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United States congressional delegations from Alabama

These are tables of congressional delegations from Alabama to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. List of members of the Alabamian United States House delegation, their terms in office, district boundaries, the district political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has a total including 6 Republicans and 1 Democrat. Starting on January 29, 1818, Alabama Territory sent a non-voting delegate to the House. After statehood on December 14, 1819, Alabama had one seat in the House. Following the 1820 census, Alabama had three seats. Following the 1830 census, Alabama had five seats. During the 27th Congress, those seats were all elected statewide at-large on a general ticket. Following the 1840 census, Alabama resumed the use of districts, now increased to seven. Following the 1860 census, Alabama was apportioned six seats. Following the 1870 census, Alabama was apportioned eight seats. From 1873 to 1877, the two new seats were elected at large, statewide. After 1877, the entire delegation was redistricted.

Following the 1890 census, Alabama was apportioned nine seats. Following the 1910 census, Alabama was apportioned ten seats. At first, the extra seat was elected at-large. Starting with the 1916 elections, the seats were redistricted and a tenth district was added. Following the 1930 census, Alabama was apportioned nine seats. Following the 1960 census, Alabama was apportioned eight seats. Since the 1970 census, Alabama has been apportioned seven seats; as of September 2019, there are fourteen living former members of the U. S. House of Representatives; as of July 2018, there are three living former U. S. Senators. List of United States congressional districts

March 18 Massacre

The March 18 Massacre was a massacre that took place on 18 March 1926, amid an anti-warlord and anti-imperialist demonstration in Beijing, China. The date, March 18, was referred to by Chinese writer Lu Xun as the "darkest day since the founding of the Republic". In November 1925 the Anti-Fengtian War broke out in northern China between the Soviet-backed Guominjun and the Japanese-backed Fengtian clique. By early 1926 the war was going badly for the Guominjun and, on March 8, they blockaded and mined Dagu harbor in defense of Tianjin. On March 12 a Japanese warship bombarded the Taku Forts in support of the Fengtian offensive, killing several Guominjun troops guarding the forts. In retaliation, Guominjun troops drove the warship out of the Tanggu harbor; the act was treated by Japan as a violation of the Boxer Protocol, signed in 1900 in the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion. Four days ambassadors representing eight countries that were signatory nations to the Protocol sent an ultimatum to the Beiyang Government under Duan Qirui.

The demand was. A demonstration was organized in front of the Tiananmen Gate on March 18. Li Dazhao, the leader of the demonstrators, made an emotional address, he called for an end to all unequal treaties signed between China and the foreign powers, in addition to expelling foreign ambassadors who issued the ultimatum. The Nationalist army, based in Guangzhou at the time, was urged to confront possible imperialist incursions since the Beiyang Government was unwilling to. A subsequent march by the protesters ended on a square in front of Beiyang Government headquarters. Duan Qirui, worried about the situation becoming destabilized, ordered armed military police to disperse the protesters; the confrontation led to more than 200 injured. Those who died included a student of the Female Normal University of Peking. Li Dazhao was wounded during the massacre, it was reported at the time that Duan Qirui went to the square where the massacre took place and knelt at the site in front of the dead bodies of the protesters.

Both the communist and nationalist organizers of the event were hunted down after the massacre. The warlord Zhang Zuolin ordered many schools in Beiping to be searched for any books or periodicals affiliated with either the Kuomintang or the Communist Party of China. Enormous public pressure forced the Duan government to open an emergency meeting of the parliament. A resolution was passed calling for the punishment of those responsible for the massacre. In April 1926 the Duan government was ousted by the Guominjun. Many memorials were built since the event; some of them are located in prestigious universities such as the Peking. Northern Expedition May 30 Movement History of Beijing

