United States passports are passports issued to citizens and nationals of the United States of America. They are issued by the U. S. Department of State. Besides passports, limited use passport cards are issued by the same government agency subject to the same requirements, it is unlawful for U. S. citizens and nationals to enter or exit the United States without a valid U. S. passport or Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative-compliant passport-replacement document, though there are many exceptions, waivers are granted for U. S. citizens returning without a passport, the exit requirement is not enforced. U. S. passport booklets conform with recommended standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization. There are five types of passport booklets. United States passports are property of the United States and must be returned to the U. S. government upon demand. By law, a valid unexpired U. S. passport is conclusive proof of U. S. citizenship, has the same force and effect as proof of United States citizenship as certificates of naturalization or of citizenship, if issued to a U.
S. citizen for the full period allowed by law. U. S. law does not prohibit U. S. citizens from holding passports of other countries, though they are required to use their U. S. passport to enter and leave the U. S. American consular officials issued passports to some citizens of some of the thirteen states during the War for Independence. Passports were sheets of paper printed on one side, included a description of the bearer, were valid for three to six months; the minister to France, Benjamin Franklin, based the design of passports issued by his mission on that of the French passport. From 1776 to 1783, no state government had a passport requirement; the Articles of Confederation government did not have a passport requirement. The Department of Foreign Affairs of the war period issued passports, the department, carried over by the Articles of Confederation government, continued to issue passports. In July 1789, the Department of Foreign Affairs was carried over by the government established under the Constitution.
In September of that year, the name of the department was changed to Department of State. The department handled foreign relations and issued passports, until the mid-19th century had various domestic duties. For decades thereafter, passports were issued not only by the Department of State but by states and cities, by notaries public. For example, an internal passport dated 1815 was presented to Massachusetts citizen George Barker to allow him to travel as a free black man to visit relatives in Southern slave states. Passports issued by American authorities other than the Department of State breached propriety and caused confusion abroad; some European countries refused to recognize passports not issued by the Department of State, unless United States consular officials endorsed them. The problems led the Congress in 1856 to give to the Department of State the sole authority to issue passports. From 1789 through late 1941, the constitutionally established government required passports of citizens only during two periods: during the American Civil War, as well as during and shortly after World War I.
The passport requirement of the Civil War era lacked statutory authority. During World War I, European countries instituted passport requirements; the Travel Control Act of May 22, 1918, permitted the president, when the United States was at war, to proclaim a passport requirement, President Wilson issued such a proclamation on August 18, 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, but the passport requirement lingered until March 3, 1921, the last day of the Wilson administration. In Europe, general peace between the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the beginning of World War I, development of rail roads, gave rise to international travel by large numbers of people. Countries such as Czarist Russia and the Ottoman Empire maintained passport requirements. After World War I, many European countries retained their passport requirements. Foreign passport requirements undercut the absence of a passport requirement for Americans exiting the country, under United States law, between 1921 and 1941; the contemporary period of required passports for Americans under United States law began on November 29, 1941.
A 1978 amendment to the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 made it unlawful to enter or depart the United States without an issued passport in peacetime. When passports were not required, Americans requested U. S. passports. Records of the Department of State show that 130,360 passports were issued between 1810 and 1873 and that 369,844 passports were issued between 1877 and 1909; some of those passports were family passports or group passports. A passport application could cover, variously, a wife, a child, or children, one or more servants, or a woman traveling under the protection of a man; the passport would be issued to the man. A passport application could cover a child traveling with his or her mother; the passport would be issued to the mother. The number of Americans who traveled without passports is unknown; the League of Nations held a conference in 1920 concerning passports and through-train travel, conferences in 1926 and 1927 concerning passports. The 1920 conference put forward guidelines on the layout and features of passports, which the 1926 and 1927 conferences followed up.
Those guidelines were steps in the shaping of contemporary passports. One of the guidelines was about 32-page passport booklets, such as th
The 2014 Gold Coast Titans season was the 8th in the club's history. Coached by John Cartwright and co-captained by Greg Bird and Nate Myles, they competed in the NRL's 2014 Telstra Premiership. During the second half of the season Cartwright resigned, his position as head coach was taken by assistant coach Neil Henry for the remainder of the season. Gold Coast finished the regular season in 14th and failed to qualify the finals for the fourth consecutive year. On 7 January, the Titans released Jamal Idris from the remaining 3 years of his contract so he could return to Sydney to be closer to his family. In a deal between the Titans and the Penrith Panthers, Idris joined the Panthers on a three-year deal and Brad Tighe moved from the Panthers to the Titans. Round 1: Luke Douglas plays his 195th consecutive NRL game, surpassing Jason Taylor's record of 194 Round 1: Maurice Blair and Brad Tighe made their debuts for the club Round 1: Paul Carter made his first grade debut Round 2: Luke Douglas and Ben Ridge played their 50th game for the club Round 2: Aidan Sezer scored his 200th career point Round 3: Paul Carter scored his 1st career try Round 5: Brad Takairangi played his 50th career game Round 6: Luke Douglas played his 200th career game Round 6: Kevin Gordon played his 100th game for the club Round 8: Cody Nelson made his first grade debut Round 9: Nate Myles played his 50th game for the club Round 10: Kalifa Faifai Loa made his debut for the club Round 11: David Mead played his 100th game for the club Round 14: Caleb Binge made his first grade debut Round 14: James Roberts made his debut for the club Round 15: Daniel Mortimer made his debut for the club Round 15: Matt White play his 100th game for the club Round 17: Tom Kingston made his first grade debut Round 17: Mark Minichiello played his 250th career game Round 22: Dave Taylor played his 150th career game Round 23: Aidan Sezer played his 5oth career game Round 24: Luke Bailey played his 150th game for the club Round 24: Daniel Mortimer played his 100th career game The NRL Auckland Nines is a pre-season rugby league nines competition featuring all 16 NRL clubs.
The 2014 competition was played over two days on 15 and 16 February at Eden Park in Auckland, New Zealand. The Titans featured in Pool Blue and played the Sharks and Tigers; the Titans failed to qualify for the quarter finals. Source: The following players have played a representative match in 2014 Nil Paul Broughton Medal: Beau Falloon Community Award: Ryan James'The Preston': Luke Bailey Rookie of the year: Paul Carter Members Choice: Luke Bailey U/20s Player of the year: Anthony Colman
Sandy Creek is a tributary of the Tuscarawas River, 41.3 miles long, in northeastern Ohio in the United States. Via the Tuscarawas and Ohio Rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 503 square miles. Sandy Creek rises in Hanover Township two miles northeast of Hanoverton in western Columbiana County and flows west-southwestwardly through northwestern Carroll County, southeastern Stark County and northeastern Tuscarawas County, past the communities of Kensington, Malvern and Magnolia, it joins the Tuscarawas River from the east in Bethlehem Township in Stark County one mile northeast of Bolivar. At Minerva, it collects the Still Fork. At Waynesburg it collects a short stream known as Little Sandy Creek. In Sandyville, Tuscarawas County it collects Nimishillen Creek. A dry dam, Bolivar Dam, constructed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, spans the creek near its mouth. At the United States Geological Survey's stream gauge in Waynesburg, the annual mean flow of the river between 1939 and 2005 was 278 ft³/s.
The highest recorded flow during the period was 15,000 ft³/s on January 22, 1959. The lowest recorded flow was 6.9 ft³/s on an unspecified date. According to the Geographic Names Information System, Sandy Creek has been known as: Big Sandy Creek Big Sandy River Elks Eye Creek Lamanshicolas Creek Lamenshikola Creek List of rivers of Ohio