107th United States Congress
The One Hundred Seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 2001 to January 3, 2003, during the final weeks of the Clinton presidency and the first two years of the George W. Bush presidency; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-first Census of the United States in 1990. The House of Representatives had a Republican majority, the Senate switched majorities from Democratic to Republican and back to Democratic. By the end of term, Republicans had regained the majority in the Senate, but since the body was out of session reorganization was delayed till the next Congress. A rare split in the United States Senate, the defection of a single Senator, the inauguration of a new Vice President, led to three changes in majorities. Major security events occurred; the September 11 attacks were disruptive.
Some Senators were targeted by anthrax attacks. The Congress voted to allow the President to invade Iraq. January 3, 2001: Senate was evenly split between the two parties. Democrat Al Gore — the out-going Vice President — gave the Democrats the tie-breaker and majority control for the 17 days between the January 3 swearing-in of the new Congress and the January 20 inauguration of Republican Vice President Dick Cheney. First Lady Hillary Clinton, wife of President Bill Clinton, became the first presidential spouse to serve in Congress. January 20, 2001: George W. Bush became President of the United States. May 24, 2001: Senator Jim Jeffords a Republican, declared himself an independent and announced he would join the Democratic caucus, giving the Democrats majority control, effective June 6, 2001. September 11, 2001: September 11 attacks September 20, 2001: George W. Bush reported to a joint session of Congress on the investigation into the September 11 attacks and announces the War on Terrorism October 7, 2001: Operation Enduring Freedom began October 9, 2001: Anthrax attacks were executed against members of the Senate, including Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle.
December 2001: Corporate financial scandals, including Enron and MCI June 12, 2002: Prime Minister of Australia John Howard addressed a joint session of Congress. The address was scheduled for September 12, 2001, but was interrupted by the September 11 attacks. In Washington at the time, he sat in on Congressional sessions on September 12 instead. November 25, 2002: Jim Talent takes Senate seat in Missouri giving Republicans a majority. Reorganization delayed until the convening of the 108th United States Congress. June 7, 2001: Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act, Pub. L. 107–16, 115 Stat. 38 October 26, 2001: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, Pub. L. 107–56, 115 Stat. 272 January 8, 2002: No Child Left Behind Act, Pub. L. 107–110, 115 Stat. 1425 January 11, 2002: Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act, Pub. L. 107–118, 115 Stat. 2356 March 9, 2002: Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act, Pub.
L. 107–147, 116 Stat. 21 March 27, 2002: Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, Pub. L. 107–155, 116 Stat. 81 May 13, 2002: Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107–171, 116 Stat. 134 July 30, 2002: Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Pub. L. 107–204, 116 Stat. 745 August 6, 2002: Trade Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107–210, 116 Stat. 933 October 16, 2002: Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq, Pub. L. 107–243, 116 Stat. 1497 October 21, 2002: Sudan Peace Act, Pub. L. 107–245, 116 Stat. 1504 October 29, 2002: Help America Vote Act, Pub. L. 107–252, 116 Stat. 1666 November 25, 2002: Homeland Security Act, Pub. L. 107–296, 116 Stat. 2135 December 17, 2002: E-Government Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107–347, 116 Stat. 2899 President of the Senate: Al Gore, until January 20, 2001 Dick Cheney, from January 20, 2001 President pro tempore: Robert Byrd, until January 20, 2001 Strom Thurmond, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Robert Byrd, from June 6, 2001 Majority Leader: Tom Daschle, until January 20, 2001 Trent Lott, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Tom Daschle, from June 6, 2001 Majority Whip: Harry Reid, until January 20, 2001 Don Nickles, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Harry Reid, from June 6, 2001 Minority Leader: Trent Lott, until January 20, 2001 Tom Daschle, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Trent Lott, from June 6, 2001 Minority Whip: Don Nickles, until January 20, 2001 Harry Reid, January 20 – June 6, 2001 Don Nickles, from June 6, 2001 Republican Conference Chairman: Rick Santorum Republican Conference Secretary: Kay Bailey Hutchison Republican Campaign Committee Chair: Bill Frist Republican Policy Committee Chairman: Larry Craig Democratic Policy Committee Chairman: Byron Dorgan Democratic Conference Secretary: Barbara Mikulski Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Patty Murray Democratic Chief Deputy Whip: John Breaux Speaker: Dennis Hastert Majority Leader: Dick Armey Majority Whip: Tom DeLay Chief Deputy Whip: Roy Blunt Conference Chair: J. C. Watts Conference Vice-Chair: Deborah Pryce Conference Secretary: Barbara Cubin Policy Committee Chairman: Christopher Cox Campaign Committee Chairman: Thomas M. Davis Minority Leader: Dick Gephardt Minority Whip: David E. Bonior, until January 15, 2002 Nancy Pelosi, from January 15, 2002 Chief Deputy Minority Whips: John Lewis, Ed Pastor, Max Sandlin & Maxine Waters Democratic Caucus Chairman: Martin Frost Democratic Caucus Vice Chairman: Bob Menendez Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Nita Lowey Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators are listed by their class.
