For the video game, go to Divinity: Original Sin In religion, divinity or Godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as God, the supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, are therefore regarded as sacred and holy. Such things are regarded as divine due to their transcendental origins or because their attributes or qualities are superior or supreme relative to things of the Earth. Divine things are regarded as eternal and based in truth, while material things are regarded as ephemeral and based in illusion; such things that may qualify as divine are apparitions, prophecies, in some views the soul, or more general things like resurrection, immortality and salvation. Otherwise what is or is not divine may be loosely defined, as it is used by different belief systems; the root of the word "divine" is "godly", but the use varies depending on which deity is being discussed. This article outlines the major distinctions in the conventional use of the terms.
For specific related academic terms, see Divinity, or Divine. Divinity as a quality has two distinct usages: Divine force or power - powers or forces that are universal, or transcend human capacities Divinity applied to mortals - qualities of individuals who are considered to have some special access or relationship to the divine. DV Divinity always carries connotations of goodness, beneficence and other positive, pro-social attributes. In monotheistic faiths there is an equivalent cohort of malefic supernatural beings and powers, such as demons, afreet, etc. which are not conventionally referred to as divine. Pantheistic and polytheistic faiths make no such distinction. Note that while the terms demon and demonic are used in monotheistic faiths as antonyms to divine, they are in fact derived from the Greek word daimón, which itself translates as divinity. There are three distinct usages of divinity and divine in religious discourse: In monotheistic faiths, the word divinity is used to refer to the singular God central to that faith.
The word takes the definite article and is capitalized — "the Divinity" — as though it were a proper name or definitive honorific. Divine — capitalized — may be used as an adjective to refer to the manifestations of such a Divinity or its powers: e.g. "basking in the Divine presence..." The terms divinity and divine — uncapitalized, lacking the definite article — are sometimes used as to denote'god or certain other beings and entities which fall short of absolute Godhood but lie outside the human realm. These include: As noted, divinities are related to the transcendent force or power credited to them, so much so that in some cases the powers or forces may themselves be invoked independently; this leads to the second usage of the word divine: to refer to the operation of transcendent power in the world. In its most direct form, the operation of transcendent power implies some form of divine intervention. For pan- and polytheistic faiths this implies the direct action of one god or another on the course of human events.
In Greek legend, for instance, it was Poseidon who raised the storms that blew Odysseus's craft off course on his return journey, Japanese tradition holds that a god-sent wind saved them from Mongol invasion. Prayers or propitiations are offered to specific gods of pantheisms to garner favorable interventions in particular enterprises: e.g. safe journeys, success in war, or a season of bountiful crops. Many faiths around the world — from Japanese Shinto and Chinese traditional religion, to certain African practices and the faiths derived from those in the Caribbean, to Native American beliefs — hold that ancestral or household deities offer daily protection and blessings. In monotheistic religions, divine intervention may take direct forms: miracles, visions, or intercessions by blessed figures. Transcendent force or power may operate through more subtle and indirect paths. Monotheistic faiths support some version of divine providence, which acknowledges that the divinity of the faith has a profound but unknowable plan always unfolding in the world.
Unforeseeable, overwhelming, or unjust events are thrown on'the will of the Divine', in deferences like the Muslim inshallah and Christian'God works in mysterious ways'. Such faiths hold out the possibility of divine retribution as well, where the divinity will unexpectedly bring evil-doers to justice through the conventional workings of the world. Other faiths are more subtle: the doctrine of karma shared by Buddhism and Hinduism is a divine law similar to divine retribution but without the connotation of punishment: our acts, good or bad, intentional or unintentional, reflect back on us as part of the natural working of the universe. Philosophical Taoism proposes a transcendent operant principle — transliterated in English as tao or dao, meaning'the way' —, neither an entity or a being per se, but reflects the natural ongoing process of the world. Modern western mysticism and new age philosophy use the term'the Divine' as a noun in this latter sense: a non-specific principle or being that gives rise to the world, acts as the source o
William Walker Atkinson
William Walker Atkinson was an attorney, merchant and author, as well as an occultist and an American pioneer of the New Thought movement. He is thought to be the author of the pseudonymous works attributed to Theron Q. Dumont and Yogi Ramacharaka, he wrote all in the last 30 years of his life. He was mentioned in past editions of Who's Who in America, in Religious Leaders of America, in several similar publications, his works have remained in print more or less continuously since 1900. William Walker Atkinson was born in Baltimore, Maryland on December 5, 1862, to Emma and William Atkinson, he began his working life as a grocer at 15 years old helping his father. He married Margret Foster Black of Beverly, New Jersey, in October 1889, they had two children; the first died young. The second married and had two daughters. Atkinson pursued a business career from 1882 onwards and in 1894 he was admitted as an attorney to the Bar of Pennsylvania. While he gained much material success in his profession as a lawyer, the stress and over-strain took its toll, during this time he experienced a complete physical and mental breakdown, financial disaster.
