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United States antitrust law

In the United States, antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations to promote competition for the benefit of consumers. The main statutes are the Sherman Act of 1890, the Clayton Act of 1914 and the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914; these Acts serve three major functions. First, Section 1 of the Sherman Act prohibits price-fixing and the operation of cartels, prohibits other collusive practices that unreasonably restrain trade. Second, Section 7 of the Clayton Act restricts the mergers and acquisitions of organizations that would substantially lessen competition. Third, Section 2 of the Sherman Act prohibits the abuse of monopoly power. Federal antitrust laws provide for both criminal enforcement of antitrust laws; the Federal Trade Commission, the Antitrust Division of the U. S. Department of Justice, private parties who are sufficiently affected may all bring civil actions in the courts to enforce the antitrust laws.

However, criminal antitrust enforcement is done only by the Justice Department. U. S. states have antitrust statutes that govern commerce occurring within their state borders. The scope of antitrust laws, the degree to which they should interfere in an enterprise's freedom to conduct business, or to protect smaller businesses and consumers, are debated. One view closely associated with the "Chicago School of economics" suggests that antitrust laws should focus on the benefits to consumers and overall efficiency, while a broad range of legal and economic theory sees the role of antitrust laws as controlling economic power in the public interest. Although "trust" has a specific legal meaning, in the late 19th century the word was used to denote big business, because that legal instrument was used to effect a combination of companies. Large manufacturing conglomerates emerged in great numbers in the 1880s and 1890s, were perceived to have excessive economic power; the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 began a shift towards federal rather than state regulation of big business.

It was followed by the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 and the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914, the Robinson–Patman Act of 1936, the Celler–Kefauver Act of 1950. In the 1880s, hundreds of small short-line railroads were being bought up and consolidated into giant systems. People for strong antitrust laws argued that, in order for the American economy to be successful, it would require free competition and the opportunity for individual Americans to build their own businesses; as Senator John Sherman put it, "If we will not endure a king as a political power we should not endure a king over the production and sale of any of the necessaries of life." Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act unanimously in 1890, it remains the core of antitrust policy. The Act prohibits agreements in restraint of abuse of monopoly power, it gives the Justice Department the mandate to go to federal court for orders to stop illegal behavior or to impose remedies. Public officials during the Progressive Era put passing and enforcing strong antitrust high on their agenda.

President Theodore Roosevelt sued 45 companies under the Sherman Act, while William Howard Taft sued 90. In 1902, Roosevelt stopped the formation of the Northern Securities Company, which threatened to monopolize transportation in the Northwest. One of the better-known trusts was the Standard Oil Company. In 1911 the Supreme Court agreed, it broke the monopoly into three dozen separate companies that competed with one another, including Standard Oil of New Jersey, Standard Oil of Indiana, Standard Oil Company of New York, of California, Cleveland-based SOHIO - the parent of the trust, so on. In approving the breakup the Supreme Court added the "rule of reason": not all big companies, not all monopolies, are evil. To be harmful, a trust had to somehow damage the economic environment of its competitors. United States Steel Corporation, much larger than Standard Oil, won its antitrust suit in 1920 despite never having delivered the benefits to consumers that Standard Oil did. In fact, it lobbied for tariff protection that reduced competition, so contending that it was one of the "good trusts" that benefited the economy is somewhat doubtful.

International Harvester survived its court test, while other monopolies were broken up in tobacco and bathtub fixtures. Over the years hundreds of executives of competing companies who met together illegally to fix prices went to federal prison. In 1914 Congress passed the Clayton Act, which prohibited specific business actions if they lessened competition. At the same time Congress established the Federal Trade Commission, whose legal and business experts could force business to agree to "consent decrees", which provided an alternative mechanism to police antitrust. Americ