Welara

The Welara is a part-Arabian pony breed developed from the Arabian horse and the Welsh pony. It was bred in England by Lady Wentworth at the Crabbet Arabian Stud in the early 1900s from imported Arabian stallions and Welsh pony mares. Breeding spread throughout North America. In 1981, a breed registry was formed in the United States, a studbook began to be published, they are used for many disciplines of English riding, are known for their refinement and spirit. Welara stallions mares 13.1 to 14.3 hands. To be registered, Welaras must stand between 15 hands high. Crosses between Arabians and each of the four sections of Welsh Pony tend to produce different types of pony. Section A Welsh Pony crosses tend to be under 13 hands, be used as light driving ponies and mounts for small children. Section B crosses stand 13 to 13.2 hands and can be used for driving and as riding ponies for larger children and small adults. Section C crosses average 13.2 to 14.2 hands hands and tend to be a heavier pony, sometimes with feathered feet, although still showing the refinement of their Arabian ancestors.

Section D crosses stand 13.3 to 15 hands high. The latter two types are suited to riding by average and larger adults and for the majority of disciplines. All colors other than Appaloosa are allowed for registration. Welara Sport Ponies may be without the restrictions of the purebred Welara; the mix of Arabian and Welsh blood gives the breed refinement and hardiness, as well as good movement. The head is small and concave, the neck is arched; the shoulders and croup are the back short. Welaras are used in English riding in hunter classes, they are seen in show jumping, three-day eventing, pleasure driving and as general leisure riding horses. Welara/Thoroughbred crosses are popular mounts for riders competing in jumper classes. Crosses began to be made between the Arabian horse and the Welsh Pony in Sussex, England the early 1900s, by Lady Wentworth of the Crabbet Arabian Stud, she began breeding Arabian stallions, including Skowronek, a Polish Arabian stud, to Welsh mares from North Wales the Coed Coch stud farm, which she imported beginning in the early 1920s.

Other breeders in England and North America soon followed suit, although at this time they were not focused on creating a new breed, the cross became known as the Welara. In 1981, a breed registry, called the American Welara Pony Registry, was created in the US in order to develop and promote the breed. A studbook began to be published, pedigrees of Welaras were collected and preserved. Only Welsh and Arabian blood is allowed for purebreds, all registered ponies must have at least 1/8 and no more than 7/8 blood from each breed; as of 2005, the registry claimed over 1,500 ponies registered in North America, with around 100 new foals registered annually. Welara Sport Ponies may be registered – these are ponies at least 50 percent Welara but with blood from other breeds the Thoroughbred; the association registers pureblood Welsh and Arabian foundation stock. Welaras have now spread to additional areas of the world, including the Caribbean and Europe. In Europe, Welsh/Arabian crosses, sometimes with additional Thoroughbred blood, are called "riding ponies" or "sport ponies".

In the US, the breed is seen most in the central and western parts of the country. Http://www.welararegistry.com Welara Registry

Ksenia Polikarpova

Ksenia Olegovna Polikarpova is a Russian-born Israeli badminton player. In 2009, she won a bronze medal at the European Junior Championships in Italy, she won bronze medals at the European Mixed Team Badminton Championships in 2011, 2013, 2015 with Russian national badminton team. Polikarpova won a gold medal in 2017 Maccabiah Games. Girls' doubles The BWF Grand Prix has the BWF Grand Prix and Grand Prix Gold, it is a series of badminton tournaments sanctioned by the Badminton World Federation since 2007. Women's singles Women's doubles BWF Grand Prix Gold tournament BWF Grand Prix tournament Women's singles Women's doubles Mixed doubles BWF International Challenge tournament BWF International Series tournament BWF Future Series tournament Baku2015.com Ksenia Polikarpova at BWF.tournamentsoftware.com

Striated heron

The striated heron known as mangrove heron, little heron or green-backed heron, is a small heron, about 44 cm tall. Striated herons are non-migratory and noted for some interesting behavioral traits, their breeding habitat is small wetlands in the Old World tropics from west Africa to Japan and Australia, in South America. Vagrants have been recorded on oceanic islands, such as Chuuk and Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marianas and Palau; this bird was long considered to be conspecific with the related North American species, the green heron, now separated as B. virescens, as well as the lava heron of the Galápagos Islands. The bird can be found in Bolivia around the town of Riberalta in the Beni Department and in the Aquicuana Reserve. Adults have a blue-grey back and wings, white underparts, a black cap, a dark line extends from the bill to under the eye and short yellow legs. Juveniles streaked below; these birds stand still at the water's edge and wait to ambush prey, but are easier to see than many small heron species.

