to run for a major party's presidential nomination. Nixon emphasized the strong economy and his success in foreign affairs, while McGovern ran on a platform calling for an immediate end to the Vietnam War, the institution of a guaranteed minimum income. Nixon maintained a consistent lead in polling.
Separately, Nixon's reelection committee broke into the Watergate Hotel to wiretap the Democratic National Committee's headquarters, a scandal that would be known as "Watergate". McGovern's campaign was further damaged by the revelation that his running mate, Thomas Eagleton, had undergone psychiatric electroshock therapy as a treatment for depression. Eagleton was replaced on the ballot by Sargent Shriver. Nixon won the election in a landslide, taking 60.7% of the popular vote and carrying 49 states, he was the first Republican to sweep the South. McGovern took just 37.5% of the popular vote, while John G. Schmitz of the American Independent Party won 1.4% of the vote. Nixon received 18 million more votes than McGovern, he holds the record for the widest popular vote margin in any United States presidential election; the 1972 presidential election was the first since the ratification of the 26th Amendment, which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Within two years of the election, both Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned from office, the former due to Watergate and the latter to a separate corruption charge, Nixon was succeeded by Gerald Ford.
Overall, fifteen people declared their candidacy for the Democratic Party nomination. They were: George McGovern, Senator from South Dakota Hubert Humphrey, Senator from Minnesota and former Vice President, presidential nominee in 1968 George Wallace, Governor of Alabama Edmund Muskie, Senator from Maine, vice presidential nominee in 1968 Eugene J. McCarthy, former Senator from Minnesota Henry M. Jackson, Senator from Washington Shirley Chisholm, Representative of New York's 12th congressional district Terry Sanford, former Governor of North Carolina John Lindsay, Mayor of New York City, New York Wilbur Mills, Representative of Arkansas's 2nd congressional district Vance Hartke, Senator from Indiana Fred Harris, Senator from Oklahoma Sam Yorty, Mayor of Los Angeles, California Patsy Mink, Representative of Hawaii's 2nd congressional district Walter Fauntroy, Delegate from Washington, D. C. Reubin Askew, former Governor of Florida Senate Majority Whip Ted Kennedy, the youngest brother of late President John F. Kennedy and late United States Senator Robert F. Kennedy, was the favorite to win the 1972 nomination, but he announced he would not be a candidate.
The favorite for the Democratic nomination became Senator Ed Muskie, the 1968 vice-presidential nominee. Muskie's momentum collapsed just prior to the New Hampshire primary, when the so-called "Canuck letter" was published in the Manchester Union-Leader; the letter a forgery from Nixon's "dirty tricks" unit, claimed that Muskie had made disparaging remarks about French-Canadians – a remark to injure Muskie's support among the French-American population in northern New England. Subsequently, the paper published an attack on the character of Muskie's wife Jane, reporting that she drank and used off-color language during the campaign. Muskie made an emotional defense of his wife in a speech outside the newspaper's offices during a snowstorm. Though Muskie stated that what had appeared to the press as tears were melted snowflakes, the press reported that Muskie broke down and cried, shattering the candidate's image as calm and reasoned. Nearly two years before the election, South Dakota Senator George McGovern entered the race as an anti-war, progressive candidate.
McGovern was able to pull together support from the anti-war movement and other grassroots support to win the nomination in a primary system he had played a significant part in designing. On January 25, 1972, New York Representative Shirley Chisholm announced she would run, became the first African-American woman to run for the Democratic or Republican presidential nomination. Hawaii Representative Patsy Mink announced she would run and became the first Asian American to run for the Democratic presidential nomination. On April 25, George McGovern won the Massachusetts primary. Two days journalist Robert Novak quoted a "Democratic senator" revealed to be Thomas Eagleton as saying: "The people don't know McGovern is for amnesty and legalization of pot. Once middle America – Catholic middle America, in particular – finds this out, he's dead." The label stuck and McGovern became known as the candidate of "amnesty and acid". It became Humphrey's battle cry to stop McGovern—especially in the Nebraska primary.