Lands inhabited by indigenous peoples

The lands inhabited by indigenous peoples receive different treatments around the world. Many countries have specific legislation, nomenclature, etc. for such lands. To protect indigenous land rights, special rules are sometimes created to protect the areas they live in. In other cases, governments establish "reserves" with the intention of segregation; some indigenous peoples live in places where their right to land is not recognised, or not protected. Indigenous Protected Areas Chittagong Hill Tracts Bohmong Circle Chakma Circle Mong Circle es:Autonomía indígena originario campesina Native Community Lands Terras Indígenas, in the wide sense Terras indígenas, in the strict sense Terras reservadas Terras dominiais Indian reserves, or First Nation reserves Nunavut, a federal territory open to non-natives but Inuit-majority Inuvialuit Settlement Region, established by the federeal government and lying within Yukon and the Northwest Territories, co-managed with the Inuvialuit Unique to each province: Aboriginal villages and territories, Quebec Métis Settlements, Alberta Nunatsiavut and Labrador Tibet Xinjiang en:Category:Indigenous reserves in Colombia es:Departamentos de Colombia#Territorios indígenas Resguardo indígena Indigenous territories of Costa Rica Boruca Indian Reservation Guaymi Indian Reservation Horse Treks and Guayami Indian Reservation Carib Territory Sápmi Epira Amerindian District Epira Amerindian Reservation Kanuku Amerindian District Karasabai Amerindian District Orealla Amerindian District Orealla Amerindian Reservation Pomeroon-Ituribisi Amerindian District Pomeroon-Ituribisi Indian Reservation Pomeroon-Ituribisi Reservation Saint Francis Amerindian District Guyana Area) Santa Amerindian District Wikki Amerindian District Wikki Amerindian Reservation Wikki Indian Reservation India tribal belt See Adivasi Kurdistan Iranian Kurdistan Kurdistan Region Rojava Turkish Kurdistan Federally Administered Tribal Areas Emberá-Wounaan Guna Yala Ngäbe-Buglé Guna de Madungandí Guna de Wargandí Communal reserves are conservation areas for flora and fauna, allowing traditional use for the rural populations surrounding the areas.

The use and marketing of the natural resources within the communal reserve is conducted by the same rural populations. Cordillera Administrative Region Autonomous okrugs of Russia Republics of Russia Territory of Traditional Natural Resource Use Bantustans Indigenous Areas Indian reservations Hawaiian Homelands Some lands inhabited for indigenous peoples can be considered as Indigenous and Community Conserved Area. Indigenous land rights Struggle for the Land Map "Amazon 2012 Protected Areas and Indigenous Territories" Карты резервации Колумбии BIA index to map of Indian reservations in the continental United States Карты резервации США разных годов http://pib.socioambiental.org/caracterizacao.php http://ccr6.pgr.mpf.gov.br/documentos-e-publicacoes/terras-indigenas/terras-indigenas/ http://ccr6.pgr.mpf.gov.br/documentos-e-publicacoes/terras-indigenas/tis/listagem-de-terras-indigenas-funai-2011.xls/view Convenio 169 de la OIT, Survival International Territorio Indígena y Gobernanza world indigenous territory map

John Rumney Nicholson

Sir John Rumney Nicholson was a British engineer. Nicholson was born at Langwathby in 1866, the son of Isaac Nicholson, was educated at St Bees School, his family was stated to be from Cumbria. He entered the works of Black, Hawthorn and Co. in Gateshead in 1883. He was resident engineer in charge of the erection of the first generating station of the Newcastle Electric Supply Company at Pandon Dene in 1889, he went to Venezuela, returned to London in 1894 to join P. W. and C. S. Meek consulting engineers, was engaged on dock and railway undertakings, including at the Port Talbot docks. From there he went to Ellesmere Works near Manchester. After his marriage in 1902, he moved with his wife to Singapore, where he was engaged as managing director of the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company, on its nationalization by the government in 1905 became chairman and chief engineer of the new Singapore Harbour Board. For his service in Singapore, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1913 Birthday Honours list, knighted in the 1919 Birthday Honours list.