He looked for healing and in the late 1880s he found it with New Thought attributing the restoration of his health, mental vigor and material prosperity to the application of the principles of New Thought. Some time after his healing, Atkinson began to write articles on the truths he felt he had discovered, which were known as Mental Science. In 1889, an article by him entitled "A Mental Science Catechism," appeared in Charles Fillmore's new periodical, Modern Thought. By the early 1890s Chicago had become a major centre for New Thought through the work of Emma Curtis Hopkins, Atkinson decided to move there. Once in the city, he became an active promoter of the movement as an author, he was responsible for publishing New Thought and Advanced Thought. In 1900 Atkinson worked as an associate editor of Suggestion, a New Thought Journal, wrote his probable first book, Thought-Force in Business and Everyday Life, being a series of lessons in personal magnetism, psychic influence, thought-force, will-power, practical mental science.
He met Sydney Flower, a well-known New Thought publisher and businessman, teamed up with him. In December, 1901 he assumed editorship of Flower's popular New Thought magazine, a post which he held until 1905. During these years he built for himself an enduring place in the hearts of its readers. Article after article flowed from his pen. Meanwhile, he founded his own Psychic Club and the so-called "Atkinson School of Mental Science". Both were located in the same building as Flower's Psychic Research and New Thought Publishing Company. Atkinson was a past president of the International New Thought Alliance. Throughout his subsequent career, Atkinson was thought to have written under many pseudonyms, it is not known whether he confirmed or denied authorship of these pseudonymous works, but all of the independent authors whose writings are now credited to Atkinson were linked to one another by virtue of the fact that their works were released by a series of publishing houses with shared addresses and they wrote for a series of magazines with a shared roster of authors.
Atkinson was the editor of all of those magazines and his pseudonymous authors acted first as contributors to the periodicals, were spun off into their own book-writing careers—with most of their books being released by Atkinson's own publishing houses. One key to unravelling this tangled web of pseudonyms is found in "Advanced Thought" magazine, billed as "A Journal of The New Thought, Practical Psychology, Yogi Philosophy, Constructive Occultism, Metaphysical Healing, Etc." This magazine, edited by Atkinson, advertised articles by Atkinson, Yogi Ramacharaka, Theron Q. Dumont—the latter two were credited to Atkinson—and it had the same address as The Yogi Publishing Society, which published the works attributed to Yogi Ramacharaka. Advanced Thought magazine carried articles by Swami Bhakta Vishita, but when it came time for Vishita's writings to be collected in book form, they were not published by the Yogi Publishing Society. Instead they were published by The Advanced Thought Publishing Co. the same house that brought out the Theron Q.
Dumont books—and published Advanced Thought In the 1890s, Atkinson had become interested in Hinduism and after 1900 he devoted a great deal of effort to the diffusion of yoga and Oriental occultism in the West. It is unclear at this late date whether he ever converted to any form of Hindu religion, or wished to write on the subject. If he did convert, he left no record of the event. According to unverifiable sources, while Atkinson was in Chicago at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, he met one Baba Bharata, a pupil of the late Indian mystic Yogi Ramacharaka; as the story goes, Bharata had become acquainted with Atkinson's writings after arriving in America, the two men shared similar ideas, so they decided to collaborate. While editing New Thought magazine, it is claimed, Atkinson co-wrote with Bharata a series of books which they attributed to Bharata's teacher, Yogi Ramacharaka; this story cannot be verified and—like the "official" biography that falsely claimed Atkinson was an "English author"—it may be a fabrication.
