Atmospheric aerosol particles – known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter, particulates, or suspended particulate matter – are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere of Earth. The term aerosol refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone. Sources of particulate matter can be anthropogenic, they have impacts on precipitation that adversely affect human health. Subtypes of atmospheric particles include suspended particulate matter and respirable particles, inhalable coarse particles, which are coarse particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 micrometers, fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less, ultrafine particles, soot. The IARC and WHO designate airborne particulates a Group 1 carcinogen. Particulates are the deadliest form of air pollution due to their ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams unfiltered, causing permanent DNA mutations, heart attacks, respiratory disease, premature death.
In 2013, a study involving 312,944 people in nine European countries revealed that there was no safe level of particulates and that for every increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, the lung cancer rate rose 22%. The smaller PM2.5 were deadly, with a 36% increase in lung cancer per 10 μg/m3 as it can penetrate deeper into the lungs. Worldwide exposure to PM2.5 contributed to 4.1 million deaths from heart disease and stroke, lung cancer, chronic lung disease, respiratory infections in 2016. Overall, ambient particulate matter ranks as the sixth leading risk factor for premature death globally; some particulates occur originating from volcanoes, dust storms and grassland fires, living vegetation and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, stubble burning, power plants, wet cooling towers in cooling systems and various industrial processes generate significant amounts of particulates. Coal combustion in developing countries is the primary method for heating homes and supplying energy.
Because salt spray over the oceans is the overwhelmingly most common form of particulate in the atmosphere, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for about 10 percent of the total mass of aerosols in our atmosphere. The composition of aerosols and particles depends on their source. Wind-blown mineral dust tends to be made of mineral oxides and other material blown from the Earth's crust. Sea salt is considered the second-largest contributor in the global aerosol budget, consists of sodium chloride originated from sea spray. In addition, sea spray aerosols may contain organic compounds; the drift/mist emissions from the wet cooling towers is source of particulate matter as they are used in industry and other sectors for dissipating heat in cooling systems. Secondary particles derive from the oxidation of primary gases such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides into sulfuric acid and nitric acid; the precursors for these aerosols—i.e. The gases from which they originate -- may have a natural biogenic origin.
In the presence of ammonia, secondary aerosols take the form of ammonium salts. Secondary sulfate and nitrate aerosols are strong light-scatterers; this is because the presence of sulfate and nitrate causes the aerosols to increase to a size that scatters light effectively. Organic matter can be either primary or secondary, the latter part deriving from the oxidation of VOCs. Organic matter influences the atmospheric radiation field by both absorption. Another important aerosol type is elemental carbon: this aerosol type includes light-absorbing material and is thought to yield large positive radiative forcing. Organic matter and elemental carbon together constitute the carbonaceous fraction of aerosols. Secondary organic aerosols, tiny "tar balls" resulting from combustion products of internal combustion engines, have been identified as a danger to health; the chemical composition of the aerosol directly affects. The chemical constituents within the aerosol change the overall refractive index.
The refractive index will determine how much light is absorbed. The composition of particulate matter that causes visual effects such as smog consists of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, mineral dust, organic matter, elemental carbon known as black carbon or soot; the particles are hygroscopic due to the presence of sulfur, SO2 is converted to sulfate when high humidity and low temperatures are present. This causes yellow color. Aerosol particles of natural origin tend to have a larger radius than human-produced aerosols such as particle pollution; the false-color maps in the third image on this page show where there are natural aerosols, human pollution, or a mixture of both, monthly. Among the most obvious patterns that the size distribution time series shows is that in the planet’s most southerly latitudes, nearly all the aerosols are l
Bronx Community College
The Bronx Community College of The City University of New York is a community college located in the University Heights neighborhood of The Bronx on a landmarked campus. It is part of the City University of New York system; the college was established in 1957 through the efforts of civic-minded groups who felt that there was a growing need for more higher education facilities in the Bronx. Classes began at Hunter College, at the former site of the Bronx High School of Science. In 1973, the Dormitory Authority of the State of New York acquired the University Heights campus from New York University, which had sold the campus under threat of imminent bankruptcy. Beginning in the fall of that year, the BCC moved its operations to the 55 acres site overlooking the Harlem River; the college is home to the Center for Sustainable Energy, founded in 2003 as an educational resource for students pursuing careers in alternative energy. Bronx Community College offers a wide array of workforce community development and personal enrichment courses and programs through Continuing & Professional Studies.
