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United States Strategic Bombing Survey

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey was a written report created by a board of experts assembled to produce an impartial assessment of the effects of Anglo-American strategic bombing of Nazi Germany during the European theatre of World War II. After publishing its report, the Survey members turned their attention to the efforts against Imperial Japan during the Pacific War, including a separate section on the recent use of the atomic bombs. In total, the reports contained 208 volumes for Europe and another 108 for the Pacific, comprising thousands of pages; the reports' conclusions were favourable about the contributions of Allied strategic bombing towards victory, calling it "decisive". A majority of the Survey's members were civilians in positions of influence on the various committees of the survey. Only one position of some influence was given to a prominent military officer, USAAF General Orvil A. Anderson, that too in an advisory capacity. Anderson was the only one on the survey board who knew about procedures of strategic bombing as Jimmy Doolittle's former deputy commander of operations.

While the Board was not associated with any branch of the military, it was established by General Hap Arnold along with Carl A. Spaatz. Failing to obtain the prominent public figure he had hoped for, Arnold settled for Franklin D'Olier; the Survey team was formed on 3 November 1944 by Secretary of War Henry Stimson in response to a directive by President Roosevelt. The headquarters was in England; the sociologist, Charles Fritz was part of the survey team before going on to become a significant theorist in disaster research. The Survey was tasked with producing an impartial report on the effects of the bombing against Nazi Germany, in order to: aid the upcoming campaign against the Japanese home islands, establish a basis for evaluating the importance and potentialities of air power as an instrument of military strategy, provide data for planning the future development of the United States armed forces, determine future economic policies with respect to the national defense; the report, along with some 200 supporting documents, was released on 30 September 1945.

The major conclusion of the report was that strategic bombing the destruction of the oil industry and truck manufacturing, had contributed to the success of the Allies in World War II. However, despite the overall contribution of the bombing, the survey concluded that the impact of strategic bombing could not be separated from the general collapse of Germany in 1945; the Survey noted several successes against crucial industrial areas: "The Attack on Oil": This section of the USSBS presents the statistics for the Oil Plan portion of the bombing campaign against petroleum and lubrication products regarding the Leuna complex that produced a notable portion of the synthetic oil. The survey repeats the Nazi Germany position that the campaign was "catastrophic". Ammunition: Production fell markedly in 1944 and the arms industry shipped bombs and shells packed with rock salt, as Germany ran out of nitrate, a vital ingredient. Albert Speer, head of the Nazi economy, shifted the last nitrogen from the war effort to agriculture because he believed the war was lost and next year's crops were more important.

Truck manufacturing facilities were extensively bombed. Of the top three producers, Opel at Brandenburg, was shut down in one raid in August 1944, never recovered. Daimler Benz was decimated a month later; the third largest producer, Ford's subsidiary at Cologne was never attacked, but production was cut during the same period by elimination of its component supplies and the bombing of its power sources. By December 1944, production of trucks was reduced to 35 percent of the average for the first half of the year. After the war, General Motors, owner of Opel sued the US government for $32 million in damages sustained to its German plants. Submarine manufacturing was halted; the Survey noted a number of failed or outcomes of limited success: Aviation production: "In 1944 the German air force is reported to have accepted a total of 39,807 aircraft of all types -- compared with 8,295 in 1939, or 15,596 in 1942 before the plants suffered any attack." According to the report none of the aircraft produced in 1944 were used in combat and some may have been imaginary.

Armoured fighting vehicle production "reached its wartime peak in December 1944, when 1,854 tanks and armored vehicles were produced. This industry continued to have high production through February 1945." Ball bearings: "There is no evidence that the attacks on the ball-bearing industry had any measurable effect on essential war production." "Secondary Campaigns": "The bombing of the launching sites being prepared for the V weapons delayed the use of V-l appreciably. The attacks on the V-weapon experimental station at Peenemunde, were not effective; the breaking of the Mohne and the Eder dams, though the cost was small had limited effect." Steel: The bombing reduced production, but the resulting shortage had no contribution to the defeat. Consumer goods: "In the early years of the war—the soft war period for Germany—civilian consumption remained high. Germans continued to try for butter; the German people entered the period of the air war well stocked with clothing and other consumer goods. Although most consumer goods became difficult to obtain, Survey studies show that adequate supplies of clothing wer

HMS Euphrates (1866)

HMS Euphrates was an iron-hulled troopship of the Euphrates class. She was designed for the transport of British troops to India, launched in the River Mersey on 24 November 1866 by Laird Brothers of Birkenhead, she was the last Royal Navy ship to bear the name. Euphrates was one of five iron-hulled vessels of the Euphrates class. All five were built to a design of 360 ft overall length by about 49 ft breadth, although Malabar was slightly smaller than the rest of the class, they had a single screw, a speed of 14 knots, one funnel, a barque-rig sail plan, three 4-pounder guns, a white painted hull. Her bow was a "ram bow", she was operated by the Royal Navy to transport up to 1,200 troops and family from Portsmouth to Bombay. The return trip via the Suez canal took 70 days, her two-cylinder single-expansion steam engines were replaced in 1873 with a more efficient but less powerful 2-cylinder compound-expansion engine, giving her a reduced top speed under steam of about 11 knots. On 6 February 1892, she collided with the German steamer Gutenfels in the Suez Canal.

Gutenfels suffered some damage to her upperworks. She was sold to I Cohen in Portsmouth on 23 November 1894 and resold to Henry Castle and Son for breaking in August 1895. Personal description, Alnod Studd of 15th Hussars, 1876 Diary of voyage, J S Waterhouse, Green Howards, 1870 Questions in the House of Commons, 1872 - HMS Euphrates

Asiong Salonga

Nicasio "Asiong" Rodriguez Salonga was an infamous Filipino gangster whose notorious life had been portrayed in several movie versions in 1961, 1977, 1990 and 2011. Asiong was considered one of the Philippines' public enemies where he reigned and dominated the Manila's then-known mob district, for several years. Asiong as a gang leader had solid loyal 12 members of his group, with 4 hideouts in Manila. Salonga's name had been linked to several illegal possession of firearms, selling of firearms, collection of sum of money from businessmen, other unknown nefarious cases from which somehow he had always managed to squirm out of arrest. Despite this reputation, Salonga was still considered a hero by many local residents, thus earning him a nickname the "Robin Hood of Tondo". Asiong was recognized by many in Metro Manila due to the frequent appearances of his name in the headlines of the journal news; the only record of Salonga in the Supreme Court was dated March 28, 1946, concerned with his arrest without warrant on January 10 of the same year.

The 2011 awarded film Manila Kingpin: The Asiong Salonga Story is based on his life story. He was shot dead in 1951 by one of his companions in a drinking spree, Ernesto Reyes, speculated as a double cross for fellow gang leader, Salonga’s rival, Carlos Capistrano whom Reyes worked for; some sources pointed politics as another angle behind the killing. Salonga's death occurred prior to his 27th birthday. Portrayed by E. R. Ejercito in the 2011 film, Manila Kingpin: The Asiong Salonga Story. Nardong Putik

Missing and murdered Indigenous women

The missing and murdered Indigenous women epidemic is an issue affecting Indigenous people in Canada and the United States, including the First Nations, Inuit, Métis, Native American communities. It has been described as a Canadian genocide. A corresponding mass movement in the U. S. and Canada works to raise awareness of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls though organized marches, community meetings, the building of databases, local city council meetings, tribal council meetings and domestic violence trainings for police. Responding to repeated calls from Indigenous groups, other activists, non-governmental organizations, the Government of Canada under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau established the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls in September 2016. According to the April 22, 2016 background of the inquiry, between 1980 and 2012 Indigenous women and girls represented 16% of all female homicides in Canada, while constituting only 4% of the female population in Canada.