No record exists in India of a Yogi Ramacharaka, nor is there evidence in America of the immigration of a Baba Bharata. Furthermore, although Atkinson may have travelled to Chicago to visit the 1892 - 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, where the authentic Indian
History of New Thought
The history of New Thought started in the 1830s, with roots in the United States and England. As a spiritual movement with roots in metaphysical beliefs, New Thought has helped guide a variety of social changes throughout the 19th, 20th, into the 21st centuries. Psychologist and philosopher William James labelled New Thought "the religion of healthy-mindedness" in his study on religion and science, The Varieties of Religious Experience. Rooted universal science, early New Thought leaders shared a Romantic interest between metaphysics and American Christianity. In addition to New Thought, Christian Science, transcendental movement and other movements were born from similar interests, all in the late 18th and early 19th century. Early New Thought leaders were influenced by Calvinistic belief in the absolute sovereignty of God. Before anyone practiced New Thought as a set of beliefs there were a few influential figures whose teaching contributed to the movement; the founder of the 18th century New Church, Emanuel Swedenborg, extended clear influence on many authors' New Thought writings on the Bible.
Ralph Waldo Emerson was influential, as his philosophical movement of transcendentalism is incorporated throughout New Thought. Franz Mesmer's work on hypnosis drove the work of Phineas Quimby, influenced in part by hearing a lecture by Charles Poyen. Phineas P. Quimby is recognized as the founder of the New Thought movement. Born in Lebanon, New Hampshire but raised in Belfast, Quimby learned about the power of the mind to heal through hypnosis when he observed Charles Poyen's work. About 1840, Quimby began to mesmerism as it was called. Through this practice and further study, he developed the view, he opened an office for mental healing in Portland in 1859. Calvinistic Baptist ministerial candidate Julius Dresser and his future wife Annetta G. Seabury came from Waterville, Maine to be healed by Quimby in 1860, they were healed in a short time. In 1882, Dresser and Annetta began promoting what they called the "Quimby System of Mental Treatment of Diseases" in Boston, their son Horatio figures as New Thought's first historian.
Horatio, a popular lecturer, edited The Quimby Manuscripts, which Quimby wrote between 1846 and 1865. In 1862 Mary Baker Eddy a Congregational Church member, came to Quimby hoping to be healed from lifelong ill-health. In years Eddy went on to found Christian Science; because of this, while not seen as a New Thought denomination, Christian Science is regarded by New Thought followers to be driven by New Thought beliefs. Christian Scientists disagree stating that Eddy was not influenced by Quimby. In 1875 Eddy published Health, thus establishing Christian Science as a denomination. A former Methodist minister and Swedenborgian minister named Warren Evans came to Quimby for healing in 1863; when he was healed shortly after, he started writing New Thought literature immediately. One source names him as the first person to publish a clear philosophy based on Quimby's practices. Prentice Mulford was pivotal in the development of New Thought thinking. From his writings in the White Cross Library, including Your Forces and How to Use Them, the terms "New Thought" and the "Law of Attraction" first came to fruition.
After the philosophy of New Thought was established, several individuals and organizations rose to prominence to promote the beliefs. However, there is no consensus on. Charles Brodie Patterson has been credited. Patterson, a Canadian expatriate who lived in New York City, was labelled the movement's leader when he died in the early 20th century. One of Eddy's early Christian Science students, Ursula Gestefeld, created a philosophy called the "Science of Being" after Eddy kicked her out of her church. Science of Being groups formed the Church of New Thought in 1904, the first group to refer itself as such. While Julius Dresser, his son Horatio, are sometimes credited as founders of New Thought as a named movement, others share this title. Horatio wrote A History of the New Thought Movement, published in 1919, named his father an essential figure in founding the movement. Emma Curtis Hopkins is considered a founder. Hopkins, called the "Teacher of Teachers", was a former student of Mary Baker Eddy.
Because of her role in teaching several influential leaders who emerge in New Thought movement history, she is given credit as a mother of the movement. Inspired by medieval mystic Joachim of Fiore, Hopkins viewed the Christian Trinity: God the Father, God the Son, God the Mother-Spirit, she wrote High Mysticism and Scientific Christian Mental Practice and founded the Emma Hopkins College of Metaphysical Science, which graduated a large number of women. Numerous churches and groups developed within the New Thought movement. Emma Curtis Hopkins is called the "Teacher of Teachers" because of the number of people she taught who went on to found groups within the New Thought movement. After learning from Hopkins, Annie Rix Militz went on to found the Home of Truth. Another student, Malinda E. Cramer became a co-founder of Divine Science, along with Mrs. Bingham, who taught Nona L. Brooks, who co-founded Divine Science with Cramer. Charles and Myrtle Fillmore, who went to Hopkins together, went on to found the Unity School of Christianity afterwards.
