The Fioravanti family were a noble family originating in Pistoia in Tuscany and active in Florence and other Italian towns. They were Guelf in their politics and allied with the Cancellieri family and adversaries of the Ghibelline Panciatichi family. An early record dates to 1267. In 1310 Ranieri, his son, was Mayor of the Pistoia. In 1319 Simone di Ranieri was a member of the elders. Giovanni di Puccio di Ranieri Fioravanti was a banker active at the court of Pope Clement V in Avignon. Andrea di Simone di Baldo Fioravanti was elected Capitano della Montagna Superiore, June 17, 1354. Francesco di Rinieri was the Gonfaloniere of the Florentine Republic in the years 1385 and 1389: Neri his son was Gonfaloniere in 1428.
The Dante Society of America was founded in 1881 through the leadership of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Charles Eliot Norton, who in turn served as the society's first three presidents. One of the oldest scholarly societies in North America, the DSA predates both the Modern Language Association, founded in 1883, the American Historical Association, founded in 1884; the society's mission, first formulated at its founding and now renewed and reinvigorated for the twenty-first century, is to encourage the study and appreciation of the time, life and cultural legacy of Dante Alighieri. After the Deutsche Dante-Gesellschaft it is the second-oldest scholarly organization devoted to the study of this medieval Italian poet; the Dante Society of America is one of the first scholarly societies in the United States to welcome women among its founding members. The current president is Albert Russell Ascoli of the University of California at Berkeley; the society was formally established in 1881 under the leadership of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Charles Eliot Norton, who served as its first three presidents.
Without the impetus of Longfellow, both as a translator and as an educator, the Dante Society of America might never have come into being. Scholar Karl Witte had initiated and sustained an early Deutsche Dante-Gesellschaft in Germany for a dozen years before it ceased its activities in 1877. One year earlier, a similar group had come together in Oxford, with scholar Edward Moore at its helm, but it was Longfellow, with his translation of the Italian epic poem, who first brought the Americans James Russell Lowell and Charles Eliot Norton to his table at Craigie House to discuss Dante. While Longfellow was designated the first president of the Society, the actual inauguration did not take place until May 16, 1882, two months after Longfellow's death. There, the forty-eight members mourned the loss of Longfellow, while electing Lowell to continue the leadership of the Society. Founded in Cambridge, Mass. the society has always been associated with Harvard University, due in no small part to the lasting influence of these three professors.
Harvard was one of the first American universities to make instruction in modern languages part of its curriculum. Edward Everett Hale, an early member of the Society, remembered his Italian lessons and Longfellow's lectures at Harvard: Longfellow read the whole of Dante with us and we were well prepared for this by what we had read with Bachi... And I can say that when we came to hear Longfellow lecture, we were more than prepared for his lectures by the thorough work which Bachi had done in this same subject with us. James Russell Lowell took over Longfellow's course upon his resignation in 1855. Twenty-two years he would resign his chair at Harvard to accept the appointment of United States Minister to Spain and pass the course on to a professor in the history of art, Charles Eliot Norton. Norton's classes were described by another early member of the Society, William Roscoe Thayer: To read Dante with Norton was an act of worship. There was in his voice something wholly incommunicable; as he reached a favorite passage his face became radiant and his tones more tender.
He explained from every side,-- verbal, literary, spiritual... In his interpretation of Dante Norton had one immense advantage which neither Lowell nor any other English-speaking Dantist has possessed: he had a specialist's knowledge of mediaeval art. So the thirteenth century lived for him not in its poetry and chronicles, but in paintings and statues in its churches and town halls, its palaces and dwellings... he could compass the whole circle of experience and the ideals of that world of which the Divine Comedy is the supreme expression in language. Another early goal of the Society was to create a specialized library of Dante literature. Few works by Italian scholars on Dante were available in the United States; the three volume commentary on the Comedy by G. Biagioli first published in Paris in 1816 and reissued by Neapolitan publisher Rondinella in 1868, could be found on the shelves of the Harvard College Library. So too the 1887 edition of Pietro Fraticelli's commentary published in 1860 by G. Barbera of Florence.