CPS delivers customized training for local employers. CPS works with unions, city and federal agencies and accepts vouchers and other forms of financial aid for individual students. Since 1987, the college is the local administrator of the SUNY Bronx Educational Opportunity Center; the SUNY Bronx EOC provides tuition free academic and vocational programs to New Yorkers who qualify and it is funded by the University Center for Academic and Workforce Development part of the State University of New York. In 2012, the North Hall and Library opened; the building is designed to resemble many of the historic buildings on campus, on one end is located next to an entrance of the Hall of Fame for Great Americans. The BCC campus housed New York University's undergraduate college and engineering school –, absorbed by Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in 1973 but is once again part of NYU – and was created at a time when a number of prominent local universities had made the move to upper Manhattan and the Bronx in order to build bigger campuses, including Columbia University, the City College of New York.
The campus consists of a mix of Classical revival buildings designed by architect Stanford White in 1892-1901 – including the Hall of Languages, the Cornelius Baker Hall of Philosophy and the Gould Memorial Library – and Brutalist concrete buildings by Marcel Breuer, including Begrisch Hall and the Colston Residence Hall and Cafeteria. Other buildings – such as South Hall the Gustav H. Schwab House. Mall House; the original landscaping for the campus was by Vaux & Co.. The complex of Stanford White buildings, judged one of the finest concentrations of Beaux Arts architecture in the US, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2012; the BCC campus is notably home to the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, founded in 1900 by Henry Mitchell MacCracken, Chancellor of NYU from 1891 to 1910. It was the first such hall of fame in the United States; the Hall, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was designed by Stanford White, was established to honor prominent Americans who have had a significant impact on the country's history.
It includes bronze busts of Alexander Graham Bell, Eli Whitney, George Westinghouse along with many others. The Hall has not had any new inductees since 1973. Bronx Community College teams participate as a member of the National Junior College Athletic Association; the Broncos are a member of the community college section of the City University of New York Athletic Conference. Men's sports include baseball, cross country and track & field. In 2001, parts of the film A Beautiful Mind that depicted MIT were instead filmed in the BCC, due to the film's low budget; the dome at BCC was used in the filming of The Good Shepherd. The Meister Hall building at BCC by architect Marcel Breuer was featured as a Russian Embassy in the 2008 film Burn After Reading by the Coen brothers. Other films that used the campus for filming have included The Thomas Crown Affair, The Siege, Mona Lisa Smile and Riding in Cars With Boys. List of New York City Landmarks National Register of Historic Places listings in the Bronx National Register of Historic Places listings in New York County, New York Bronx Community College Library Notes Official website
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
The Dominican Republic is a country located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two sovereign states; the Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area at 48,671 square kilometers, third by population with 10 million people, of which three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city. Christopher Columbus landed on the island on December 5, 1492, which the native Taíno people had inhabited since the 7th century; the colony of Santo Domingo became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, the oldest continuously inhabited city, the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821.
The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended the Dominican nation to unite with the country of Gran Colombia, but no longer under Spain's custody the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed by Haiti in February 1822. Independence came 22 years after victory in the Dominican War of Independence in 1844. Over the next 72 years the Dominican Republic experienced internal conflicts and a brief return to colonial status before permanently ousting Spanish rule during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1863–1865. A United States occupation lasted eight years between 1916 and 1924, a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez was followed by the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo until 1961. A civil war in 1965, the country's last, was ended by U. S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, the rules of Antonio Guzmán & Salvador Jorge Blanco. Since 1996, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996.
Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51% of the electoral vote over his opponent ex-president Hipólito Mejía. The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic has had one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0% the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing and mining; the country is the site of the second largest gold mine in the Pueblo Viejo mine. Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation, job creation, as well as a high level of remittances; the Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean.
The year-round golf courses are major attractions. A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo; the island has an average temperature of biological diversity. The country is the site of the first cathedral, castle and fortress built in the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, baseball as the favorite sport; the "Dominican" word comes from the Latin Dominicus. However, the island has this name by Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founder of the Order of the Dominicans; the Dominicans established a house of high studies in the island of Santo Domingo that today is known as the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo and dedicated themselves to the protection of the native taínos of the island, who were subjected to slavery, to the education of the inhabitants of the island.
For most of its history, up until independence, the country was known as Santo Domingo—the name of its present capital and patron saint, Saint Dominic—and continued to be known as such in English until the early 20th century. The residents were called "Dominicans", the adjective form of "Domingo", the revolutionaries named their newly independent country "Dominican Republic". In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic, the term "Dominicans" does not appear; the author of its lyrics, Emilio Prud'Homme uses the poetic term "Quisqueyans". The word "Quisqueya" derives from a native tongue of the Taino Indians and means "Mother of the lands", it is used in songs as another name for the country. The name of the country is shortened to "the D. R." The Arawakan-speaking Taíno moved into Hispaniola from the north east region of what is now known as South America, displacing earlier inhabitants, c. AD 650, they engaged in hunting and gathering. The fierce Caribs drove the Taíno to the northeastern Caribbean during much of the 15th century.