Authors learned from Hopkins, including Dr. H. Emilie Cady
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, between possibility and actuality. The word "metaphysics" comes from two Greek words that, together mean "after or behind or among the natural", it has been suggested that the term might have been coined by a first century CE editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle’s works into the treatise we now know by the name Metaphysics. Metaphysics studies questions related to what it is for something to exist and what types of existence there are. Metaphysics seeks to answer, in an abstract and general manner, the questions: What is there? What is it like? Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence and their properties and time, cause and effect, possibility. Metaphysics study, conducted using deduction from that, known a priori. Like foundational mathematics, it tries to give a coherent account of the structure of the world, capable of explaining our everyday and scientific perception of the world, being free from contradictions.
In mathematics, there are many different ways. While metaphysics may, as a special case, study the entities postulated by fundamental science such as atoms and superstrings, its core topic is the set of categories such as object and causality which those scientific theories assume. For example: claiming that "electrons have charge" is a scientific theory. There are two broad stances about; the strong, classical view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist independently of any observer, so that the subject is the most fundamental of all sciences. The weak, modern view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist inside the mind of an observer, so the subject becomes a form of introspection and conceptual analysis; some philosophers, notably Kant, discuss both of these "worlds" and what can be inferred about each one. Some philosophers, such as the logical positivists, many scientists, reject the strong view of metaphysics as meaningless and unverifiable. Others reply that this criticism applies to any type of knowledge, including hard science, which claims to describe anything other than the contents of human perception, thus that the world of perception is the objective world in some sense.
Metaphysics itself assumes that some stance has been taken on these questions and that it may proceed independently of the choice—the question of which stance to take belongs instead to another branch of philosophy, epistemology. Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as the core of metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, subdivided according to similarities and differences. Identity is a fundamental metaphysical issue. Metaphysicians investigating identity are tasked with the question of what it means for something to be identical to itself, or — more controversially — to something else. Issues of identity arise in the context of time: what does it mean for something to be itself across two moments in time? How do we account for this? Another question of identity arises when we ask what our criteria ought to be for determining identity?
And how does the reality of identity interface with linguistic expressions? The metaphysical positions one takes on identity have far-reaching implications on issues such as the mind-body problem, personal identity and law; the ancient Greeks took extreme positions on the nature of change. Parmenides denied change altogether, while Heraclitus argued that change was ubiquitous: "ou cannot step into the same river twice." Identity, sometimes called Numerical Identity, is the relation that a "thing" bears to itself, which no "thing" bears to anything other than itself. A modern philosopher who made a lasting impact on the philosophy of identity was Leibniz, whose Law of the Indiscernibility of Identicals is still in wide use today, it states that if some object x is identical to some object y any property that x has, y will have as well. Put formally, it states ∀ x ∀ y However, it seems, that objects can change over time. If one were to look at a tree one day, the tree lost a leaf, it would seem that one could still be looking at that same tree.
Two rival theories to account for the relationship between change and identity are perdurantism, which treats the tree as a series of tree-stages, endurantism, which maintains that the organism—the same tree—is present at every stage in its history. Objects appear to us in space and time, while abstract entities such as classes, r
Science of Mind was established in 1927 by Ernest Holmes and is a spiritual and metaphysical religious movement within the New Thought movement. In general, the term "Science of Mind" applies to the teachings, while the term "Religious Science" applies to the organizations. However, adherents use the terms interchangeably. In his book, The Science of Mind, Ernest Holmes stated "Religious Science is a correlation of laws of science, opinions of philosophy, revelations of religion applied to human needs and the aspirations of man." He stated that Religious Science/Science of Mind is not based on any "authority" of established beliefs, but rather on "what it can accomplish" for the people who practice it. Today the International Centers for Spiritual Living, the United Centers for Spiritual Living and Global Religious Science Ministries are the main denominations promoting Religious Science. Ernest Holmes did not intend for RS/SOM to be a "church", but rather a teaching institution. In that spirit, many member "churches" have traditionally referred to themselves as "centers."