He returned to the United Kingdom in 1918, after working a year on government work in France, was appointed chief engineer for docks on the North Eastern Railway in 1919. Following the formation of the London and North Eastern Railway group in 1923, he continued as chief engineer for docks of the North-Eastern area, he retired late 1927. He died on 1939 at his home Red House, near Keswick, Cumbria. Nicholson married at the parish church in Lugwardine on 24 September 1902 to Sybil Helen Croft, daughter of Sir Herbert Croft, 9th Baronet. Lady Nicholson was an Officer of the Order of the British Empire, they had one son and one daughter

Beyond the Years

Beyond the Years is a 2007 South Korean drama film. Celebrating director Im Kwon-taek's 100th film, it is based on the short fiction "The Wanderer of Seonhak-dong" by Lee Cheong-jun, was presented at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival. Despite being an informal sequel to Im's phenomenally successful Sopyonje, Beyond the Years was not popular with Korean audiences. Dong-ho and Song-hwa are separately adopted by Yu-bong, a nomadic singer, grow up as siblings. Dong-ho falls in love with Song-hwa, but he suffers from the fact that he has to call her sister and fight with Yu-bong’s obsession to make her a great singer. Dong-ho leaves home. However, with his unchanging affection for Song-hwa, he keeps following traces of his love while refining his drumming skills in order to match well with her singing; this is the heart-touching love story of Song-hwa, who devotes her life and love to her talent for Pansori, Dong-ho, who has devoted his life to loving her. Cho Jae-hyun Oh Jung-hae Ryu Seung-ryong Oh Seung-eun Im Jin-taek Jang Min-ho Go Soo-hee Beyond the Years at the Korean Movie Database Beyond the Years on IMDb Beyond the Years at HanCinema

Danièle Djamila Amrane-Minne

See Djamila BouhiredDanièle Minne was one of the few European women convicted for assisting the FLN during the Algerian War. Her mother Jacqueline Netter-Minne-Guerroudj and her stepfather Abdelkader Guerroudj, were both condemned to death as accomplices of Fernand Iveton, the only European, guillotined for his part in the Algerian revolt, her mother was never executed due to a campaign on her behalf conducted by Simone de Beauvoir. Danièle Minne joined the struggle when she was 17, going underground under the nom de guerre of Djamila. Minne was considered a women combatant in the Algerian War known as a fidayat, she "planted at least two bombs during the Battle of Algeris, joined the maquis in wilaya 3 in 1957". A historian, Alistair Horne, described one of Minne's missions: "The targets were the Otomatic, a favourite students's bar on the Rue Michelet. Arrested and jailed in December 1956, she was sentenced, on 4 December 1957, to 7 years in prison by a juvenile tribunal. Freed after independence in 1962, she wrote a PhD dissertation on the participation of Algerian women in the war, based on interviews with eighty-eight women between 1978 and 1986.

The book was the basis for the film Algeria: Women at War by Parminder Vir. Danièle Minne became Djamila Amrane by marriage in 1964, she worked at the University of Algiers but, by 1999, was a professor of history and feminist studies at the University of Toulouse. Amrane's Des femmes dans la guerre d'Algérie, "remains the major historical study on women's participation in the Algerian War" and identifies not only why women were involved in the war, but the various roles of women combatants and their contributions to the FLN, her research is based on interviews with former FLN women activists and consists of "eighty-eight interviews Algerian women combatants". As a militant herself, Minne "was in a privileged position to conduct person interviews that probe the intimate experiences of militant women". However, it is clear that as a former militant her work has been "influenced by her reconstruction and understanding of her own role during the war". Minne limits herself as a historian by making it clear through her cited testimony that women had indeed been tortured but chose to leave much unsaid in this regard.

The rationale behind this was, "given the trauma inflicted upon torture victims, she did not feel that she could interview her subjects about their ordeal. In her view, their silence proved their wish to forget a traumatic episode". In this sense, Minne's Des femmes dans la guerra d'Algérie "breaks the silence surrounding women's participation in the war, yet contributes to the silence concerning torture and its psychological consequences" that would last for decades after Algeria's independence, it would not be until a decade that the memoir of Louisette Ighilariz would come to light, thus revealing in more detail the nature of torture during the Algerian War. Amrane completed important research on the estimate of women who had participated in the Algerian War by using the register of the Ministry of Mujahidin, she concluded. Women and Politics in Algeria from the War of Independence to Our Day Research in African Literatures 30.3 62-77