These might have been supplemented by Cesare Balbo's Vita di Dante, or some of Foscolo's essays, but it was under the direction of William Coolidge Lane, an assistant librarian at the Harvard College Library and member of the Society, that an extensive scholarly collection began to take shape. Charles Eliot Norton's bequest would both deepen the collection. An 1890 catalog of the collection compiled by Lane and issued by the Harvard Library listed over 1200 volumes on Dante, including over three hundred different editions of the Divine Comedy. Today the collection at Harvard is regarded as the third largest on the subject in the world. From its founding, membership in the Dante Society of America was open to women; this was unusual for the time, as membership in other early scholarly societies in North America such as the American Philosophical Society and the Modern Language Association were not open to women. The first annual report of the Society listed Miss S. L. Butler, Mrs. C. Dupee, Miss Heloise Durant, Mrs. S. A. Gordon, Miss Fannie L. Payson, Mrs. A.
L. Wister as founding members. In 1902, Yale Ph. D. and Smith professor Mary Augusta Scott would become the first woman to serve on the Executive Council. Scott was followed by Margaret Jackson in 1907, Anna Lyman Mason Gray in 1913 and Katherine V. Spencer in 1915. Other early female members of note include Anna Eliot Tickn
Onoba semicostata is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Rissoidae. Turbo semicostatus Montagu, 1803 is another species than those, understand by that name. According to Warén Turbo shepeianus could be the valid name for this species found off Belgium. Further research is necessary, therefore we use the more used name Onoba semicostata. Janssen mentioned two subspecies: O. s. semicostata and O. s. aculeus. Thorson, Warén and Fretter & Graham are followed who both consider O. s. semicostata and O. s. aculeus as separate species. This marine species occurs in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Northern and Northeast Atlantic Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea. Montagu, G. Testacea Britannica or Natural History of British Shells, Marine and Fresh-water, Including the Most Minute: Systematically Arranged and Embellished with Figures. J. White, Vol. 1, xxxvii + 291 pp. and Vol. 2, 293–606 pp. Ziegelmeier, E.. Die Schnecken der deutsche Meeresgebiete und brackigen Küstengewässer.
Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 13: 1-66 Gofas, S.. Mollusca, in: Costello, M. J. et al.. European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213
David Chalmers, Lord Ormond was a 16th century Scottish landowner, historian and Senator of the College of Justice. His name appears as David Chambre and David Chambers and is title appears as Lord Ormand, he was a major figure in Edinburgh law and politics. His most notable contribution in history is as one of those accused of the murder of Lord Darnley and one of the persons organising the escape of Mary Queen of Scots from Loch Leven Castle. Born pre-Reformation, he appears to have retained strong Catholic allegiance through turbulent times, he was born in Ross-shire around 1530 the son of Andrew Chalmers, descended from the Chalmers of Strichen. He studied Divinity at Aberdeen University studied both Canon Law and Civil Law in France and Italy; the latter study was at the University of Bologna under Marianus Sozenus in 1556. He returned to Ross-shire around 1557 and was successively parson of Suddie, Provost of Crichton, Chancellor of the Diocese of Ross. In these roles he resided at Ormond Castle on Ormond Hill.
The castle would have formed a distinctive profile as seen from the coastal village of Avoch which fell under his control. Given the position of the castle and village it is that all travel to Edinburgh etc was undertaken by ship. In January 1565 he replaced Henry Sinclair, Bishop of Ross as a Senator of the College of Justice, adopting the title Lord Ormond. In December 1566 Mary Queen of Scots granted him lands at Castleton in recognition of his services to Scotland both within the country and on the continent, he appears to have been a confidant of the Queen. In February 1567 he was named in a placard nailed to Edinburgh Tolbooth next to St Giles Cathedral as one of the conspirators in the murder of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and his valet, William Taylor; as Chalmers house adjoined Kirk o'Field, the site of the murder, it is that at the least he was a witness to the event. The placard accused the Earl of Bothwell, James Balfour of Flisk, "black" John Spens, Lord Condie. In May 1568 he was involved in helping Mary Queen of Scots escape from Loch Leven Castle and fought for her at the Battle of Langside, alongside numerous Scottish noblemen.