The estimates of Hispaniola's population in 1492 vary including one hundred thousand, three hundred thousand, an
City University of New York
The City University of New York is the public university system of New York City, the largest urban university system in the United States. CUNY and the State University of New York are separate and independent university systems, despite the fact that both public institutions receive funding from New York State. CUNY, however, is located in only New York City, while SUNY is located in the entire state, including New York City. CUNY was founded in 1847 and comprises 25 institutions: eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges, one undergraduate honors college, seven post-graduate institutions; the University enrolls more than 275,000 students, counts thirteen Nobel Prize winners and twenty-four MacArthur Fellows among its alumni. CUNY is the third-largest university system in the United States, in terms of enrollment, behind the State University of New York, the California State University system. More than 274,000-degree-credit students and professional education students are enrolled at campuses located in all five New York City boroughs.
The university has one of the most diverse student bodies in the United States, with students hailing from 208 countries, but from New York City. The black and Hispanic undergraduate populations each comprise more than a quarter of the student body, Asian undergraduates make up 18 percent. Fifty-eight percent are female, 28 percent are 25 or older; the following table is'sortable'. CUNY employs over 10,000 adjunct faculty members. Faculty and staff are represented by the Professional Staff Congress, a labor union and chapter of the American Federation of Teachers. André Aciman, recipient of Whitting Award for emerging writers, Lambda Literary Award winner for his novel Call Me By Your Name Chantal Akerman, film director, Distinguished Lecturer, City College of New York Meena Alexander and writer, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center and Hunter College Talal Asad, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center William Bialek, Graduate Center Edwin G. Burrows and writer, Pulitzer Prize Winner, Distinguished Professor of History at Brooklyn College Ta-Nehisi Coates, writer and activist, CUNY Graduate School of Journalism Billy Collins, poet, U.
S. Poet Laureate, Lehman College Blanche Wiesen Cook, Distinguished Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center John Corigliano, Graduate Center Michael Cunningham, Pulitzer Prize winner, Distinguished Professor at Brooklyn College Roy DeCarava and photographer, Hunter College Carolyn Eisele, Hunter College Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Professor, Graduate Center Allen Ginsberg, Distinguished Professor at Brooklyn College Kimiko Hahn, winner of PEN/Voelcker Award for Poetry, Queens College David Harvey, Graduate Center bell hooks, educator and critic, Distinguished Professor at City College of New York Tyehimba Jess, winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, College of Staten Island KC Johnson (born, Professor of History, known for his work exposing the facts about the Duke lacrosse case Michio Kaku, City College Jane Katz, Olympian swimmer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Alfred Kazin and critic, Distinguished Professor at Hunter College and Graduate Center Saul Kripke, Graduate Center Irving Kristol, City College Paul Krugman, Distinguished Professor, Graduate Center Peter Kwong, filmmaker, Distinguished Professor of Asian American studies and Urban Affairs and Planning Professor at Hunter College, professor of sociology at Graduate Center Ben Lerner, MacArthur Fellow, Brooklyn College Audre Lorde and activist, City College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Distinguished Thomas Hunter Chair at Hunter College Cate Marvin, Guggenheim Fellowship winner, College of Staten Island John Matteson and writer, Pulitzer Prize winner, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Stanley Milgram, social psychologist, Graduate Center June Nash, Distinguished Professor Emerita, Graduate Center Itzhak Perlman, Brooklyn College Frances Fox Piven, political scientist and educator, Graduate Center Graham Priest, Graduate Center Adrienne Rich and activist, City College of New York David M. Rosenthal, Graduate Center Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. historian and social critic, Graduate Center Flora Rheta Schreiber, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, literary critic, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center Betty Shabazz and activist, Medgar Evers College Dennis Sullivan, Graduate Center Katherine Verdery, Julien J. Studley and Distinguished Professor, Graduate Center Michele Wallace, Professor Emeritus of English, Women's Studies and Film Studies at the City College of New York and the Graduate Center Mike Wallace and writer, Distinguished Professor of History at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center Elie Wiesel, political activist, Distinguished Professor of Judaic Studies at City College Andrea Alu and physicist, Einstein Professor of Physics at CUNY Graduate Center CUNY was created in 1961, by New York State legislation, signed into law by Governor Nelson Rockefeller.