Alabama Governor George Wallace, an anti-integrationist, did well in the South and among alienated and dissatisfied voters in the North. What might have become a forceful campaign was cut short when Wallace was shot in an assassination attempt by Arthur Bremer on May 15. Wallace was left paralyzed from the waist down; the day
The Watergate complex is a group of six buildings in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C. in the United States. Covering a total of 10 acres adjacent to the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, the buildings include: Watergate West, cooperative apartments Watergate 600, office building not involved in the Watergate scandal Watergate Hotel Watergate East, cooperative apartments Watergate South, cooperative apartments Watergate Office Building, the office building where the Watergate burglary happenedBuilt between 1963 and 1971, the Watergate was considered one of Washington's most desirable living spaces, popular with members of Congress and political appointees in the executive branch; the complex has been sold several times since the 1980s. In the 1990s, it was split up and its component buildings and parts of buildings were sold to various owners. In 1972, the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee located on the sixth floor of the Watergate Office Building, was burglarized with documents photographed and telephones wiretapped.
The investigation into the burglary revealed that high officials in the administration of President Richard Nixon had ordered the break-in and tried to cover up their involvement. Additional crimes were uncovered; the ensuing Watergate scandal, named for the complex, led to Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974. The name "Watergate" and the suffix "-gate" have since become synonymous with controversial topics in the United States and elsewhere; the Watergate superblock is bounded on the north by Virginia Avenue, on the east by New Hampshire Avenue, on the south by F Street, on the west by the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway. It is in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood overlooking the Potomac River, next to the Kennedy Center and the embassy of Saudi Arabia; the nearest Metro station, 0.4 miles distant, is Foggy Bottom-GWU. For more than a century, the land now occupied by the Watergate complex belonged to the Gas Works of the Washington Gas Light Company, which produced "manufactured gas" for heating and lighting throughout the city.
Gas production ceased at the site in 1947, the plant was demolished shortly thereafter. In the 1950s, the World Bank considered building its international headquarters here and on the adjacent site, but rejected the site for unspecified reasons in favor of its current location at 1818 H Street NW in Washington, D. C; the name "Watergate" relates to numerous aspects of its physical and historical context. The complex sits near the eastern terminus of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, which operated from 1831 to 1924 and is now a National Historical Park; the remains of the gravity dam across Rock Creek, as well as Waste Weir #1 are at this site. Land once owned by the canal company was part of the 10-acre site purchased in 1960 by the project's developer, Rome-based Società Generale Immobiliare. In his 2018 book The Watergate: Inside America’s Most Infamous Address, author Joseph Rodota gave three accounts of the origin of the name, based on sources inside the development team: Author and playwright Warren Adler, while working as a publicist for the developers, came up with the name.
According to Rodota, the earliest use of the name Watergate in the surviving files of Societa Generale Immobiliare is a June 8, 1961 memorandum authored by Giuseppe Cecchi, summarizing an early meeting with officials of the future John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts about the proposed project. In his 2009 book Presidential Power on Trial: From Watergate to All the President's Men, William Noble wrote that the Watergate "got its name from overlooking the'gate' that regulated the flow of water from the Potomac River into the Tidal Basin at flood tide." That gate is about 1½ miles downriver from the Watergate complex. Another namesake is the noted restaurant, the "Water Gate Inn", that operated on the site before the Watergate complex was built. In 2004, Washington Post writer John Kelly argued that the name was most directly linked to the "Water Steps" or "Water Gate," a set of ceremonial stairs west of the Lincoln Memorial that led down to the Potomac; the steps had been planned as a ceremonial gateway to the city and an official reception area for dignitaries arriving in Washington, D.
C. via water taxi from Virginia, though they never served this function. Instead, beginning in 1935, the steps faced a floating performance stage on the Potomac River on which open-air concerts were held. Up to 12,000 people would sit on the steps and surrounding grass and listen to symphonies, military bands, operas; the music venue was Born Yesterday. The barge concerts ended in 1965 when jet airliner service began at National Airport and the noise impaired the venue's viability; the Watergate complex was developed by the Italian firm SGI. The company purchased the 10 acres that belonged to the defunct Chesapeake and Ohio Canal in February 1960 for $10 million; the project was announced on October 21, 1960. Luigi Moretti of the University of R
Frank Anthony Sturgis, born Frank Angelo Fiorini, was one of the five Watergate burglars whose capture led to the end of the presidency of Richard Nixon. He served in several branches of the United States military and in the Cuban Revolution of 1958, worked as an undercover operative for the Central Intelligence Agency, he was named as one of the men who along with Miami CIA head David Morales, met with E. Howard Hunt, shortly before the assassination of John F. Kennedy; when still a child, his family moved to Pennsylvania. On October 5, 1942, in his senior year of high school, 17-year-old Frank Angelo Fiorini joined the United States Marine Corps and served under Col. "Red Mike" Merritt A. Edson in the First Marine Raider Battalion in the Pacific Theater during the Second World War."On April 14, 1942, William Donovan, as Coordinator of Information, activated units charged with gathering intelligence, harassing the Japanese through guerrilla actions, identifying targets for the Army Air Force to bomb, rescuing downed Allied airmen."