For these actions the Scottish parliament exiled him, he was forced to leave Scotland for several years. In exile from the summer of 1568 he first lived and associated with the court of Philip II in Spain in France in the court of Charles IX. Ormond Castle and his adjacent estates at Suddie and Avoch were sold to Andrew Munro of Milntown late in 1568. In May 1584 the Scottish parliament lifted his ban and allowed his return to Scotland after 16 years absence. In 1586 he was permitted to resume his role as a judge, he died in Edinburgh in November 1592. There is no clear record of his exact burial place but he appears to be buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard. "Notes of the Scottish Parliament" aka "The Black Acts" French translation of "History of Scotland and England" Not known
Stipple engraving is a technique used to create tone in an intaglio print by distributing a pattern of dots of various sizes and densities across the image. The pattern is created on the printing plate either in engraving by gouging out the dots with a burin, or through an etching process. Stippling was used as an adjunct to conventional line engraving and etching for over two centuries, before being developed as a distinct technique in the mid-18th century; the technique allows for subtle tonal variations and is suitable for reproducing chalk drawings. Stipple effects were used in conjunction with other engraving techniques by artists as early as Giulio Campagnola and Ottavio Leoni, although some of Campagnola's small prints were entirely in stipple. In Holland in the seventeenth century, the printmaker and goldsmith Jan Lutma developed an engraving technique, known as opus mallei, in which the dots are punched into the plate by an awl struck with a hammer, while in England the faces of portraits were engraved with stippled dots by William Rogers in the sixteenth century and Lucas Vorsterman in the seventeenth.
An etched stipple technique known as the crayon manner, suitable for producing imitations of chalk drawings, was pioneered in France. Gilles Demarteau used in 1756 goldsmith's chasing tools and marking-wheels to shade the lines in a series of Trophies designed by Antoine Watteau. Jean-Charles François, a partner of Demarteau further developed the technique and used it to engrave the whole plate. François engraved in 1757 three etchings directly on copper in crayon manner, he used the technique to etch three plates using different-size needles bound together. Other people who contributed to this new engraving technique included Alexis Magny and Jean-Baptiste Delafosse. William Wynne Ryland, who had worked with Jean-Charles François, took the crayon manner to Britain, using it in his contributions to Charles Roger’s publication A Collection of Prints in imitation of Drawings, developing it further under the name of "stipple engraving"; the process of stipple engraving is described in T. H. Fielding's Art of Engraving.
To begin with an etching "ground" is laid on the plate, a waxy coating that makes the plate resistant to acid. The outline is drawn out in small dots with an etching needle, the darker areas of the image shaded with a pattern of close dots; as in mezzotint use was made of roulettes, a mattoir to produce large numbers of dots quickly. The plate is bitten with acid, the etching ground removed; the lighter areas of shade are laid in with a drypoint or a stipple graver. The etched middle and dark tones would be deepened where appropriate with the graver. In France the technique fed a fashion for reproductions of red chalk drawings by artists such as Antoine Watteau and François Boucher. Gilles Demarteau etched 266 drawings of Boucher in stipple, for printing in an appropriate sanguine-coloured ink and framing; these prints so resembled red chalk drawings. They could be hung in the small blank spaces of the elaborately decorated paneling of residences. In England the technique was used for "furniture prints" with a similar purpose, became popular, though regarded with disdain by producers of the portrait mezzotints that dominated the English portrait print market.
Stipple competed with mezzotint as a tonal method of printmaking, while it lacked the rich depth of tone of mezzotint, it had the great advantage that far more impressions could be taken from a plate. During the late eighteenth century, some printmakers, including Francesco Bartolozzi, began to use colour in stipple engraving. Rather than using separate plates for each colour, as in most colour printing processes of the time, such as Jacob Christoph Le Blon's three-colour mezzotint method, the different colours were applied with a brush to a single plate for each impression, a skilled operation which soon proved economically unviable; this method is known as à la poupée after the French term for the small cotton pads used for the inking. Media related to Stipple engravings at Wikimedia Commons