A 2011 Statistics Canada report estimated that from 1997 and 2000, the rate of homicide for Aboriginal females was seven times higher than other females. Compared to non-Indigenous females, they were "disproportionately affected by all forms of violence", they are significantly over-represented among female Canadian homicide victims, are far more than other women to go missing. In the United States, Native American women are more than twice as to experience violence than any other demographic. One in three Native women is sexually assaulted during her life, 67% of these assaults are perpetrated by non-Natives. Lisa Brunner, executive director of Sacred Spirits First National Coalition states "What's happened through US Federal law and policy is they created lands of impunity where this is like a playground for serial rapists, killers and our children aren't protected at all." The federal Violence Against Women Act was reauthorized in 2013, which for the first time gave tribes jurisdiction to investigate and prosecute felony domestic violence offenses involving both Native American and non-Native offenders on reservations.

In 2019 the Democratic House passed H. R. 1585 by a vote of 263–158, which increases tribes' prosecution rights much further. However in the Republican Senate its progress has stalled. Law enforcement and activists in Indigenous communities - in both the US and Canada - have fought to bring awareness to this connection between sex trafficking, sexual harassment, sexual assault, the women who go missing and turn up murdered; the RCMP's 2014 report "Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview" found that more than 1,000 Indigenous women were murdered over thirty years. While homicides for non-Indigenous women declined between 1980 and 2015, the number of Indigenous women who were victims of homicide increased from 9% of all female homicide victims in 1980 to 24% in 2015. From 2001 to 2015, the homicide rate for Indigenous women in Canada was six times as high as the homicide rate for non-Indigenous women, representing "4.82 per 100,000 population versus 0.82 per 100,000 population".

In Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, in the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, this over-representation of Indigenous women among homicide victims was higher. In response to activists, the Canadian government-funded data collection on missing and murdered women, ending in 2010, but advocacy groups say that many more women have been missing, with the highest number of cases in British Columbia. Some notable cases have included 19 women killed in the Highway of Tears murders, some of the 49 women from the Vancouver area murdered by serial killer Robert Pickton; as a group, "socially and politically marginalized", Indigenous women have been frequent targets for hatred and violence. Underlying factors such as poverty and homelessness contribute to their victimization, as do historical factors such as racism and the legacy of colonialism; the trauma caused by abuses under Canada's residential school system likely plays a role. Indigenous women are between 3 and 3.5 times more to be victims of violent crime than other women, the violence they face is more severe.

One of the most significant findings of the June 2019 report, "National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls" was that there was no "reliable estimate of the numbers of missing and murdered Indigenous women, 2SLGBTQQIA persons in Canada."Canada did not maintain a database for missing people until 2010, which made it difficult to determine the rate at which Indigenous women are murdered or go missing, or to compare their data to those of other populations. The National Centre for Missing Persons and Unidentified Remains unit was established in 2010 in response to RCMP investigations of murdered and missing Indigenous women in relation to what became known as the "Highway of Tears" — an area of intersecting highways around Highway 16 in British Columbia. In order to track a national picture of missing persons across Canada, the RCMP created the Missing Children and unidentified Remains unit and developed an algorithm to collect and collate "all missing persons reports and related reports filed by police across Canada" into the Canadian Police Information Centre.

Since 2010, NC/MPUR has publishes the NCMPUR Fast Fact Sheet providing a "national breakdown of missing persons reports by province, sex, an

Oath (horse)

Oath is a retired Thoroughbred race horse, bred in Ireland and trained by Henry Cecil in Great Britain, best known for winning the 1999 Epsom Derby. He never ran again, he is an active sire standing in India. Oath was foaled on 22 April 1996 in Ireland, he is a small, "neat" bay horse bred in Ireland by Mrs Max Morris. He was from one of the last groups of foals sired by the Northern Dancer stallion Fairy King out of the Troy mare Sheer Audacity. Apart from Oath, Fairy King, who died in 1999, sired the winners of over five-hundred races, including Helissio and Falbrav, his dam, Sheer Audacity produced several good winners, the most notable being Pelder, who won three Group One races, including the Prix Ganay. As a yearling, Oath was sent to the Goffs sales in County Kildare, where he was bought for IR£450,000 by The Thoroughbred Corporation, a syndicate headed by the Saudi prince Ahmed bin Salman. Like all of Salman's horses, which included War Emblem, Point Given and Royal Anthem, Oath raced in a distinctive white bridle.