The mental healing work of Phineas Quimby was a source of inspiration to much of the New Thought movement, including RS/SOM. Ernest Holmes was strongly influenced by Emma Curtis Hopkins, a former student of Christian Science her "Scientific Christian Mental Practice", a direct precursor to Holmes' "Spiritual Mind Treatment", by the writings of Judge Thomas Troward and Ralph Waldo Emerson, as he developed his own synthesis, which became known as Religious Science or Science of Mind. In 1926 Holmes published The Science of Mind, which references the teachings of Jesus Christ the Bible and Buddha. Holmes established the Institute for Religious School of Philosophy in Los Angeles; this organization would become the Church of Religious Science. Holmes had studied another New Thought teaching, Divine Science, he was an ordained Divine Science Minister, he saw humans as being "open at the top"—that is, open to evolutionary improvement of consciousness in all areas of life. The concepts of "Open at the Top" and "New Thought" have inspired RS/SOM organizations and their teachings to evolve over the years.
As stated in the book New Thought: A Practical American Spirituality, "New Thought still is evolving. Many believe it might be the quintessential spirituality for the next millennium." His teachings attracted famous celebrities of his time including Cecil B. DeMille, Peggy Lee, Cary Grant; the RS/SOM teaching incorporates idealistic and panentheistic philosophies. RS/SOM teaches that all beings are expressions of and part of Infinite Intelligence known as Spirit, Christ Consciousness, or God, it teaches that, because God is all there is in the universe, its power can be used by all humans to the extent that they recognize and align themselves with Its presence. Ernest Holmes said "God is not... a person, but a Universal Presence... in our own soul operating through our own consciousness."The Introduction to "The Science of Mind" text describes "The Thing Itself", "The Way It Works," "What It Does," and "How to Use It." Although Holmes was criticized for not focusing much on love, he did say that "Love rules through Law." and "Love points the way and Law makes the way possible."
The "Law of Cause and Effect" states that every action has a consequence — creative, destructive, or neutral. It can be described as Jesus Christ stated "You reap what you sow" and "The bread you cast upon the water, comes back to you"; the Law of Attraction is one aspect of that Law. It differs from the Hindu definition of karma in that it is not related to reincarnation and that it happens in this life. Personal responsibility is a major tenet of RS/SOM. RS/SOM teaches that people can achieve more fulfilling lives through the practice called Spiritual Mind Treatment, or Affirmative Prayer. Spiritual Mind Treatment is a step-by-step process, in which one states the desired outcome as if it has happened. In that way, it differs from traditional prayer, since it does not ask an entity separate from itself to act, it declares human partnership with Infinite Intelligence to achieve success. Treatment is to be stated as personal, positive and present; the goal is to gain clarity in thinking that guides action to be consistent with the desired outcome.
The Treatment is believed to set off a new chain of causation in Mind that leads one to act according to the good for which one is treating. Spiritual Mind Treatment, as taught in RS/SOM centers, contains five steps: Recognition, Realization and Release; some adherents of RS/SOM use supplemental meditation techniques, including "Visioning". Religious Science credo, adapted from Ernest Holmes "What I Believe": We believe in God, the living Spirit Almighty; this One is not absorbed by Its creation. The manifest universe is the body of God. We believe in the individualization of the Spirit in Us, that all people are individualizations of the One Spirit. We believe in the eternality, the immortality, the continui
Unity Village, Missouri
Unity Village is a village in Jackson County, United States. The population was 99 at the 2010 census; the village is the world headquarters of Unity Church. The Unity Tower was designed by the Kansas City firm Boillot & Lauck and built in 1929 to store water. Unity Village is located 15 miles southeast of downtown Kansas City. Unity Village is located at 38°56′47″N 94°23′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.97 square miles, of which 1.90 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. On July 1, 2015 a tornado ripped roofs to shreds. However, it only lasted a few seconds; as of the census of 2010, there were 99 people, 65 households, 11 families residing in the village. The population density was 52.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 73 housing units at an average density of 38.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 85.9% White, 7.1% African American, 2.0% Asian, 5.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.1% of the population.
There were 65 households of which 7.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 9.2% were married couples living together, 4.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 83.1% were non-families. 73.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.32 and the average family size was 2.36. The median age in the village was 52.5 years. 6.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 34.3% male and 65.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 140 people, 81 households, 19 families residing in the village; the population density was 73.6 people per square mile. There were 82 housing units at an average density of 43.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 94.29% White, 2.86% African American, 0.71% Asian, 0.71% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.71% of the population.
There were 81 households out of which 2.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 18.5% were married couples living together, 3.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 76.5% were non-families. 71.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.35 and the average family size was 2.21. In the village, the population was spread out with 2.1% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 42.9% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 62.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 63.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $29,583, the median income for a family was $87,667. Males had a median income of $41,765 versus $30,667 for females; the per capita income for the village was $31,836. There were none of the families and 11.9% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64.
