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United States dollar

The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the Coinage Act of 1792. One dollar is divided into 1000 mills; the Coinage Act of 1792 created a decimal currency by creating the following coins: tenth dollar, one-twentieth dollar, one-hundredth dollar. In addition the act created the dollar, half dollar, quarter dollar coins. All of these coins are still minted in 2020. In addition, several forms of paper money were introduced by Congress over the years; the latest of these, the Federal Reserve Note, was authorized by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, while all existing U. S. currency remains legal tender. Issuance of the previous form of the currency was discontinued in January 1971; as a result circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is de facto fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U.

S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of January 31, 2019, there are $1.7 trillion in circulation, of which $1.65 trillion is in the Federal Reserve Notes. The U. S. dollar as a currency is referred to as the greenback by foreign exchange traders and the financial press in other countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India. Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts.

The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar. The pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U.

S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U. S. dollar has been based upon a decimal system of values since the time of the Continental Congress. This decimal system was again described in the Coinage Act of 1792: in addition to the dollar, the Act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each.

It was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.59​9⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve Notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar (fra

Frog Legs Rag

"Frog Legs Rag" is a classic rag composed by James Scott and published by John Stillwell Stark in December 1906. It was James Scott's first commercial success. Prior to this composition Scott had published marches. With "Frog Legs Rag", Scott embarked upon a career as a important ragtime songwriter. In 1909, Scott Joplin orchestrated for "Frog Legs Rag" to be published by John Stillwell Stark, Joplin's publisher, his company, Stark Music Company. Edward A. Berlin, author of the Joplin biography King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era asserts that there was no direct evidence that James Scott and Scott Joplin were acquainted. "They knew each other's music," Berlin affirms while describing the Joplin orchestration, they "had similar temperaments, both being mild-mannered and engrossed in their music". However, he considers assertions of personal acquaintance between the two men to be speculation. Other music historians take a different view; the authors of Black Bottom Stomp credit Joplin for discovering and mentoring the young artist "even while his own career was faltering" and assert that "Frog Legs Rag" was published "at Joplin's insistence".

Ragtime encyclopedist David A. Jasen identifies a number of characteristic James Scott compositional devices in this early work; the crisp freshness of the A section gives way to a sophisticated use in the B section of the "Maple Leaf Rag" B section. The lyrical C is an interesting development in feeling with similar harmonics; the D section introduces us to one of Scott's favorite devices, the echo, or call and response phrasing in which an idea of one measure, is stated and repeated an octave higher. This develops the feel of B, once again with the use of similar chords; the modulation at the trio is unusual in that it goes to the dominant instead of the subdominant, which would have put sections C and D in the key of G flat. Jasen's appraisal of "Frog Legs Rag" is not unreserved: he places "Frog Legs Rag" within the early period when James Scott compositions were "flag-waving" and lacking in the restraint the songwriter developed after 1906. Unlike Joplin, who lengthened traditional ragtime phrasing, Scott explored the genre's dynamic qualities with shortened phrasings.

Among songs published by Stark, "Frog Legs Rag" was second in sales after Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag". "Frog Legs Rag" has been described as "brash" and "exuberant". It was considered to be a landmark in ragtime sheet music, composed with "vigor" and "brilliance", to be "one of the great hits of the ragtime years". Sheet music of Frog Legs Rag at Wikisource

Tatra 815

The Tatra T815 is a truck family, produced by Czech company Tatra. It uses the traditional tatra concept of rigid backbone tube and swinging half-axles giving independent suspension; the vehicles are available in 6x6, 8x8, 10x8, 10x10, 12x8 and 12x12 variants. There are both air-cooled and liquid-cooled engines available with power ranging from 230–440 kilowatts; as a successor to Tatra T813 it was designed for extreme off-road conditions, while nowadays there are variants designated for mixed use. The T815 and its descendant models took the Czech truck racer Karel Loprais to victory six times in the Dakar Rally. Designed to replace T148 the prototype T157 was introduced in 1970 and several more prototypes were designed between 1970 and 1974 period but no production resulted. Due to protests from another Czech manufacturer LIAZ, assigned by the government central planning committee to manufacture trucks of similar class Tatra dropped the T157 and instead started to concentrate on a heavier class as the replacement for T813 and T148, introduced in 1983 as T815 series.

In 1989 Tatra modernized T815 series and introduced new T815-2 which received further upgrade in 1994 and just 3 years in 1997 the new cabin TerrN°1 is introduced. Another facelift followed in 2000 where changes included among others new instrument panel and cab attachment and for the first time there is an option for fitment of liquid-cooled engines; the latest facelift of cabin came in July 2010. Due to emission requirements changes in 2003 Tatra developed all new V8 engine T3C to comply with Euro III where it followed the tradition once again with its air cooling design; the further developed T3D engine was introduced in 2006 with its SCR and Euro IV compliance. While most other manufacturers derive their trucks from road applications, Tatra T815 was purposely designed for extreme off-road conditions, its road versions are derived from the off-road original concept; the principle consists in a central load-carrying tube with independently suspended swinging half-axles bolted as one whole.