In this Congress, Class 2 meant their
87th United States Congress
The Eighty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 1961, to January 3, 1963, during the final weeks of the administration of U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the first two years of the administration of U. S. President John Kennedy; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventeenth Census of the United States in 1950, along with 2 seats temporarily added in 1959. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. January 3, 1961: President Eisenhower severed diplomatic and consular relations with Cuba. January 20, 1961: Inauguration of President John F. Kennedy. April 17, 1961: Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba began. May 4, 1961: Freedom Riders began interstate bus rides to test the new U. S. Supreme Court integration decision. May 5, 1961: Alan Shepard became the first American in space aboard Mercury-Redstone 3.
May 25, 1961: President Kennedy announced his goal to put a man on the Moon before the end of the decade November 20: 1961: Funeral of Speaker Sam Rayburn, who died on November 16 February 3, 1962: Embargo against Cuba was announced February 20, 1962: John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth March 26, 1962: Supreme Court ruled that federal courts could order state legislatures to reapportion seats October 1, 1962: James Meredith registered as the first black student at the University of Mississippi, escorted by Federal Marshals. October 14, 1962 - October 28, 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis May 1, 1961: Area Redevelopment Act, Pub. L. 87–27, 75 Stat. 47 August 30, 1961: Oil Pollution Act of 1961, Pub. L. 87–167, 75 Stat. 402 September 4, 1961: The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, Pub. L. 87–195, 75 Stat. 424 September 13, 1961: Interstate Wire Act of 1961, Pub. L. 87–216, 75 Stat. 491 September 21, 1961: Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, Pub. L. 87–256, 75 Stat. 527 September 22, 1961: Peace Corps Act of 1961, Pub.
L. 87–293, 75 Stat. 612 September 26, 1961: Arms Control and Disarmament Act of 1961, Pub. L. 87–297, 75 Stat. 631 October 15, 1961: Community Health Services and Facilities Act, Pub. L. 87–395, 75 Stat. 824 March 15, 1962: Manpower Development and Training Act, Pub. L. 87–415, 76 Stat. 23 June 28, 1962: Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, Pub. L. 87–510, 76 Stat. 121 August 13, 1962: Communications Satellite Act, Pub. L. 87–624, 76 Stat. 419 October 11, 1962: Trade Expansion Act, Pub. L. 87–794, 76 Stat. 872 October 23, 1962: Bribery Act, Pub. L. 87–849, 76 Stat. 1119 October 23, 1962: Vaccination Assistance Act of 1962, Pub. L. 87–868, 76 Stat. 1155 October 23, 1962: River and Harbor Act of 1962, Pub. L. 87–874, 76 Stat. 1173 March 29, 1961: Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, extending the right to vote in the presidential election to citizens residing in the District of Columbia by granting the District electors in the Electoral College, as if it were a state, was ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution August 27, 1962: Approved an amendment to the United States Constitution prohibiting both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax, submitted it to the state legislatures for ratification Amendment was ratified on January 23, 1964, becoming the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution President: Richard Nixon, until January 20, 1961 Lyndon Johnson, from January 20, 1961 President pro tempore: Carl Hayden Majority Leader: Mike Mansfield Majority Whip: Hubert Humphrey Caucus Secretary: George Smathers Minority Leader: Everett Dirksen Minority Whip: Thomas Kuchel Republican Conference Chairman: Leverett Saltonstall Republican Conference Secretary: Milton Young National Senatorial Committee Chair: Barry Goldwater Policy Committee Chairman: Styles Bridges Bourke B.
