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Universal Pictures

Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the NBCUniversal Film and Entertainment division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings. Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons.

For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.

In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour; the company was established June 8, 1912 formed in a merger of Independent Moving Pictures, the Powers Motion Picture Company, Rex Motion Picture Manufacturing Company, Champion Film Company, Nestor Film Company, the New York Motion Picture Company. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood.

Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization. Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.

Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. W

Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Alençon

Ferdinand Philippe Marie d'Orléans, duc d'Alençon was the son of Louis Charles Philippe Raphael d'Orléans, Duke of Nemours and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Prince Ferdinand of Orléans was born on 12 July 1844, he was the son of Prince Louis, Duke of Nemours and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, cousin of Queen Victoria. Among his siblings was older brother Prince Gaston of Orleans, Count of Eu, the Imperial consort of Brazil, younger sister Princess Marguerite Adélaïde of Orléans, wife of Prince Władysław Czartoryski, his paternal grandparents were Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily, Queen consort of the French, King Louis Philippe, forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848. His maternal grandparents were Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Maria Antonia Koháry. On 28 September 1868, he married Sophie Charlotte Augustine, Duchess in Bavaria at Possenhofen Castle, near Starnberg. Sophie, the ninth of ten children born to Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria and Princess Ludovika of Bavaria, was a sister of Empress Elisabeth of Austria, Queen Maria Sophie of the Two Sicilies, Duchess Mathilde Ludovika in Bavaria, the wife of Neapolitan Prince Luis of the Two Sicilies.

Before their marriage, she had been engaged to King Ludwig II of Bavaria, but the King called off the engagement before the marriage. The year after their marriage, the ducal couple moved into Bushy House in the Teddington area of Southwest London; the couple had two children: Louise d'Orléans, who married Prince Alfons of Bavaria and had children. Emmanuel d'Orléans, duke of Vendôme, who married Princess Henriette of Belgium and had children, his wife died in a fire at the Bazar de la Charité in Paris on 4 May 1897. He died in Royal Chapel, France on 29 June 1910

Bill Maher (hurler)

Bill Maher is an Irish sportsperson. He plays hurling and Gaelic football with his local club Kilsheelan-Kilcash and with the Tipperary senior inter-county team since 2015 and Tipperary senior football team since 2016. Maher captained Tipperary to win the 2012 All-Ireland Minor Hurling Championship, defeating Dublin in the final on a 2-18 to 1-11 scoreline, he made his championship debut for the Tipperary hurlers on 21 June 2015 against Limerick in the 2015 Munster Senior Hurling Championship. He was named in the Tipperary squad for the 2016 National Hurling League. Maher made his championship debut for the Tipperary footballers in 2016 against Waterford. On 31 July 2016, he started in the half-back line as Tipperary defeated Galway in the 2016 All-Ireland Quarter-finals at Croke Park to reach their first All-Ireland semi-final since 1935. On 21 August 2016, Tipperary were beaten in the semi-final by Mayo on a 2-13 to 0-14 scoreline, with Maher being sent-off in the second half. TipperaryMunster Senior Hurling Championship: 2015 All-Ireland Minor Hurling Championship: 2012 Munster Minor Hurling Championship: 2012 All-Ireland Minor Football Championship: 2011 Munster Minor Football Championship: 2011 Munster Under-21 Football Championship: 2015 National Football League Division 3: 2017 Tipperary GAA Player Profile


Ezhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hubei Province, China. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 1,048,668, of which 668,727 lived in the core Echeng District; the Ezhou - Huanggang built-up area was home to 1,035,496 inhabitants from the Echeng and Huangzhou, Huanggang Districts. Ezhou lies on the southern bank of the Yangtze River east of the southern section of Wuchang, across the river from the city of Huanggang, to which it is connected by the Ehuang Bridge. Lying between the cities of Wuhan and Huangshi, Ezhou has a small area of 1,504 square kilometers. There are many lakes in Ezhou, including the Liangzi Lake in Liangzihu District and Yanglan Lake, along with more than 133 lakes and pools; the city is the origin of Wuchang Bream and as a result is nicknamed "city of one hundred lakes" and "the land of fish and rice". The name "Ezhou" dates to the Han Dynasty and derives from the nearby ancient Zhou Dynasty vassal State of E. Although the administrative seat of the city changed several times, the name remained unchanged until the Three Kingdoms era at which time it became the capital of the state of Eastern Wu ruled by Sun Quan and was renamed "Wuchang".

