The Universal Zulu Nation is an international hip hop awareness group formed by and led by hip hop artist Afrika Bambaataa. They promote that Hip-Hop was created to provide'peace, love and having fun' for those in the ghetto, onward to all those supportive of the culture. Known as the Organization, it arose in the 1970s as the reformed New York City gang the Black Spades, a street gang from South Bronx. While the Black Spades were the base of the organization, other reformed gangs contributed additional members, notably the Savage Nomads, Seven Immortals, Savage Skulls, among others. Members began to organize cultural events for youths, combining local dance and music movements into what would become known as the various elements of hip hop culture. Elements of the culture include Emceeing, Deejaying and writing. In many interviews, Afrika Bambaataa has spoken of the name "Zulu" as being inspired by the 1964 film of the same name; the imagery of the Zulu Nation has varied at times as well. During the 1970s, 1980s, Afrika Bambaataa and the Zulu Nation members would clothe themselves in costumes representing different cultures of the world and different factions of the Nation throughout the world may utilize different cultural symbols and themes to express basic Zulu philosophy.
Since the early 1980s, the Zulu Nation has since established branches in Japan, the UK, Canada, South Korea and the Cape Flats in Cape Town South Africa. From the late 1980s, at the height of the Afrocentric movement in hip-hop, the movement seemed to be incorporating many doctrines from the Nation of Islam, the Nation of Gods and Earths, the Nuwaubians. In the mid 1990s some members began to break off starting their own projects or organizations such as Ill Crew Universal. Afrika Bambaataa stood down as head of the Zulu Nation in May 2016 after allegations of sexually abusing several young men and children in the organization. Ronald Savage was the first of several men to speak up about Bambaataa's alleged sexual abuse publicly; the Zulu movement was introduced to France in the early 1980s by Afrika Bambaataa. The Zulu Nation was centred in suburban Paris since most African immigrants lived beyond the city limits. Since 1987, the Zulu Nation's ties to the French hip hop community have waned.
Since Afrika Bambaataa's tour of France in 2008 and a Zulu Nation reunion in Paris, new movements of the Universal Zulu Nation have emerged in different cities in France. According to Veronique Henelon, "French rap has been a multi-dimensional expression of ties with Africa." The first hip-hop television show appeared in France. It was called'H. I. P. H. O. P.' and was aired by the TF1 channel. DJ Kool Herc Q-Tip Joeystarr Fab Five Freddy Ryuichi Sakamoto Kurtis Blow Spoonie Gee Rakaa Lord Jamar Kool Moe Dee Ice-T Ice Cube Immortal Technique Soul Messiah Big Boi Ad-Rock MC Spice 9th Wonder Lovebug Starski Jam Master Jay Phife Dawg In 2004, the thirteenth episode of the second season of The Chappelle Show had the comedian Dave Chappelle do a sketch on an African-American George W. Bush, called Black Bush, where the character said that his coalition of the willing included Afrika Bambataa and the Zulu Nation; the Universal Zulu Nation is featured at length in the 2016 Netflix series The Get Down. In the series, Afrika Bambaataa is played by Nigerian-American actor Okieriete Onaodowan.
Pseudevernia furfuracea known as tree moss, is a lichenized species of fungus that grows on the bark of firs and pines. The lichen is rather sensitive to air pollution, its presence indicating good air conditions in the growing place; the species has numerous human uses, including use in perfume, embalming and in medicine. Large amounts of tree moss is annually processed in France for the perfume industry. Pseudevernia furfuracea is associated with photobionts from the green algae genus Trebouxia, it reproduces asexually by isidia. The ontogeny of isidia development and its role in CO2 gas exchange in P. furfuracea has been investigated. The preferred growing surfaces for P. furfuracea are the so-called "nutrient poor" bark trees, including birch and spruce. The species has two morphologically identical varieties that are distinguished by the secondary metabolites they produce: var. ceratea Zopf. Produces olivetoric acid and other physodic acids, while var. furfuracea produces physodic but not olivetoric acid.
