United States congressional delegations from Pennsylvania

These are tables of congressional delegations from Pennsylvania to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. List of members of the Pennsylvanian United States House delegation, their terms in office, district boundaries, the district political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has 18 members, with 9 Democrats. For the first two Congresses, Pennsylvania had eight seats. In the First Congress, Representatives were selected At-large on a general ticket. Districts were used in the Second Congress. Pennsylvania had thirteen seats. For the third Congress representatives were selected at-large on a general ticket. After that, districts were created. There were eighteen seats, apportioned among eleven districts. Districts 1–3 each had three seats elected on a general ticket. District 4 had two such seats. Districts 5–11 each had one seat. There were 15 districts; the 1st district had four seats elected on a general ticket. The 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th and 10th each had two seats elected on a general ticket.

The rest of the districts each had one seat. Following the 1830 census, Pennsylvania was apportioned 28 seats; the commonwealth divided them into 25 districts and two districts, the 2nd and the 4th, had two and three seats respectively. Following the 1880 Census, the delegation grew by one seat; until 1889, that seat was elected at-large statewide. After 1889, the state was redistricted into 28 districts. Following the 1890 Census, the delegation grew by two seats; those two additional seats were elected at-large across the entire commonwealth. Following the 1900 Census, the delegation grew by two seats. Following the 1910 Census, the delegation grew by four seats to its largest size to date; the four new seats were elected at-large statewide. Starting in 1923, four new districts were added to replace the at-large seats. Following the 1930 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 1940 Census, the delegation lost one seat. For the 78th Congress, there were 1 at-large seat. Starting with the 79th Congress, there were 33 districts.

Following the 1950 Census, the delegation lost three seats. Following the 1960 Census, the delegation lost three seats. Following the 1970 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 1980 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 1990 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 2000 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 2010 Census, the delegation lost one seat. With court ordered Redistricting in Pennsylvania on February 19, 2018, none of the congressmen who served in 115th congress and were re-elected are in the same district in the 116th congress; as of June 2019, there is one living former senator. List of United States congressional districts

Election Committee (Hong Kong)

The Election Committee is a Hong Kong electoral college, the function of, to select the Chief Executive. Established by Annex I of the Basic Law of Hong Kong which states that "the Chief Executive shall be elected by a broadly representative Election Committee in accordance with this Law and appointed by the Central People's Government." It is formed and performs its selection function once every five years in the event of a CE not completing their term. It had 1,200 members for the 2017 election; the Election Committee has been criticised for its "small-circle" electoral basis and its composition favouring pro-Beijing and business interests. The Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 provides that the Chief Executive "shall be selected by elections or through consultations held locally and be appointed by the Central People's Government; the system of Election Committee established in the Basic Law to provide an indirect election for the Chief Executive by a'broadly representative' Election Committee."

Besides the first Chief Executive was elected by the 400-member Selection Committee, all Chief Executives since have been elected by the Election Committee. The New York Times wrote that sectors that were politically closer to Beijing, such as traditional Chinese medicine, were over-represented in proportion to their share of the population, when compared to sectors deemed hostile, such as social workers or lawyers. Since the electors must serve for no more than five years, a new election must occur, the Chief Executive resignation would cause an interesting matter of timing, as to whether the old or new college of electors would select the new Chief Executive. From 1998 to 2012, the 800 members of the Election Committee comprised 664 nominated from the sectors of the economy, 40 from the religious organisations, 96 ex officio members taken from the government; the number of members of the Election Committee increased from 800 to 1,200 after the breakthrough on the electoral reform in 2010 for the 2012 Chief Executive election.

After a nine-hour debate on the consultation document, the resolution which increased the size of the Election Committee won endorsement at 2:20 p.m. on 24 June by the legislature 46 votes to 13. Ten pan-democrats, including eight Democratic Party legislators, supported the proposals; the Election Committee has 4 sectors, each composed of a number of subsectors. Amongst the 38 subsectors, members of 35 subsectors are returned by elections; the Annex I of Basic Law states that the Election Committee shall be composed of 1200 members from the four sectors: Industrial and financial sectors: 300 members The professions: 300 members Labour, social services and other sectors: 300 members Members of the Legislative Council, representatives of members of the District Councils, representatives of the Heung Yee Kuk, Hong Kong deputies to the National People's Congress, representatives of Hong Kong members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference: 300 membersThe composition of the 1,200-member Election Committee, from commencement of the term of office on 1 February 2012, was 1,044 members elected from 38 sub-sectors, 60 members nominated by the religious sub-sector, 96 ex officio members.

The first sector composed of members from industrial and financial backgrounds. They are elected by corporate votes and is the highest portion of uncontested subsectors, it includes the following subsectors: The Catering Subsector is corresponding to the Catering functional constituency and contains both corporate and individual members who hold food licences and/or members of the Association such as the Association for the Hong Kong Catering Services Management, the Hong Kong Catering Industry Association and the Association of Restaurant Managers. Individual voters take the 94% of the electorate as the number of the individuals and corporates both registered as voters has grown significantly; the Catering Subsector had contested in 1998 and 2000 with the low turnout rate of 11% in both years. The Commercial Subsector has a corresponding functional constituency Commercial and consists of corporate members of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce who are allowed to vote at general meetings.

The corporate voters in the Subsector had dropped from in 1,293 in 1998 to 990 in 2006. The Subsector had contested in the 1998 and 2000 elections and the voter turnout rate were 45.34% and 30.91% respectively. The Commercial Subsector has a corresponding functional constituency Commercial and consists of individual and corporate members of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce who are allowed to vote at general meetings; the electorate remained unchanged from 1998 to 2009 and electorates are divided between corporates and individuals. The Commercial Subsector did not have a contested election in 1998 and 2000; the Employers' Federation of Hong Kong Subsector is one of the five subsectors without a corresponding functional constituency. It is composed of corporations including banking and financial services and catering, industrial and manufacturing, insurance and business services, shipping, trading and transportation companies who are members of the Employers' Federation of Hong Kong and entitled to vote at general meetings.

There were 112 bodies registered as electors in 2000. They had a contested election in 1998 and was uncontested in 2000; the Finance Subsector is corresponding to the Finance functional constituency and consists of corporate bodies that are banks and deposit-taking companies. In 2006 there were 136 corporate bodies registered as elector

SOS response

The SOS response is a global response to DNA damage in which the cell cycle is arrested and DNA repair and mutagenesis is induced. The system involves the RecA protein; the RecA protein, stimulated by single-stranded DNA, is involved in the inactivation of the repressor of SOS response genes thereby inducing the response. It is an error-prone repair system that contributes to DNA changes observed in a wide range of species; the SOS response was discovered and named by Miroslav Radman in 1975. During normal growth, the SOS genes are negatively regulated by LexA repressor protein dimers. Under normal conditions, LexA binds to a 20-bp consensus sequence in the operator region for those genes; some of these SOS genes are expressed at certain levels in the repressed state, according to the affinity of LexA for their SOS box. Activation of the SOS genes occurs after DNA damage by the accumulation of single stranded regions generated at replication forks, where DNA polymerase is blocked. RecA forms a filament around these ssDNA regions in an ATP-dependent fashion, becomes activated.

The activated form of RecA interacts with the LexA repressor to facilitate the LexA repressor's self-cleavage from the operator. Once the pool of LexA decreases, repression of the SOS genes goes down according to the level of LexA affinity for the SOS boxes. Operators that bind LexA weakly are the first to be expressed. In this way LexA can sequentially activate different mechanisms of repair. Genes having a weak SOSbox are induced in response to weak SOS-inducing treatments, thus the first SOS repair mechanism to be induced is nucleotide excision repair, whose aim is to fix DNA damage without commitment to a full-fledged SOS response. If, however, NER does not suffice to fix the damage, the LexA concentration is further reduced, so the expression of genes with stronger LexA boxes is induced. SulA stops cell division by binding to the initiating protein in this process; this causes filamentation, the induction of UmuDC-dependent mutagenic repair. As a result of these properties, some genes may be induced in response to endogenous levels of DNA damage, while other genes appear to be induced only when high or persistent DNA damage is present in the cell.

Recent research has shown that the SOS pathway may be essential in the acquisition of bacterial mutations which lead to resistance to some antibiotic drugs. The increased rate of mutation during the SOS response is caused by three low-fidelity DNA polymerases: Pol II, Pol IV and Pol V. Researchers are now targeting these proteins with the aim of creating drugs. By doing so, the time needed for pathogenic bacteria to evolve antibiotic resistance could be extended, thus improving the long term viability of some antibiotic drugs. In Escherichia coli, different classes of DNA-damaging agents can initiate the SOS response, as described above. Taking advantage of an operon fusion placing the lac operon under the control of an SOS-related protein, a simple colorimetric assay for genotoxicity is possible. A lactose analog is added to the bacteria, degraded by beta-galactosidase, thereby producing a colored compound which can be measured quantitatively through spectrophotometry; the degree of color development is an indirect measure of the beta-galactosidase produced, which itself is directly related to the amount of DNA damage.

The E. coli are further modified in order to have a number of mutations including a uvrA mutation which renders the strain deficient in excision repair, increasing the response to certain DNA-damaging agents, as well as an rfa mutation, which renders the bacteria lipopolysaccharide-deficient, allowing better diffusion of certain chemicals into the cell in order to induce the SOS response. Commercial kits which measures the primary response of the E. coli cell to genetic damage are available and may be correlated with the Ames Test for certain materials. Induction of lysis in lambda phage