Hickenlooper Speaker: Sam Rayburn, until November 16, 1961 John W. McCormack, from January 10, 1962 Majority Leader: John William McCormack until January 10, 1962 Carl Albert, from January 10, 1962 Majority Whip: Carl Albert Hale Boggs, from January 10, 1962 Democratic Caucus Chairman: Francis E. Walter Caucus Secretary: Leonor Sullivan Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael J. Kirwan Minority Leader: Charles A. Halleck Minority Whip: Leslie C. Arends Conference Chair: Charles B. Hoeven Policy Committee Chairman: John W. Byrnes House Democratic Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1962; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.
Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressi
103rd United States Congress
The One Hundred Third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 1993, to January 3, 1995, during the final weeks of George H. W. Bush's presidency and the first two years of Bill Clinton's presidency; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-first Census of the United States in 1990. Both chambers had a Democratic majority; this is the last Congress. January 20, 1993: Bill Clinton became President of the United States. February 26, 1993: World Trade Center bombing: In New York City, a van bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center exploded, killing 6 and injuring over 1,000. February 28, 1993: Waco siege: Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms agents raided the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, with a warrant to arrest leader David Koresh on federal firearms violations.
Four agents and 5 Davidians died in the raid. April 19, 1993: Waco siege: The 51-day standoff ended with a fire that killed 76 people, including Koresh. October 3, 1993: Operation Gothic Serpent: In Mogadishu, two U. S. Army UH-60 Blackhawks were shot down and the operation left over 1000 Somalis dead and over 73 Americans WIA, 19 KIA, 1 captured. January 17, 1994: 1994 Northridge earthquake: A magnitude 6.7 quake hit the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles at 4:31 a.m. killing 72 and leaving 26,029 homeless. February 22, 1994: Aldrich Ames and his wife were arrested for spying for the Soviet Union. February 28, 1994: 4 United States fighter jets shot down 4 Serbian jets over Bosnia and Herzegovina for violating Operation Deny Flight and its no-fly zone. September 19, 1994: Operation Uphold Democracy: American troops staged a bloodless invasion of Haiti to restore the elected President to power. October 1, 1994: Palau achieved independence and became an associated state under the Compact of Free Association.
November 8, 1994: Republican Revolution: The Republican Party won control of both the House and the Senate in midterm congressional elections, the first time in 40 years the Republicans secured control of both houses of Congress. February 5, 1993: Family and Medical Leave Act, Pub. L. 103–3, 107 Stat. 6 May 20, 1993: National Voter Registration Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–31, 107 Stat. 77 August 10, 1993: Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, 107 Stat. 312 November 16, 1993: Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Pub. L. 103–141, 107 Stat. 1488 November 30, 1993: Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, Pub. L. 103–159, title I, 107 Stat. 1536 November 30, 1993: Don't ask, don't tell, Pub. L. 103–160, 107 Stat. 1670 December 8, 1993: North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. 103–182, 107 Stat. 2057 December 17, 1993: FRIENDSHIP Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–199, 107 Stat. 2317 May 26, 1994: Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act, Pub. L. 103–259, 108 Stat. 694 September 13, 1994: Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, Pub.
L. 103–322, 108 Stat. 1796 September 23, 1994: Community Development, Credit Enhancement, Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994, Pub. L. 103–325 President: Dan Quayle, until January 20, 1993 Al Gore, from January 20, 1993 President pro tempore: Robert Byrd Majority Leader and Policy Committee Chairman: George Mitchell Majority Whip: Wendell Ford Senatorial Campaign Committee Chair: Bob Graham Caucus Secretary: David Pryor Policy Committee Co-Chair: Harry Reid Chief Deputy Whip: John Breaux Minority Leader: Bob Dole Minority Whip: Alan Simpson Conference Chairman: Thad Cochran Policy Committee Chairman: Don Nickles Conference Vice Chair: Trent Lott National Senatorial Committee Chair: Phil Gramm Speaker: Tom Foley Majority Leader: Dick Gephardt Majority Whip: David Bonior Caucus Chairman: Steny Hoyer Caucus Vice-Chairman: Vic Fazio Chief Deputy Majority Whips: Barbara Kennelly, Butler Derrick, John Lewis, & Bill Richardson Minority Leader: Bob Michel Minority Whip: Newt Gingrich Chief Deputy Whip: Bob Walker Conference Chair: Dick Armey Conference Vice-Chair: Bill McCollum Conference Secretary: Tom DeLay Policy Committee Chairman: Henry Hyde Campaign Committee Chairman: Bill Paxon Armenian Caucus Biomedical Research Caucus Blue Dog Coalition Congressional Arts Caucus Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus Congressional Automotive Caucus Congressional Black Caucus Congressional Caucus on India and Indian Americans Congressional Caucus on Korea Congressional Fire Services Caucus Congressional Friends of Ireland Caucus Congressional Hispanic Caucus Congressional Pediatric & Adult Hydrocephalus Caucus Congressional Progressive Caucus Congressional Travel & Tourism Caucus Congressional Western Caucus Congresswomen's Caucus House Democratic Caucus Law Enforcement Caucus Northern Border Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus This list is arranged by chamber by state.
Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress, In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1994. Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the
88th United States Congress
The Eighty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 1963, to January 3, 1965, during the last year of the administration of U. S. President John F. Kennedy, the first of the administration of his successor, U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eighteenth Census of the United States in 1960, the number of members was again 435. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. November 22, 1963: Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson became President of the United States on the death of President John F. Kennedy. March 30 – June 10, 1964: The longest filibuster in the history of the Senate was waged against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, with 57 days of debate over a 73-day period, it ended when the Senate voted 71–29 to invoke cloture, with the filibuster carried out by southern members of the Democratic Party, the first successful cloture motion on a civil rights bill.
August 2–4, 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Incident June 10, 1963: Equal Pay Act, Pub. L. 88–38 October 17, 1963: Department of Defense Appropriations Act, Pub. L. 88–149 October 31, 1963: Community Mental Health Centers Act, Pub. L. 88–164, title II, including Mental Retardation Facilities Construction Act December 17, 1963: Clean Air Act, Pub. L. 88–206 July 2, 1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–352 July 9, 1964: Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–365 August 7, 1964: Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Pub. L. 88–408 August 20, 1964: Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–452 August 31, 1964: Food Stamp Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–525 September 3, 1964: Wilderness Act, Pub. L. 88–577 September 4, 1964: Nurse Training Act, Pub. L. 88–581 1964: Library Services and Construction Act January 23, 1964: Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, prohibiting both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax, was ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution President of the Senate: Lyndon Johnson, until November 22, 1963.
Hickenlooper Speaker: John McCormack Majority Leader: Carl Albert Majority Whip: Hale Boggs Democratic Caucus Chairman: Francis E. Walter, until May 31, 1963 Albert Richard Thomas, from January 21, 1964 Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael J. Kirwan Minority Leader: Charles A. Halleck Minority Whip: Leslie C. Arends Conference Chair: Gerald Ford Policy Committee Chairman: John W. Byrnes House Democratic Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Senators are ordered first by state, by class. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1964. Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Aeronautical and Space Sciences Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Banking and Currency Commerce District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Government Operations Interior and Insular Affairs Judiciary Labor and Public Welfare Post Office and Civil Service Public Works Small Business Standards and Conduct Subcommittee on Internal Security Whole Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency District of Columbia Education and Labor Foreign Affairs Government Operations House Administration Interior and Insular Affairs Merchant Marine and Fisheries Post Office and Civil Service Public Works Rules Science and Astronautics Small Business Standards of Official Conduct Un-American Activities Veterans' Affairs Ways and Means Whole Atomic Energy Conditions of Indian Tribes Construction of a Building for a Museum of History and Technology for the Smithsonian Defense Production Disposition of Executive Papers Economic Immigration and Nationality Policy Legislative Budget The Library Navajo-Hopi Indian Administration Printing Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures Taxation Architect of the Capitol: J. George Stewart Attending Physician of the United States Congress: George Calver Compt
115th United States Congress
The One Hundred Fifteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019, during the final weeks of Barack Obama's presidency and the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency. Several political scientists described the legislative accomplishments of this Congress as modest, considering that both Congress and the Presidency were under unified Republican Party control. According to a contemporary study, "House and Senate GOP majorities struggled to legislate: GOP fissures and an undisciplined, unpopular president undermined the Republican agenda. Most notably, clashes within and between the two parties strained old ways of doing business." January 5, 2017: House of Representatives condemned United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334. January 6, 2017: Joint session counted and certified the electoral votes of the 2016 presidential election.