Some authors have separated the chemotypes at the species level, designating the olivetoric acid-containing specimens as Pseudevernia olivetorina, but more recent literature separates them at the varietal level. Large amounts of tree moss are processed in France for the perfume industry. In ancient Egyptian embalming, P. furfuracea was found packed into the body cavity of mummies, although it is not certain whether this was done because of the supposed preservative properties or the aromatic properties of the lichen. Soluble extracts from P. furfuracea var. furfuracea and var. ceratea, as well as specific compounds found therein, have antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms. In Alfacar and Viznar, Andalucia, P. furfuracea is used for respiratory complaints. The thallus is washed and boiled for a long time to prepare a decoction, drunk. Water extracts of this species have been shown to have a potent protective effect on genotoxicity caused by bismuth compounds such as colloidal bismuth subcitrate.
P. furfuracea has been investigated for its ability to absorb heavy metals from solution. The metal-binding biosorption for copper and nickel was shown to follow the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, suggesting it may have potential as a biosorbent for treatment of heavy metal wastes; because specimens of P. furfuracea tend to bioaccumulate heavy metals like Cr, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn and Cu proportional to their concentration in airborne particulates, they may be used as a biomonitor of air quality, although it has been noted that both trace metal accumulation and major element accumulation is dependent on the hydration level of the specimen. The species is sensitive to ozone concentrations: ozone fumigation results in biophysical and structural impairment of specimens. P. Furfuracea has been used to monitor the levels of radionuclides such as Cesium-137 in Austria after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In addition to the physodic acid mentioned above, P. furfuracea contains 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethyl benzoic acid, oxyphysodic acid, virensic acid.
Of these compounds, atranorin showed the highest inhibition of proteolytic enzymes trypsin and porcine pancreatic elastase. Research suggests that the biosynthesis of both atranorin and physodic acid is influenced by the cooperation of epiphytic bacteria. A number of sterol compounds have been identified from P. furfuracea, including ergosterol peroxide and lichosterol. Pseudevernia furfuracea at Index Fungorum
Vyšehrad Proclamation was introduced by the Civic Democratic Party on 17 August 2017. It consisted of 17 conditions for the party to be a part of government coalition after 2017 legislative election. Party's leader Petr Fiala stated that the Declaration doesn't mean that ODS will be in opposition after the election but that it has its condition to participate in the government. Fiala stated that Proclamation gives a space for negotiations. All 12 conditions in the Proclamation. 1) Increasing of net wages and lowering taxes. 2) Significant reduction of social security contributions for employers 3) Raising the limit of flat rate payments for traders at least twice. 4) The government's commitment not to raise taxes for businesses throughout the election period. 5) Introduction of a simple and uniform tax return and health insurance. 6) Cancellation of the electronic revenue records and the introduction of a flat-rate tax for non-payers of VAT - the principle of "pay and start without further checks" for the smallest entrepreneurs.
7) Audit of bureaucratic burdens and the legal system in key areas within six months of the government's inception, a radical reduction in the number of regulations and decrees in the first and second year of government. 8) Implementation of the "Everything in One Door" system to handle all common issues for citizens from 1 January 2019. 9) Significant cuts in national subsidies to private firms and significant cuts in investment incentives. 10) Education becomes the financial and political priority of the government. 11) The government is preparing a confident position in the EU and a strategy to promote EU reforms based on national interests and national consensus. The government's program will include the refusal of mandatory refugee quotas and the mandatory adoption of the euro. 12) The government will not allow to question the Euro-Atlantic orientation of the Czech Republic, will increase its spending on security, assume a gradual increase in defense spending to 2 percent of GDP over six years.
ODS became the second strongest party. Alexandra Udženija stated. Petr Fiala stated that ODS will not participate in the government led by ANO 2011. Fiala started negotiations with other opposition parties about possible cooperation