This gives Tatra vehicles outstanding driving qualities in the most difficult terrains. The concept allows higher off-road speed compared to classical rigid axle design; the primary structural feature of Tatra trucks is the central load carrying tube called a backbone frame. All other parts of the truck are mounted to this rigid assembly; the inherently high torsional and flexural rigidity of this layout protects superstructures from the motions and forces on the axles. Torque distribution to the axles is carried within the backbone. Tatra differentials are a unique design that uses two opposing spiral bevel gears instead of the usual single set; the differential gears are part of the input drive shaft rather than between the output axles as in a conventional differential. All versions of the Tatra differential have locking pins that can force the differential gears to rotate together, "locking" the differential; this arrangement had two distinct advantages. The first is that the dual output bevel gears allow the axles to swing around the drive axle without the need for universal couplings.

The second is that the input drive shaft goes straight through the differential housing, allowing simple coupling to a second set of swing axles. This modular design enables configurations of 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 axles with all axles driven; the whole assembly is part of the backbone frame. Mechanical suspension of load capacity up to 8 tons per axle by torsion bars – for versions with one steered front axle or by leaf springs – for versions with two steered axles. Air-bellows, with a load capacity of 9 tons per axle and a possibility of a ground clearance regulation. Mechanical – by leaf springs, with a load capacity of up to 11.5 tons per axle Air-bellows with a load capacity of 10 tons per axle and a possibility of a ground clearance regulation Tatra King Frame suspension system - combination of an air-bellow with a coil spring placed inside, with a load capacity of up to 11.5 tons per axle or combination of air-bellows with leaf springs, with a load capacity of 13, 15 and 16.5 tons per axle.

All suspension types are equipped with telescopic shock absorbers. The Tatra engine is an air-cooled, OHV 12.7 litre 90° V8 120 x 140 mm diesel engine with direct fuel injection. It is turbocharged by one Holset WasteGate turbocharger, equipped with an intercooler placed directly over the engine; the engine is equipped with a mechanically controlled in-line Bosch injection pump. Its roller crankshaft bolted together from individual segments belongs among unique technical solutions; the engine is available in emission specifications Euro 2 - Euro 5 with power output ranging from 230 to 325 kilowatts and 1,400–2,100 N⋅m torque. At its launch, the T815 could alternatively be delivered with a larger powertrain. Available options, all of which were from Tatra's own range of engines, included the air-cooled V10 and V12, both without turbo and intercooler, a V12 bi-turbo; when the Euro 1 emission limits came into effect, the larger engine alternatives became unavailable. Tatra T815 can be fitted with water-cooled engines made by other manufacturers - notably Cummins and Deutz with power ranging from 260 to 440 kilowatts with 1,550–2,750 N⋅m torque.

The most powerful MTU engine, used in a T815 prototype tank prime mover, had an output of 610 kilowatts displacing 21,930 cc. Manually controlled mechanical Tatra transmission, mounted directly on the auxiliary transmission case, which, therefore, is an integrated

Pêr-Jakez Helias

Pêr-Jakez Helias, baptised Pierre-Jacques Hélias, nom de plume Pierre-Jakez Hélias was a Breton stage actor, author and writer for radio who worked in the French and Breton languages. For many years he directed a weekly radio programme in the Breton language and co-founded a summer festival at Quimper which became the Festival de Cornouaille. Helias was born in 1914 in Penn-ar-Bed, Brittany, he had a modest upbringing. After a career in the French Resistance during the Second World War, in 1946 Helias was appointed as director of a weekly programme in Breton on Radio Kimerc'h. Working with Pierre Trépos, he created hundreds of dialogues, many of them between two stock characters, Gwilhou Vihan and Jakez Kroc'hen. In 1948 he was the co-founder, with François Bégot and Jo Halleguen, of Les grandes Fêtes de Cornouaille, a major summer festival of Breton life; the theatre was Helias's favourite genre, as he was convinced that the Breton reality was a spoken one, so that it could best be captured by drama, much of his early work was in the form of plays and scripts for radio.

His An Isild a-heul, or Yseulte seconde, was a three-act tragedy based on the story of Tristan and Isolde, but with a focus on Tristan's wife rather than his lover. While written in Breton, it was published in a dual text, with a French translation on the facing page, was broadcast on the France Culture radio station in 1965. Helias's best-known and most performed play is Mevel ar Gosker, or'The Yardman of Kosker'. A mevel bras was the most important Breton farm worker, a man who might enjoy many privileges, but he was not of the landowning class and it was inconceivable in the old Brittany that he could aspire to marry into it. However, the mevel of the play, Jakez Mano, contrives by a complicated means to marry his master's daughter, God Konan; the fact that he can not only think of this but achieve it is seen as proof that the old Brittany, in which marriages were decided by social status and by the ownership of land, is dying. Helias's poetry includes two collections in Ar men du and An tremen-buhez.