They eat small fish and aquatic insects. They sometimes use bait, dropping a feather or leaf on the water surface and picking fish that come to investigate, they nest in a platform of sticks measuring between 20–40 cm long and 0.5–5 mm thick. The entire nest measures some 40–50 cm wide and 8–10 cm high outside, with an inner depression 20 cm wide and 4–5 cm deep, it is built in not too high off the ground in shrubs or trees but sometimes in sheltered locations on the ground, near water. The clutch is 2 -- 5 eggs, which are pale measure around 36 by 28 mm. An adult bird was once observed in a peculiar and mysterious behavior: while on the nest, it would grab a stick in its bill and make a rapid back-and-forth motion with the head, like a sewing machine's needle; the significance of this behavior is unknown: While such movements occur in many other nesting birds where they seem to compact the nest, move the eggs, or dislodge parasites, neither seems to have been the case in this particular striated heron.

Young birds will give a display when they feel threatened, by stretching out their necks and pointing the bill skywards. How far this would deter predators is not known. Widespread and common, the striated heron is classified as a species of least concern by the IUCN. Boswall, J.: Tool-using and related behavior in birds: more notes. Avicultural Magazine 89: 94–108. Greeney, Harold F. & Merino M. Paúl A.: Notes on breeding birds from the Cuyabeno Faunistic Reserve in northeastern Ecuador. Boletín de la Sociedad Antioqueña de Ornitología 16: 46–57. PDF fulltext Norris, D.: Green Heron uses feather lure for fishing. American Birds 29: 652–654. Robinson, S. K.: Use of bait and lures by Green-backed Herons in Amazonian Peru. Wilson Bulletin 106: 569–571 Walsh, J. F.. J. Ornithol. 126: 439–442. Wiles, Gary J.. Micronesica 32: 257–284. PDF fulltext VanderWerf, Eric A.. Micronesica 39: 11–29. PDF fulltext Greenbacked heron Butorides striata – Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds http://www.sustainablebolivia.org/birds-aquicuana-reserve.html

Medical jurisprudence

Medical jurisprudence or legal medicine is the branch of science and medicine involving the study and application of scientific and medical knowledge to legal problems, such as inquests, in the field of law. As modern medicine is a legal creation, regulated by the state, medicolegal cases involving death, paternity, etc. require a medical practitioner to produce evidence and appear as an expert witness, these two fields have traditionally been interdependent. Forensic medicine, which includes forensic pathology, is a narrower frontline field which involves the collection, documentation and presentation of objective information for use in the legal system. Paul Zacchias is one of the earliest figures of medical jurisprudence, with association with the Papal States and Catholic church. Zacchias was the personal physician to Pope Innocentius X and Pope Alexander VII, as well as legal adviser to the Rota Romana, his most well known book, Quaestiones medico-legales established legal medicine as a topic of study.

Zacchias work contains superstitious views on magic and demons which were held at the time. Medical jurisprudence had a chair founded at the University of Edinburgh in 1807, first occupied by Andrew Duncan, the younger, it was imposed on the university by the administration of Charles James Fox, in particular Henry Erskine working with Andrew Duncan, the elder. Medical jurisprudence is concerned with a broad range of medical and ethical issues, as well as human rights and rights of individuals. Physicians have a duty to act in their patients best interest and can be charged in a court of law if they fail to do so. On the other hand, a physician may be required to act in the interest of third parties if his patient is a danger to others. Failure to do so may lead to legal action against the physician. Medical jurisprudence includes: questions of the ethical duties of physicians. Under the third heading, there are many aspects, including: assessment of illness or injuries that may be work-related or otherwise compensable.

This, however, is the more understood, albeit narrow, meaning of forensic medicine. Media related to Forensic medicine at Wikimedia Commons