January 11–12, 2017: Senate, in an all-night session, took first steps to repeal the Affordable Care Act. The final vote was 51 to 48 to approve a budget resolution to allow "broad swaths of the Affordable Care Act to be repealed through a process known as budget reconciliation." January 20, 2017: Inauguration of President Donald Trump. February 7, 2017: Vice President Mike Pence cast the tie-breaking vote to confirm Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education; this was the first time in United States history that a cabinet confirmation was tied in the Senate and required a tie-breaking vote. February 28, 2017: President's speech to a Joint Session. April 6, 2017: Senate invoked the "nuclear option" to weaken Supreme Court filibusters. Nominee Neil Gorsuch was confirmed the next day. June 14, 2017: Majority Whip Steve Scalise and several staffers were shot during the 2017 Congressional baseball shooting, they were practicing for the annual Congressional Baseball Game. September 1, 2017: The Parliamentarian of the United States Senate decreed that the Senate had until the end of the month to pass ACA repeal via the reconciliation process, or the option would no longer be viable.
October 24 – December 14, 2017: 2017 United States political sexual scandals from the "Me too" movement: Allegations that Congressman Ruben Kihuen sexually harassed a campaign staffer led some in congressional leadership to call for his resignation. Kihuen announced he would not seek another term in office. Senator Al Franken announced he would resign "in the coming weeks" after photographs were made public suggesting that he sexually assaulted a Los Angeles-based radio personality during a USO tour in Iraq in 2006, he was accused by multiple female constituents of groping at various Minnesota fair appearances that he attended. Three members of Congress either announced their impeding resignations. Allegations that President Donald Trump raped and sexually harassed at least nineteen women, one girl, Miss Teen USA contestants resulted in calls by members of Congress for him to resign. Allegations that Republican Alabama Senate candidate Roy Moore raped and sexually harassed at least eight women and one girl contributed to his defeat by Democrat Doug Jones in a special Senate election to replace Attorney General Jeff Sessions.
Allegations that Representative Blake Farenthold sexually harassed a former staffer resulted in the commencement of an investigation by the House Ethics Committee and his announcement he would not seek re-election in 2018. He subsequently resigned on April 6, 2018. January 20–22, 2018: United States federal government shutdown of January 2018 January 30, 2018: 2018 State of the Union Address February 9, 2018: United States federal government funding gap October 6, 2018: Senate confirms Brett Kavanaugh's nomination to the U. S. Supreme Court. November 28, 2018: Senate discharges from committee and calendars S. J. Res. 54, bill that ends US intervention in the Yemeni Civil War. December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown May 5, 2017: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, H. R. 244, Pub. L. 115–31 August 2, 2017: Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, H. R. 3364, Pub. L. 115–44 December 12, 2017: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, H.
R. 2810, Pub. L. 115–91 December 22, 2017: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, H. R. 1, Pub. L. 115–97 February 9, 2018: Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, H. R. 1892, Pub. L. 115–123 March 23, 2018: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, H. R. 1625, Pub. L. 115–141 April 11, 2018: Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act, H. R. 1865, Pub. L. 115–164 May 24, 2018: Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act, S. 2155, Pub. L. 115–174 May 30, 2018: Trickett Wendler, Frank Mongiello, Jordan McLinn, Matthew Bellina Right to Try Act of 2017, S. 204, Pub. L. 115–176 August 13, 2018: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, H. R. 5515, Pub. L. 115–232 October 5, 2018: FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, H. R. 302, Pub. L. 115–254 October 11, 2018: Music Modernization Act, H. R. 1551, Pub. L. 115–264 October 23, 2018: America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018, S. 3021, Pub. L. 115–270 October 24, 2018: SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, H. R. 6, Pub. L. 115–271 December 20, 2018: Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, H.