This was what led to Stilwell's Chinese forces, Wingate's Raiders, Merrill's Marauders, in the war, Frank got trained in Guerrilla tactics and gathering intelligence which became useful in his events. Honorably discharged as a corporal in 1945, he enrolled at Virginia Polytechnic Institute but left college and joined the Norfolk Police Department on June 5, 1946, he soon discovered a corrupt payoff system and brought it to the attention of his superiors, who told him to overlook the illegal activities. On October 5, 1946 he resigned the same day. For the next 18 months, he managed the Havana-Madrid tavern in Norfolk that catered to foreigners Cuban merchant seamen. On November 9, 1947, Fiorini joined the United States Naval Reserve at the Norfolk Naval Air Station and learned to fly while still working at the tavern, he joined the United States Army the next day. He was sent to West Berlin, where the USSR had closed the land routes during the Berlin Blockade, he became a member of General Lucius Clay's honor guard.
Two weeks after the USSR reopened the land routes on May 11, 1949, Fiorini was honorably discharged. As a Marine Raider, Fiorini had worked behind enemy lines gathering intelligence, during his Army tenure in Berlin and Heidelberg, he had a top secret clearance and worked in an intelligence unit whose primary target was the Soviet Union. Fiorini started to believe Russia was a threat, he became a lifelong militant. Returning to Norfolk in 1952, he took a job managing the Cafe Society tavern partnered with its owner, Milton Bass, to co-purchase and manage The Top Hat Nightclub in Virginia Beach. On September 23, 1952, Frank Fiorini filed a petition in the Circuit Court of the City of Norfolk, Virginia, to change his name to Frank Anthony Sturgis, adopting the surname of his stepfather Ralph Sturgis, whom his mother had married in 1937, his new name resembled that of Hank Sturgis, the fictional hero of E. Howard Hunt's 1949 novel, Bimini Run, whose life parallels Frank Sturgis' life from 1942 to 1949 in certain salient respects.
In 1956 Sturgis moved to Cuba, went to Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras. Sturgis moved to Miami in 1957, where the Cuban wife of his uncle Angelo Vona introduced him to former Cuban president Carlos Prio, who joined with other Cubans opposing dictator Fulgencio Batista to plot their return to power, they were sending money to Mexico to support Fidel Castro. Prio asked Sturgis to go to Cuba to join up with Castro and to report back to the exiled powers in Miami, so he went down and met with Castro. In 1958 he made contact with the Central Intelligence Agency in Cuba at the US Consulate in Santiago, he worked as an undercover agent for the agency with his control officer Sam Jenis. Sturgis became involved running guns to Cuba, along with mobster Santo Trafficante,and not was arrested for illegal possession of arms, but released without charge. In 1959 Sturgis had contact with casinos in Cuba and some say met Lewis McWillie, mobster Traficante's man in Cuba, the manager of the Tropicana Casino who by his own testimony was a known acquaintance of Jack Ruby.
Sturgis met up with his 400 rebels in the Sierra Maestra mountains. Sturgis offered to train Castro's troops in guerrilla warfare. Castro accepted the offer, but he had an immediate need for guns and ammunition, so Sturgis became a gunrunner. Using money from anti-Batista Cuban exiles in Miami and some suspect the CIA, Sturgis purchased boatloads of weapons and ammunition from CIA weapons expert Samuel Cummings' International Armament Corporation in Alexandria, Virginia. Sturgis explained that he chose to throw in with Castro rather than Prio because Fidel was a soldier, a man of action, whereas Prio was a politician, more a man of words. In March 1958, Sturgis opened a training camp in the Sierra Maestra mountains, where he taught Che Guevara and other 26th of July Movement rebel soldiers guerrilla warfare; when Castro seized power, Sturgis was part of a rebel firing squad on San Juan Hill on January 11, 1959, that executed 71 of their opponents into an awaiting 40-foot ditch, opened with a bulldozer.