Village website Headquarters for Unity Worldwide The Association of Unity Churches http://www.lstourism.com/unity.htm
Prosperity theology is a religious belief among some Christians, who hold that financial blessing and physical well-being are always the will of God for them, that faith, positive speech, donations to religious causes will increase one's material wealth. Prosperity theology views the Bible as a contract between God and humans: if humans have faith in God, he will deliver security and prosperity; the doctrine emphasizes the importance of personal empowerment, proposing that it is God's will for his people to be blessed. It is based on interpretations of the Bible that are mainstream in Judaism, though less so in Christianity; the atonement is interpreted to include the alleviation of sickness and poverty, which are viewed as curses to be broken by faith. This is believed to be achieved through donations of money and positive confession, it was during the Healing Revivals of the 1950s that prosperity theology first came to prominence in the United States, although commentators have linked the origins of its theology to the New Thought movement which began in the 19th century.
The prosperity teaching figured prominently in the Word of Faith movement and 1980s televangelism. In the 1990s and 2000s, it was adopted by influential leaders in the Pentecostal Movement and Charismatic Movement in the United States and has spread throughout the world. Prominent leaders in the development of prosperity theology include E. W. Kenyon, Oral Roberts, A. A. Allen, Robert Tilton, T. L. Osborn, Joel Osteen, Creflo Dollar, Jesse Duplantis, Kenneth Copeland, Reverend Ike, Kenneth Hagin. Prosperity theology has been criticized by leaders from various Christian denominations, including within the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements, who maintain that it is irresponsible, promotes idolatry, is contrary to scripture. Secular as well as some Christian observers have criticized prosperity theology as exploitative of the poor. According to historian Kate Bowler, the prosperity gospel was formed from the intersection of three different ideologies: Pentecostalism, New Thought, "an American gospel of pragmatism and upward mobility".
This "American gospel" was best exemplified by Andrew Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth and Russell Conwell's famous sermon "Acres of Diamonds", in which Conwell equated poverty with sin and asserted that anyone could become rich through hard work. This gospel of wealth, was an expression of Muscular Christianity and understood success to be the result of personal effort rather than divine intervention; the New Thought movement, which emerged in the 1880s, was responsible for popularizing belief in the power of the mind to achieve prosperity. While focused on achieving mental and physical health, New Thought teachers such as Charles Fillmore made material success a major emphasis of the movement. By the 20th century, New Thought concepts had saturated American popular culture, being common features of both self-help literature and popular psychology. E. W. Kenyon, a Baptist minister and adherent of the Higher Life movement, is credited with introducing mind-power teachings into early Pentecostalism.
In the 1890s, Kenyon attended Emerson College of Oratory where he was exposed to the New Thought movement. Kenyon became connected with well-known Pentecostal leaders and wrote about supernatural revelation and positive declarations, his writing influenced leaders of the nascent prosperity movement during the post-war American healing revival. Kenyon and leaders in the prosperity movement have denied that he was influenced by the New Thought movement. Anthropologist Simon Coleman argues that there are "obvious parallels" between Kenyon's teachings and New Thought. Kenyon taught that Christ's substitutionary atonement secured for believers a right to divine healing; this was attained through faith-filled speech. Prayer was understood to be a binding, legal act. Rather than asking, Kenyon taught believers to demand healing since they were legally entitled to receive it. Kenyon's blend of evangelical religion and mind-power beliefs—what he termed "overcoming faith"—resonated with a small but influential segment of the Pentecostal movement.
Pentecostals had always been committed to faith healing, the movement possessed a strong belief in the power of speech. Kenyon's ideas would be reflected in the teachings of Pentecostal evangelists F. F. Bosworth and John G. Lake. While Kenyon's teachings on overcoming faith laid the groundwork for the prosperity gospel, the first generation of Pentecostals influenced by him and other figures, such as Bosworth, did not view faith as a means to attain material prosperity. In fact, early Pentecostals tended to view prosperity as a threat to a person's spiritual well-being. By the 1940s and 1950s, however, a recognizable form of the doctrine began to take shape within the Pentecostal movement through the teachings of deliverance and healing evangelists. Combining prosperity teaching with revivalism and faith healing, these evangelists taught "the laws of faith and the laws of divine reciprocity". Oral Roberts began teaching prosperity theology in 1947, he explained the laws of faith as a "blessing pact" in which God would return donations "seven fo