He was sent into training with Roger Charlton at Beckhampton, but after his first race he was moved to the stable of Henry Cecil at Newmarket. After his move, he was ridden in all his races by Kieren Fallon. Oath made his racecourse debut in a maiden race at Goodwood in June. Ridden by Tim Sprake, he finished fifth of the eight runners, beaten two and a half lengths in a race which looked good in retrospect: the winner Muqtarib won the Richmond Stakes in July, whilst the runner-up Compton Admiral went on to win the following year's Eclipse Stakes. At Yarmouth in September, he finished third in a field of seventeen on his debut for Cecil, after appearing to have "every chance". Oath won at the third attempt in a maiden race at Nottingham in October, he led early and ran on after being headed to win by two and a half lengths from modest opposition. His official end of season rating of 91 suggested that he had a future as a racehorse, but that he was around thirty pounds below top class. Oath's three-year-old debut in a minor stakes race at Newbury showed that he had made some progress over the winter.

He led from the start and stayed on well under pressure before finishing second, beaten a neck by the future Group race winner Lucido. The race was his first opportunity to race over middle distances, his improvement suggested that his stamina would be a strength; the first indication that he might be a top class colt came in his next start, in which he was tried in conditions race company for the first time in the Listed Dee Stakes a recognised trial for the Derby, run at Chester. Oath showed ability far beyond anything he had revealed, by travelling "effortlessly", taking the lead two furlongs from the finish, winning by five lengths, with Fallon easing the colt down in the closing strides. Fallon was pleased with the colt's progress, Willie Carson, representing the owners said that the colt was an ideal Derby type whilst expressing some doubts about his ability to stay the trip. Oath's rapid progress and the high reputation of his trainer, who had sent out three Derby winners, saw him enter contention for the Derby, with bookmakers offering him at odds of 14/1.

The remaining Derby trials revealed no outstanding contenders, Oath, who at least had solid winning form and seemed to be improving, was shortened to 6-1 joint-favourite by the end of the following week. The Derby of 1999, run in cold wet conditions, was a open race, with many lightly-tested colts and only one previous Group One winner, the Irish-trained Saffron Walden; the regarded, but untested Dubai Millennium started favourite at 5/1, with Oath and Lucido joint second in the betting at 13/2. Before the Derby, the horses are paraded in front of the stands. Fallon broke away from the parade early and took Oath, described as "restive" and "hot-headed" directly to the start. In the race Oath was always in contention, turned into the straight in fifth place behind the leader All The Way. Two furlongs out Daliapour was sent into the lead, Fallon made his challenge on Oath; the two colts ran together for several strides before Oath pulled ahead and was driven out by Fallon to win by one and three quarter lengths.

After the race Fallon was penalised for breaking out of the parade, although Cecil revealed that the jockey was acting under his instructions and had been told to "not worry about the fine."The intention was that Oath would run in the Irish Derby where he would be matched against the Prix du Jockey Club winner Montjeu, while his stable companion, the four-year-old Royal Anthem would contest the King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes. The plan was changed when an injury to Royal Anthem ruled him out of the King George and Oath was made the new favourite for the race. Shortly afterwards, Oath was withdrawn from the Irish Derby after performing poorly in a home gallop and so went straight to the race at Ascot without another start. In the King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes Oath faced older horses, including the multiple Group One winner Daylami, for the first time. Oath, was still a unexposed colt, hopes that he was still improving led to him being sent off the 9/4 favourite, he ran well for most of the race, but when Fallon tried to move the colt towards the lead in the straight he was soon struggling and faded badly.