R. 2, Pub. L. 115–334 December 21, 2018: FIRST STEP Act, S. 756, Pub. L. 115–391 May 4, 2017: American Health Care Act, passed House May 4, 2017 June 8, 2017: Financial CHOICE Act, passed House June 8, 2017 Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below. Section contents: Senate: Majority, Minority • House: Majority, Minority President: Joe Biden
James Wickersham was a district judge for Alaska, appointed by U. S. President William McKinley to the Third Judicial District in 1900, he resigned his post in 1908 and was subsequently elected as Alaska's delegate to Congress, serving until 1917 and being re-elected in 1930. He was instrumental in the passage of the Organic Act of 1912, which granted Alaska territorial status, introduced the Alaska Railroad Bill, legislation to establish McKinley Park, the first Alaska Statehood Bill in 1916, he was among those responsible for the creation of the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, which became the University of Alaska. A residence hall on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus is named in his honor. Wickersham was born near Patoka and moved in 1883 with his wife, Deborah, to Tacoma, Washington Territory, where he became a judge. While in Tacoma he helped lead a mob which forced the city's Chinese population out of town, was arrested as one of the "Tacoma Twenty-Seven," though he was never convicted.
He was a member of the Tacoma Academy of Science and was President of that organization in 1893. He presented a paper to the Academy on 6 Feb, 1893, entitled, Is it Mount Tacoma, or Rainier? During the presentation the "following prominent Indians representing the Puyallup and Klickitat tribes were seated on the platform: George Leschi, son of Quiemuth, a leader in the Indian war of 1855; the presentation has been reproduced by a digital file created at the Library of Congress. When Wickersham set off for Alaska he was dodging a government posting in Japan, he told anyone who asked that he preferred the Eagle post, saying he "yearned for the Yukon, not Yokohama". With the introduction of federal oversight in the form of three district court judges, Wickersham being one of the two new appointees, his peers being Arthur H. Noyes in Nome and established Melville C. Brown in Juneau, he was now one of the three most powerful people in Alaska, with no one within 3,000 miles to overrule his decisions or stand in his way.
After the Nome Gold Conspiracy involving prominent Republican National Committee member Alexander McKenzie, it was Wickersham they turned to clean up the legal mess left by ousted Judge Noyes involved. Through his hard work, his tenacity, he made sure everyone understood his authority, his start into Alaskan official law was a litigation of most profound simplicity, the epitome of Alaskan frontier spirit. "Chief Charley, head of the Charley River band of the Tena Indians, was the first litigant to appeal to the new court officials for justice." Someone from upriver had stolen his dog, a serious offense that warranted violence if this new American law official could not have it solved within his power peacefully. After being given the run around, Charley reached Wickersham and consulted the highest court in the land. After listening Wickersham appointed a deputy to retrieve the stolen animal, waited with the chief for his return, chatting about everyday problems; when the dog was safely returned two points were driven home, the concrete authority of Judge Wickersham, that his tenure in Alaska would be one of action.
As the most powerful personage of Federal oversight for the vast majority of the interior of Alaska, Wickersham was an important man to have on your side. His relationship with the development of Fairbanks helped shape not only the future of the Interior's expanding city, but the shape of things to come for the state. Wickersham's working relationship with Captain E. T. Barnette led to the small settlement developing into a city that became a gateway to the arctic. Through Barnette and Wickersham's efforts, Fairbanks became incorporated, initiated federal development, settled locations for key federal positions in the city thus insuring its future relevance. Though they worked well together for the betterment of Alaska, the interior, they did not always have the best personal relationship; when presiding over one of Barnette's many gold claim cases, he inferred that if the case went in his favor, Wickersham could benefit from the decision himself after his term was over. "It was an outright bribe."
Quoted one historian. Personal opinions and changing allegiances aside, as far as the future of Fairbanks went, Barnette could always count on Wickersham to have his back as what Barnette wanted was what was best for Fairbanks; as Wickersham finished up his time as judge, he moved on to represent Alaskas' interests in Washington. From the position of the judge on the trail in Alaska, Wickersham ran for the position of congressional delegate for the District of Alaska in 1908 beginning his term in 1909. In his first two terms as delegate, Wickersham focused on two aspects: territorial status for Alaska and trust-busting the Alaska Syndicate; the issue of home-rule in Alaska falls under the popular idea that Alaska had been neglected by the United States federal government since its purchase from Russia in 1867 and was denied any form of self-government. The first semblance of self-government came through the First Organic Act in 1884; this act instated "…a governor, attorney, clerk of court, four deputy marshals, four commissioners, who were to function as justices of the peace."