Stellar evolution

Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time. Depending on the mass of the star, its lifetime can range from a few million years for the most massive to trillions of years for the least massive, longer than the age of the universe; the table shows the lifetimes of stars as a function of their masses. All stars are formed from collapsing clouds of gas and dust called nebulae or molecular clouds. Over the course of millions of years, these protostars settle down into a state of equilibrium, becoming what is known as a main-sequence star. Nuclear fusion powers a star for most of its existence; the energy is generated by the fusion of hydrogen atoms at the core of the main-sequence star. As the preponderance of atoms at the core becomes helium, stars like the Sun begin to fuse hydrogen along a spherical shell surrounding the core; this process causes the star to grow in size, passing through the subgiant stage until it reaches the red giant phase. Stars with at least half the mass of the Sun can begin to generate energy through the fusion of helium at their core, whereas more-massive stars can fuse heavier elements along a series of concentric shells.

Once a star like the Sun has exhausted its nuclear fuel, its core collapses into a dense white dwarf and the outer layers are expelled as a planetary nebula. Stars with around ten or more times the mass of the Sun can explode in a supernova as their inert iron cores collapse into an dense neutron star or black hole. Although the universe is not old enough for any of the smallest red dwarfs to have reached the end of their existence, stellar models suggest they will become brighter and hotter before running out of hydrogen fuel and becoming low-mass white dwarfs. Stellar evolution is not studied by observing the life of a single star, as most stellar changes occur too to be detected over many centuries. Instead, astrophysicists come to understand how stars evolve by observing numerous stars at various points in their lifetime, by simulating stellar structure using computer models. Stellar evolution starts with the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud. Typical giant molecular clouds are 100 light-years across and contain up to 6,000,000 solar masses.

As it collapses, a giant molecular cloud breaks into smaller pieces. In each of these fragments, the collapsing gas releases gravitational potential energy as heat; as its temperature and pressure increase, a fragment condenses into a rotating sphere of superhot gas known as a protostar. A protostar continues to grow by accretion of gas and dust from the molecular cloud, becoming a pre-main-sequence star as it reaches its final mass. Further development is determined by its mass. Mass is compared to the mass of the Sun: 1.0 M☉ means 1 solar mass. Protostars are encompassed in dust, are thus more visible at infrared wavelengths. Observations from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer have been important for unveiling numerous Galactic protostars and their parent star clusters. Protostars with masses less than 0.08 M☉ never reach temperatures high enough for nuclear fusion of hydrogen to begin. These are known as brown dwarfs; the International Astronomical Union defines brown dwarfs as stars massive enough to fuse deuterium at some point in their lives.

Objects smaller than 13 MJ are classified as sub-brown dwarfs. Both types, deuterium-burning and not, shine dimly and fade away cooling over hundreds of millions of years. For a more-massive protostar, the core temperature will reach 10 million kelvin, initiating the proton–proton chain reaction and allowing hydrogen to fuse, first to deuterium and to helium. In stars of over 1 M☉, the carbon–nitrogen–oxygen fusion reaction contributes a large portion of the energy generation; the onset of nuclear fusion leads quickly to a hydrostatic equilibrium in which energy released by the core maintains a high gas pressure, balancing the weight of the star's matter and preventing further gravitational collapse. The star thus evolves to a stable state, beginning the main-sequence phase of its evolution. A new star will sit at a specific point on the main sequence of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, with the main-sequence spectral type depending upon the mass of the star. Small cold, low-mass red dwarfs fuse hydrogen and will remain on the main sequence for hundreds of billions of years or longer, whereas massive, hot O-type stars will leave the main sequence after just a few million years.

A mid-sized yellow dwarf star, like the Sun, will remain on the main sequence for about 10 billion years. The Sun is thought to be in the middle of its main sequence lifespan; the core exhausts its supply of hydrogen and the star begins to evolve off of the main sequence. Without the outward radiation pressure generated by the fusion of hydrogen to counteract the force of gravity the core contracts until either electron degeneracy pressure becomes sufficient to oppose gravity or the core becomes hot enough for helium fusion to begin. Which of these happens first depends upon the star's mass. What happens after a low-mass star ceases to produce energy through fusion has not been directly observed. Recent astrophysical models suggest that red dwarfs of 0.1 M☉ may stay on the main sequence for s