He finished seventh of the eight runners, ahead Daliapour, in what the Independent's correspondent described as a "lamentable" performance by the only two three-year-olds in the field. The reason for Oath's poor run was revealed shortly afterwards. Examinations revealed; the injury was so serious that the colt's conne

Orléans Ward

Orléans Ward is a city ward in the city of Ottawa, Canada. It was created before the 2000 Election; the ward covers much of the suburban community of Orleans in the east of the city. Previous to that, the ward existed in the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton Council, it contains the neighbourhoods of Convent Glen, Convent Glen South, Hiawatha Park, Orleans Wood, Queenswood Village, Chatelaine Village, River Walk, Queenswood Heights, Queenswood South and the eastern part of the Cardinal Creek neighbourhood. Not all of Orleans is in the Orléans Ward, as some of it is in Innes Ward, it covers an area of 25.2 km2. When the Ward boundaries changed for the 2006 election, there was only a small change to the ward boundary on Portobello, it is represented by Bob Monette, city councillor as it the seat was vacated by Herb Kreling in September 2005. Kreling had held the seat since its inception. Montette won in a by-election January 2006 his main opposition was former school board trustee Sheryl MacDonald and Elena Harder, daughter of city councillor Jan Harder.

In the November 2006 general election Monette's only opposition was Dennis Vowels. According to the Canada 2011 CensusThe Ward's population was 47,670. Ethnic groups: 81.4% White, 5.5% Black, 3.0% South Asian, 2.8% Aboriginal, 1.9% Arab, 1.7% Chinese Languages: 59.6% English, 31.7% French, 1.5% Arabic, 1.0% Chinese Religions: 78.2% Christian, 3.1% Muslim, 1.1% Hindu, 16.5% No religion Median income: $45,285 Average income: $50,954 Prior to 1994, the area was represented by the Mayors of Cumberland and Gloucester and 2 at large Gloucester city and regional councillors. From 1994 to 2000, the area was covered by Queenswood and Fallingbrook Wards on Cumberland City Council and Orléans North Ward on Gloucester City Council. Herb Kreling Bob Monette Matthew Luloff Following amalgamation, regional councillor Herb Kreling defeated Cumberland City Councillors John Morgan and Gerry Lalonde. Held on January 9 to replace the out going Herb Kreling. Candidates Elena Harder: Daughter of Bell-South Nepean Ward councillor Jan Harder Debbie Jodoin: Socially Conservative political activist Sheryl MacDonald: Orleans/Cumberland Public School Board Trustee 1997-2005, as well as former Human Rights Commissioner, provincial Labour Relations Board Member, United Way Director, Family Services Association Board Member, Citizen Advocacy Board Member, Human Resources manager for Air Canada.

Pierre Maheu president of the Orléans Parks and Recreation Association and a member of the City of Ottawa's Committee of Adjustment, ran for regional council in 1997, in 2002 dropped out of the race for the Liberal Party of Ontario nomination in Ottawa—Orléans. Louise Malloy: Seniors advocate and a retired military sergeant. Ran in the 2003 election, lost to Herb Kreling. Bob Monette: Former Cumberland Township councillor. Ran for regional council in 1994 but lost. Gino L. Nicolini Owner of Nicolini Construction and Engineering Ltd. as well as several pizza shops in and around Ottawa namely Nicolini PizzaLand. Michel Tardif Fringe candidateDropped out Don Rivington - ran in Bay Ward in the 2003 election. Opted to run in mayoral race instead, to forward is one issue candidacy Results After facing seven candidates in the January by-election, incumbent councillor Bob Monette, faced off against Dennis Vowles, son of former Gloucester city councillor Ken Vowles. In 2018, Orleans Ward had 17 candidate names on a record.

Two candidates, Doug Feltmate and Louise Soyez, withdrew late in the campaign, reducing the active names to 15. Map of Orléans Ward