The legislation integrated existing institutions and a new graduate school into a coordinated system of higher education for the city, under the control of the "Board of Higher Education of the City of New York", created by New York State legisla
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Jerome Avenue is one of the longest thoroughfares in the New York City borough of the Bronx, New York, United States. The road stretches from Highbridge general area to Woodlawn. Both of these termini are with the Major Deegan Expressway. Most of the elevated IRT Jerome Avenue Line runs along Jerome Avenue; the Cross Bronx Expressway interchanges with the Deegan. Though it runs through what is now the West Bronx neighborhood, Jerome Avenue is the dividing avenue between nominal and some named "West" and "East" streets in the Bronx; the south end of Jerome Avenue is at exit 5 of the Major Deegan Expressway. The road begins as a divided highway, intersecting with 161st Street, which goes to Yankee Stadium and its station of the IRT Jerome Avenue Line. Jerome merges into the road to the Macombs Dam Bridge and heads north. After some intersections with local roads, Jerome Avenue intersects with 167th Street which at the intersection which, west of there, is named Edward L. Grant Highway. Just east of the intersection is another station along the way.
Several blocks north, 170th Street intersects, just before crossing the Edward L. Grant Highway. Mt. Eden Avenue intersects in Morris Heights and the Cross Bronx Expressway does soon after. North the intersection with Tremont Avenue, Burnside Avenue intersects as Jerome Avenue leaves Morris Heights. 183rd street is the next major intersection, in University Heights. Fordham Road, both East and West intersect in University Heights. Saint James Park is passed to the east of Jerome, south of the intersection with Kingsbridge Road; as Jerome passes Lehman College, Bedford Park Boulevard intersects. Jerome Avenue crosses the Mosholu Parkway on an overpass, after passing the Mosholu Yard. Jerome Avenue intersects with Gun Hill Road. Here, Van Cortlandt Park is to the west; the final station on the IRT line is located in Woodlawn, just before intersecting Bainbridge Avenue. Jerome Avenue continues, cuts between Van Cortlandt Park and Woodlawn Cemetery, comes to an end at the Major Deegan and 233rd Street.
The road continues as a service road for the Major Deegan, until it reaches the Bronx-Westchester border, where it becomes Central Park Avenue, one of the main streets of the city of Yonkers. Jerome Avenue was put together as a plank road in 1874 for $375,000, it appeared on maps as Central Avenue, because it started from Macombs Dam Bridge to Jerome Park Racetrack. Borough President Louis F. Haffen selected contractors in 1897 to pave Jerome Avenue. Three sections of the road were to be remodeled, costing the Bronx about $136,505; the street was to be renamed after an unknown city alderman. Kate Hall Jerome, wife of Lawrence Jerome, was furious, replacing all the signs with the name Jerome Avenue in honor of Jerome Park Racetrack opened by her husband's financier brother, Leonard Jerome in 1866; when the subway line was commissioned, Jerome went from rural road to commercial artery. The southern part of the avenue, from the intersection with 161st Street, formed the western edge of Macombs Dam Park.
The parkland was alienated by the state legislature to enable construction of a new Yankee Stadium. Lower portions of the thoroughfare were demapped by the City Planning Commission, followed by the Department of City Planning's 2006 release of the Bronx Harlem River Waterfront Bicycle and Pedestrian Study; the Park Plaza Apartments at 1005 Jerome Avenue, one of the borough's first and most prominent Art Deco apartment houses and a New York City landmark since 1981, was overlooked in the environmental impact statement and is now in the shadow of the completed new stadium. In March 2018, the New York City Council voted to approve the rezoning of 92 blocks in the South Bronx, centered along Jerome Avenue from 165th to 184th Streets; the rezoning will allow developers to construct 4,600 housing units along the corridor, including 1,500 affordable housing units. At the time of the rezoning, the corridor consisted of small businesses and auto-parts shops; the New York City Subway's Jerome Avenue elevated line, served by the 4 train, runs along most of Jerome Avenue.
The now-demolished Ninth Avenue elevated merged with the Jerome Avenue line south of the 167th Street station. The first station along the Jerome Avenue elevated line is the 161st Street–Yankee Stadium station, served by the 4, B, D trains. All of the Jerome Avenue Line's elevated stations north of 167th Street, with the exception of Bedford Park Boulevard–Lehman College, are located directly above Jerome Avenue; the line and the 4 train have their northern terminus at Woodlawn, at the eastern edge of Van Cortlandt Park. The Jerome Avenue Line south of Kingsbridge Road opened on June 2, 1917; the Bedford Park Boulevard, Mosholu Parkway, Woodlawn stations opened on April 15, 1918. The entire route is in the New York City borough of the Bronx