As a reactionary to the huge population increase during the Klondike gold rush, these government offices were not voted in by Alaskans, but appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate each for a four-year term. This act moved Alaska from a purchased
116th United States Congress
The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D. C. on January 3, 2019 and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census. In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate; this is the first split Congress since the 113th, the first Republican Senate/Democrat House split since the 99th. This Congress is considered to be the most diverse elected, the youngest in the past three cycles. December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown January 3, 2019: Nancy Pelosi elected Speaker of the House, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955.
February 5, 2019: 2019 State of the Union Address, after being delayed from January 29, 2019, due to the partial government shutdown. February 15, 2019: President Trump declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States. February 27, 2019: Former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight and Reform Committee, accusing Trump of several financial fraud crimes. March 24, 2019: Special Counsel investigation: Summary letter of special counsel Robert Mueller's report issued to congress by attorney general William Barr. February 15, 2019: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2019, Pub. L. 116–6, H. J. 31 March 12, 2019: John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act, Pub. L. 116–9, S. 47 For the People Act of 2019, H. R. 1 Equality Act, H. R. 5 Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal, H. Res. 109 SAFE Banking Act of 2019, H. R. 1595 Taxpayer First Act of 2019, H. R. 1957 March 15, 2019: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of a national emergency declaration at the southern border.
Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below. President: Mike Pence President pro tempore: Chuck Grassley President pro tempore emeritus: Patrick Leahy Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell Majority Whip: John Thune Conference Chair: John Barrasso Conference Vice Chair: Joni Ernst Policy Committee Chair: Roy Blunt Campaign Committee Chair: Todd Young Steering Committee Chair: Mike Lee Chief Deputy Whip: Mike Crapo Deputy Whips: Roy Blunt, Shelley Moore Capito, John Cornyn, Cory Gardner, James Lankford, Martha McSally, Rob Portman, Mitt Romney, Tim Scott, Thom Tillis, Todd Young Minority Leader/Caucus Chair: Chuck Schumer Minority Whip: Dick Durbin Assistant Leader: Patty Murray Policy Committee Chair: Debbie Stabenow Caucus Vice Chairs: Mark Warner, Elizabeth Warren Steering Committee Chair: Amy Klobuchar Outreach Chair: Bernie Sanders Policy Committee Vice Chair: Joe Manchin Caucus Secretary: Tammy Baldwin Campaign Committee Chair: Catherine Cortez Masto Chief Deputy Whip: Cory Booker, Jeff Merkley, Brian Schatz Speaker: Nancy Pelosi Majority Leader: Steny Hoyer Majority Whip: Jim Clyburn Assistant Leader: Ben Ray Luján Caucus Chair: Hakeem Jeffries Caucus Vice Chair: Katherine Clark Campaign Committee Chair: Cheri Bustos Policy and Communications Committee Chair: David Cicilline Policy and Communications Committee Co-Chairs: Matt Cartwright, Debbie Dingell, Ted Lieu Steering and Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Rosa DeLauro, Barbara Lee, Eric Swalwell Assistant to the Majority Whip: Cedric Richmond Senior Chief Deputy Whips: John Lewis, Jan Schakowsky Chief Deputy Whips: Pete Aguilar, G. K. Butterfield, Henry Cuellar, Dan Kildee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Terri Sewell, Peter Welch Minority Leader: Kevin McCarthy Minority Whip: Steve Scalise Conference Chair: Liz Cheney Conference Vice Chair: Mark Walker Conference Secretary: Jason Smith Policy Committee Chair: Gary Palmer Campaign Committee Chair: Tom Emmer Chief Deputy Whip: Drew Ferguson Most members of this Congress are Christian, with half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic.
Jewish membership is the highest percentage in American history. Other religions represented include Buddhism and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased; the Senate includes 25 women, the most female senators to date. In six states — California, Nevada, Arizona and New Hampshire — both senators are women. 13 states are represented by one male and one female senator, while 31 states are represented by two male senators. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, four Hispanic, three Black, three Asian, one multiracial senators, while two identify as LGBTQ+. There are 102 women in the largest number in history. There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, 4 Native American. Eight identify as LGBTQ+. Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest and oldest freshman women in history. Freshmen women Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar are the first two female Muslims and freshmen Sharice Davids and Deb Haaland are the first two female Native American members.
The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024.