Afterward, Sturgis was photographed holding a rifle on top of the covered mass grave. Castro appointed Sturgis gambling czar and director of security and intelligence for the air force, in addition to his position as a captain in the 26th of July Movement. Sturgis went to Miami on June 2, 1959, with Alan McDonald while "supervising the investigation of several American gamblers with criminal records that operate casinos in Havana." They reque
Nixon White House tapes
The Nixon White House tapes are audio recordings of conversations between U. S. President Richard Nixon and Nixon administration officials, Nixon family members, White House staff, produced between 1971 and 1973. In February 1971, a sound-activated taping system was installed in the Oval Office, including in Nixon's Oval Office desk, using Sony TC-800B open-reel tape recorders to capture audio transmitted by telephone taps and concealed microphones; the system was expanded to include other rooms within the White Camp David. The system was turned off on July 18, 1973, two days after it became public knowledge as a result of the Senate Watergate Committee hearings. Nixon was not the first president to record his White House conversations; the tapes' existence came to light during the Watergate scandal of 1973 and 1974, when the system was mentioned during the televised testimony of White House aide Alexander Butterfield before the Senate Watergate Committee. Nixon's refusal of a congressional subpoena to release the tapes constituted an article of impeachment against Nixon, led to his subsequent resignation on August 9, 1974.
On August 19, 2013, the Nixon Library and the National Archives and Records Administration released the final 340 hours of the tapes that cover the period from April 9 through July 12, 1973. Just prior to assuming office in January 1969, President Nixon learned that his predecessor, Lyndon Johnson, had installed a system to record his meetings and telephone calls. According to his Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman, Nixon ordered the system removed, but during the first two years of his presidency he came to the conclusion that audio recordings were the only way to ensure a full and faithful account of conversations and decisions. At Nixon's request and his staff—including Deputy Assistant Alexander Butterfield—worked with the United States Secret Service to install a recording system. On February 16, 1971, a taping system was installed in two rooms in the White House, the Oval Office and the Cabinet Room. Three months microphones were added to President Nixon's private office in the Old Executive Office Building and the following year microphones were installed in the presidential lodge at Camp David.
The system was installed and monitored by the Secret Service, the tapes were stored in a room in the White House basement. Significant phone lines were tapped as well, including those in the Oval Office, Old Executive Office Building and the Lincoln Sitting Room, Nixon's favorite room in the White House. Telephone conversations were recorded by tapping the telephone lines from the White House switchboard and relaying the conversations to recorders in a closet in the basement of the residence. All audio equipment was sound-activated, except in the Cabinet Room. All locations in the White House were activated by the Executive Protective Service's "First Family Locator" system: when an officer notified the system that the president was in the Oval Office, the taping machinery switched on, ready to record when triggered by sound. By design, only few individuals knew of the existence of the taping system: Butterfield, Haldeman's assistant Lawrence Higby, the Secret Service technicians who had installed it.
The recordings were produced on as many as nine Sony TC-800B machines using thin 0.5mil tape at the slow speed of 15/16 inches per second. The tapes contain more than 3,000 hours of conversation. Hundreds of hours are of discussions on foreign policy, including planning for the 1972 Nixon visit to China and subsequent visit to the Soviet Union. Only 200 of the 3,500 hours contain references to Watergate and less than 5% of the recorded material has been transcribed or published; the existence of the White House taping system was first confirmed by Senate Committee staff member Donald Sanders, on July 13, 1973, in an interview with White House aide Alexander Butterfield. Three days it was made public during the televised testimony of Butterfield, when he was asked about the possibility of a White House taping system by Senate Counsel Fred Thompson. On July 16, 1973, Butterfield told the committee in a televised hearing that Nixon had ordered a taping system installed in the White House to automatically record all conversations.
Special Counsel Archibald Cox, a former United States Solicitor General under President John F. Kennedy, asked District Court Judge John Sirica to subpoena nine relevant tapes to confirm the testimony of White House Counsel John Dean. President Nixon refused to release the tapes, for two reasons: first, that the Constitutional principle of executive privilege extends to the tapes and citing the separation of powers and checks and balances within the Constitution, second, claiming they were vital to national security. On October 19, 1973, he offered a compromise. S. Senator John C. Stennis review and summarize the tapes for accuracy and report his findings to the special prosecutor's office. Special prosecutor Archibald Cox refused the compromise and on Saturday, October 20, 1973, Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Cox. Richardson refused and resigned instead Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus was asked to fire Cox but refused and was subsequently fired. Solicitor General and acting head of the Justice Department Robert Bork fired Cox.
Nixon appointed Leon Jaworski special counsel on November 1, 1973. According to President Nixon's secretary, Rose Mary Woods, on September 29, 1973, she was reviewing a tape of the June 20, 1972, recordings when she made "a terrible mistake" during transcription. While playing the tape on a Uher 5000, she answered. Reaching for the Uhe