This name remained in use as late as 1915, which proved confusing to travelers, as it was applied to the much larger city of Wuchang, itself shortly to become part of Wuhan. Throughout China's history Ezhou has remained an important city politically and militarily with its strategic position along the middle part of the Yangtze River, it is an important location in the history of the Pure Land Sect of Buddhism. Ezhou has three districts: Ezhou has six ports on the Yangtze including one than can handle up to 10,000-tonne vessels. Many important rail lines and national highways cross the area; this infrastructure make it a major logistics and distribution center. Important industries include metallurgy, construction materials, textiles and machinery. Ezhou is served by the E-Huang Expressway, China National Highways 106 and 316, the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway and the Wuhan-Huangshi Line of the Wuhan Metropolitan Area Intercity Railway. Ezhou has two bridges over the Yangtze; the Ezhou Railway Station, located southwest of downtown, has an interesting layout, somewhat similar to that of the Secaucus Junction in New Jersey.

Until 2014, there was just one rail line there: the north–south Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway, served by a large number of trains traveling from Wuhan to Nanchang and points further east and south. Until 2013, there were no commuter trains in per se in Hubei, but it took only about one hour to reach one of Wuhan's train stations train station from Ezhou using any of those trains; the distance from the Ezhou station to Wuchang by rail is 82 kilometers. In 2014, the Wuhan-Huangshi Line of the Wuhan Metropolitan Area Intercity Railway, the region's new commuter line system, was opened; this line, which runs east–west in the area, has crossed the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway tracks at the right angle just south of the existing Ezhou station. To accommodate the new line, the Ezhou Station was expanded in 2013–2014, with platforms constructed on the new commuter line, providing a possibility for an easy transfer between the two lines; this is said to be the first station in China with this layout. The trains on the commuter line travel to the Wuhan Railway Station.

The commuter line has one more station in Ezhou, farther to the east. It is 64 km from Wuhan Railway Station. Ezhou has several tourism sites, including the West Hill, the nearby Lotus Hill. There are three lakes, Liangzi Lake, Yanglan Lake and Honglian Lake. Official Website

Klingenberg, Saxony

Klingenberg is a municipality in the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district, in Saxony, Germany. It was formed on 31 December 2012 by the merger of the former municipalities Pretzschendorf and Höckendorf; the municipality is located 20 kilometers south-west of Dresden and 10 kilometers west of Dippoldiswalde. Klingenberg consists of 11 subdivisions: Beerwalde, Colmnitz, Friedersdorf, Höckendorf, Obercunnersdorf, Pretzschendorf, Röthenbach and Ruppendorf. Klingenberg is located along Dresden–Werdau railway, having two stations within its limits: Klingenberg-Colmnitz and Edle Krone. At Klingenberg-Colmnitz station two narrow-gauge railway lines used to branch off until the early 1970s, connecting the villages of Colmnitz and Pretzschendorf to the rail network

Prince Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Prince Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a German prince and soldier. He was a member of the Princely House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. During the Austro-Prussian War, while serving with the First Foot Guards, Prince Anton was mortally wounded at Königgrätz and died 33 days of his wounds, his father was Charles Anthony, Prince of Hohenzollern, his mother was Princess Josephine of Baden, daughter of Grand Duke Charles of Baden. Anton had several siblings, including: Leopold Stephanie Karl Friedrich Maria Luise He was close to his brother, Prince Frederick of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen