SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars and all other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the entire Universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the observable universe, estimated to be 93 billion light-years in diameter. In various multiverse hypotheses, a universe is one of many causally disconnected constituent parts of a larger multiverse, which itself comprises all of space and time and its contents; the earliest cosmological models of the Universe were developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers and were geocentric, placing Earth at the center. Over the centuries, more precise astronomical observations led Nicolaus Copernicus to develop the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System. In developing the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton built upon Copernicus' work as well as Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary motion and observations by Tycho Brahe. Further observational improvements led to the realization that the Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way, one of at least hundreds of billions of galaxies in the Universe.

Many of the stars in our galaxy have planets. At the largest scale, galaxies are distributed uniformly and the same in all directions, meaning that the Universe has neither an edge nor a center. At smaller scales, galaxies are distributed in clusters and superclusters which form immense filaments and voids in space, creating a vast foam-like structure. Discoveries in the early 20th century have suggested that the Universe had a beginning and that space has been expanding since and is still expanding at an increasing rate; the Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the Universe. Under this theory and time emerged together 13.799±0.021 billion years ago and the energy and matter present have become less dense as the Universe expanded. After an initial accelerated expansion called the inflationary epoch at around 10−32 seconds, the separation of the four known fundamental forces, the Universe cooled and continued to expand, allowing the first subatomic particles and simple atoms to form.

Dark matter gathered, forming a foam-like structure of filaments and voids under the influence of gravity. Giant clouds of hydrogen and helium were drawn to the places where dark matter was most dense, forming the first galaxies and everything else seen today, it is possible to see objects that are now further away than 13.799 billion light-years because space itself has expanded, it is still expanding today. This means that objects which are now up to 46.5 billion light-years away can still be seen in their distant past, because in the past, when their light was emitted, they were much closer to Earth. From studying the movement of galaxies, it has been discovered that the universe contains much more matter than is accounted for by visible objects; this unseen matter is known as dark matter. The ΛCDM model is the most accepted model of our universe, it suggests that about 69.2%±1.2% of the mass and energy in the universe is a cosmological constant, responsible for the current expansion of space, about 25.8%±1.1% is dark matter.

Ordinary matter is therefore only 4.84%±0.1% of the physical universe. Stars and visible gas clouds only form about 6% of ordinary matter, or about 0.29% of the entire universe. There are many competing hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the universe and about what, if anything, preceded the Big Bang, while other physicists and philosophers refuse to speculate, doubting that information about prior states will be accessible; some physicists have suggested various multiverse hypotheses, in which our universe might be one among many universes that exist. The physical Universe is defined as all of their contents; such contents comprise all of energy in its various forms, including electromagnetic radiation and matter, therefore planets, stars and the contents of intergalactic space. The Universe includes the physical laws that influence energy and matter, such as conservation laws, classical mechanics, relativity; the Universe is defined as "the totality of existence", or everything that exists, everything that has existed, everything that will exist.

In fact, some philosophers and scientists support the inclusion of ideas and abstract concepts—such as mathematics and logic—in the definition of the Universe. The word universe may refer to concepts such as the cosmos, the world, nature; the word universe derives from the Old French word univers, which in turn derives from the Latin word universum. The Latin word was used by Cicero and Latin authors in many of the same senses as the modern English word is used. A term for'universe' among the ancient Greek philosophers from Pythagoras onwards was τὸ πᾶν, tò pân, defined as all matter and all space, τὸ ὅλον, tò hólon, which did not include the void. Another synonym was ho kósmos. Synonyms are found in Latin authors and survive in modern languages, e.g. the German words Das All and Natur for Universe. The same synonyms are found in English, such as everything (as in t

Battle of Adrianople

The Battle of Adrianople, sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels led by Fritigern. The battle took place in the Roman province of Thracia, it ended with the death of Emperor Valens. Part of the Gothic War, the battle is considered the start of the process which led to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. A detailed contemporary account of the lead-up to the battle from the Roman perspective was written by Ammianus Marcellinus and forms the culminating point at the end of his history. In 376, displaced by the invasions of the Huns, the Goths, led by Alavivus and Fritigern, asked to be allowed to settle in the Eastern Roman Empire. Hoping that they would become farmers and soldiers, the Eastern Roman emperor Valens allowed them to establish themselves in the Empire as allies. However, once across the Danube, the dishonesty of the provincial commanders Lupicinus and Maximus led the newcomers to revolt after suffering many hardships.

Valens asked Gratian, the western emperor, for reinforcements to fight the Goths. Gratian sent the general Frigeridus with reinforcements, as well as the leader of his guards, Richomeres. For the next two years preceding the battle of Adrianople there were a series of running battles with no clear victories for either side. In 378, Valens decided to take control himself. Valens would bring more troops from Syria and Gratian would bring more troops from Gaul. Valens left Antioch for Constantinople, arrived on the 30th of May, he appointed Sebastianus, newly arrived from Italy, to reorganize the Roman armies in Thrace. Sebastianus marched towards Adrianople, they ambushed some small Gothic detachments. Fritigern assembled the Gothic forces at Beroe to deal with this Roman threat. Gratian had sent much of his army to Pannonia. Gratian recalled his army and defeated the Lentienses near Argentaria After this campaign, with part of his field army, went east by boat; the former group arrived at Sirmium in Pannonia and at the Camp of Mars, 400 kilometers from Adrianople, where some Alans attacked them.

Gratian's group withdrew to Pannonia shortly thereafter. After learning of Sebastian's success against the Goths, of Gratian's victory over the Alamanni, Valens was more than ready for a victory of his own, he brought his army from Melantias to Adrianople. On 6 August, reconnaissance informed Valens that about 10,000 Goths were marching towards Adrianople from the north, about 25 kilometers away. Despite the difficult ground, Valens reached Adrianople where the Roman army fortified its camp with ditch and rampart. Richomeres, sent by Gratian, carried a letter asking Valens to wait for the arrival of reinforcements from Gratian before engaging in battle. Valens' officers recommended that he wait for Gratian, but Valens decided to fight without waiting, ready to claim the ultimate prize; the Goths were watching the Romans, on 8 August, Fritigern sent an emissary to propose a peace and an alliance in exchange for some Roman territory. Sure that he would be victorious due to his supposed numerical superiority, Valens rejected these proposals.

However, his estimates did not take into consideration a part of the Gothic cavalry that had gone to forage further away. Valens' army may have included troops from any of three Roman field armies: the Army of Thrace, based in the eastern Balkans, but which may have sustained heavy losses in 376–377, the 1st Army in the Emperor's Presence, the 2nd Army in the Emperor's Presence, both based at Constantinople in peacetime but committed to the Persian frontier in 376 and sent west in 377–378. Valens' army included units of men accustomed to war, it comprised seven legions — among which were the Legio I Maximiana and imperial auxiliaries — of 700 to 1000 men each. The cavalry was composed of Scholae. However, these attacked precipitately, while peace negotiations were going on, precipitately fled. There were squadrons of Arab cavalry, but they were more suited to skirmishes than to pitched battle. Ammianus Marcellinus makes references to the following forces under Valens: Legions of Lanciarii, Mattiarii.

The Notitia Dignitatum lists both as legiones palatinae. Some claim. However, mattiarii may refer to mace-armed infantry. Valens is referred to as seeking protection with the Lanciarii and Mattiarii as the other Roman forces collapsed, they were unable to hold off the Goths. A battalion of Batavians. Scutarii and archers; as one or both were under the command of Bacurius the Iberian, these may have been allied auxiliary troops from Caucasian Iberia rather than Roman. He refers to the following officers: Ricimer, Frankish Comes of Gratian's Domestici sent to assist Valens in 376, he offered to act as a host

Hooray for Auburn!

"Hooray for Auburn!" is the fight song of Auburn High School in Auburn, United States. The melody and basic wording of "Hooray for Auburn" have been adopted for use in the fight songs of many schools in the United States, including Hoover High School and Prattville High School; the lyrics to "Hooray for Auburn" are as follows: Hooray for Auburn! Hooray for Auburn! Someone in the crowd is yelling "Hooray for Auburn!" One, three, four! Who you gonna yell for? Auburn, that's who! Korean translation 오번을위한 만세! 오번을위한 만세! 군중 속 누군가가 "오번을위한 만세!" 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷! 누구 한테 소리 지르 겠어? 오번, 저 사람이야! Revised Romanization Obeoneulwihan manse! Obeoneulwihan manse! Gunjung sok nugungaga "Obeoneulwihan manse!" Hana, set, net! Nugu hante sori jireu gesseo? Obeon, jeo saramiya! When used by other schools, the lyrics are modified by changing the word "Auburn" to something else, such as the school name or mascot; the basic lyrical structure of "Hooray for Auburn" comes from a cheer, common in the mid-twentieth century. One of the earliest published versions of the cheer is in Lucile Hasley's 1953 book The Mouse Hunter.

In 1961, Auburn High School Band director Tommy Goff wrote music for these lyrics after hearing the cheer used by the Auburn High cheerleaders at a junior varsity football game. The song began being used as the Auburn High School fight song that year. Around 1963, LaFayette High School in LaFayette, Alabama began using the music as their fight song and soon after several other schools in eastern Alabama adopted "Hooray!". The following schools use or have used a variation of "Hooray for Auburn!" as a fight song: Anniston High School - Anniston, Alabama Auburn High School - Auburn, Alabama Benjamin Russell High School - Alexander City, Alabama Cherry Hill High School East - Cherry Hill, New Jersey Eufaula High School - Eufaula, Alabama Glendale High School - Glendale, Arizona Helena Middle School - Helena, Alabama Homewood High School - Homewood, Alabama Hoover High School - Hoover, Alabama Luray High School - Luray, Virginia Eustis High School - Eustis, Florida Miami High School - Miami, Florida Monroe Academy -- Monroeville, Alabama Opelika High School - Opelika, Alabama Oxford High School - Oxford, Alabama Pell City High School - Pell City, Alabama Pine Forest High School - Pensacola, Florida Prattville High School - Prattville, Alabama Reeltown High School - Reeltown, Alabama - Richard J. Reynolds High School - Winston-Salem, North Carolina Springfield High School - Springfield, Illinois Susquehanna Township High School - Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Holtville High School - Holtville, Alabama Valley High School- Valley, Alabama Auburn High School Auburn High School Band