An important theme in his work is his devotion to its power. One of his lines translates as "Breton speaker that I am, my heritage lies on my tongue, it shall never be yours", his best-selling work is his autobiographical Le cheval d'orgueil, or The Horse of Pride, adapted for cinema by Claude Chabrol in 1980, rooted in the Bigoudenn area south of Quimper. This was published in Breton as Marh ar lorh, after its success on screen had turned Helias into a national celebrity, he collected folk tales from his native Brittany and published work on the Breton language and culture. He became a major figure in Breton literature during the last third of the 20th century. Despite his importance in Brittany, Helias came under fire from the radicals promoting the revival of the Breton language; this was only due to his willingness to work in French and his refusal to disapprove of the language. In his important and influential Le cheval d'orgueil, Helias is accused of presenting a disappearing Breton world without obvious regret, he says in it that he enjoyed learning French.

The book appeared first in French, the English translation was available before that into Breton. The radicals condemned it as folklore. One commentator has said of this "Brittany's two writers most famous in France as a whole, Per-Jakez Helias and Jean-Edern Hallier, are regarded with some scorn by the Breton zealots."Helias died on 13 August 1995. The 1997 Encyclopædia Britannica wrote of him, "Per-Jakez Helias as poet and radio script writer has been both prolific and popular." Pierre-Jakez Hélias, book #36, published by Skol Vreizh Per-Jakez Hélias. Niverenn ispisial, special edition #172, published by Brud Nevez, 1994 Francis Favereau: Pierre-Jakez Hélias, Bigouden universel, published by Pluriel Thierry Glon: Pierre-Jakez Hélias et la Bretagne perdue, published by Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 1998 Pascal Rannou: Inventaire d'un héritage — Essai sur l'œuvre littéraire de Pierre-Jakez Hélias, published by An Here, 1997.

Segundo Frente

Segundo Frente is a municipality in the Santiago de Cuba Province of Cuba. Located in the northern part of the province, it is centered on the town, municipal seat, of Mayarí Arriba; the municipality is located north of the province, neighboring the provinces of Holguín and Guantánamo. It borders with the municipalities of Mayarí, Frank País, Sagua de Tánamo, El Salvador, Songo-La Maya and San Luis, it includes the town of Mayarí Arriba and the villages of Boca de Micara, Loma Blanca, San Benito de Mayarí, Soledad and Tumba Siete. In 2004, the municipality of Segundo Frente had a population of 40,885. With a total area of 540 km2, it has a population density of 75.7/km2. List of cities in Cuba Municipalities of Cuba Media related to Segundo Frente at Wikimedia Commons Segundo Frente on EcuRed

Laura A. Woodin Le Valley

Laura Anna Woodin Le Valley was an American lawyer. Laura Anna Woodin was born in Granville, New York, was the only daughter of Daniel Woodin and Sarah J. S. Palmer. Daniel Woodin was born in Oswego County, New York, about the year 1820, he was a tutor in the North Granvill Academy, New York, in 1845 went to Michigan. He was a teacher for about twenty years and was for many years School Inspector of Macomb County, Michigan, he was elected Justice of Peace for three successive terms, which office he held at the time of his death. Her girlhood was spent in Romeo, where she attended an institute of that place, afterwards she became a student in Falley Seminary, New York, she made a specialty of music, entered Sherwood's Musical Academy, New York, from which she was graduated. Soon after graduation, Laura A. Woodin Le Valley gained the reputation of a thorough instructor in instrumental music. Finding her services in demand in her father's office, she was appointed a notary public, assisted him for several years in the prosecution of United States claims.

During that time she began the study of stenography. She commenced to study law, encouraged by her father, entered the law department of the University of Michigan in the fall of 1880, from which she was graduated in the class of 1882, she was a faithful student, made rapid progress, had entered upon the work of the senior year, when she applied for admission to the bar, stood a rigid examination in open court, was admitted to practice before the supreme court of Michigan on November 12, 1881. LeValley was a member of the Congregational Church, for years was an active worker in the Sunday-school of that denomination. In the law school Laura A. Woodin first met her future husband, David W. LeValley, from the State of New York a senior in the law department in the class of 1881. David LeValley opened an office in Saginaw, where they resided since their marriage, on December 28, 1882, they moved to 31 Lorraine Court, Michigan. For five years after her marriage she gave close attention to office work, her husband attending to matters in court, they built up a profitable business.

Since the birth of her daughter, Florence E. the nature of her employment was somewhat changed She was now the mother of two daughters. Since her marriage she, her husband, the author of the historical chart entitled "The Royal Family of England," spent nearly all their spare time in reading, chiefly history, they had two daughters, Mrs T. W. Widenmann and Sarah Le Valley, she died at Pontiac, Michigan, on December 9, 1918, aged 65. She was buried in Detroit, Michigan