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University of Alabama

The University of Alabama is a public research university in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Established in 1820, the University of Alabama is the oldest and largest of the public universities in Alabama as well as the flagship of the University of Alabama System; the university offers programs of study in 13 academic divisions leading to bachelor's, master's, education specialist, doctoral degrees. The only publicly supported law school in the state is at UA. Other academic programs unavailable elsewhere in Alabama include doctoral programs in anthropology and information sciences, metallurgical engineering, Romance languages, social work; as one of the first public universities established in the early 19th century southwestern frontier of the United States, the University of Alabama has left a cultural imprint on the state and nation over the past two centuries. The school was a center of activity during the Civil Rights Movement; the University of Alabama varsity football program, inaugurated in 1892, ranks as one of the ten most winningest programs in US history.

In a 1913 speech then-president George H. Denny extolled the university as the "capstone of the public school system in the state ", lending the university its current nickname, The Capstone. In addition, The University of Alabama has produced a total of 56 Goldwater Scholars, 15 Rhodes Scholars, 16 Truman Scholars, 33 Hollings Scholars and 11 Boren Scholars. In 1818, U. S. Congress authorized the newly created Alabama Territory to set aside a township for the establishment of a "seminary of learning"; when Alabama was admitted to the Union on December 14, 1819, a second township was added to the land grant, bringing it to a total of 46,000 acres. The General Assembly of Alabama established the seminary on December 18, 1820, named it "The University of the State of Alabama", created a Board of Trustees to manage the construction and operation of the university; the board selected an architect to design the campus. The site the board chose was located, at the time, outside the city limits of the erstwhile state capital, Tuscaloosa.

William Nichols, the architect of both the Alabama State Capitol building and Christ Episcopal Church in Tuscaloosa, was chosen to design the campus. Influenced by Thomas Jefferson's plan at the University of Virginia, the Nichols-designed campus featured a 70-foot wide, 70-foot high domed Rotunda that served as the library and nucleus of the campus; the university's charter was presented to the first university president in the nave of Christ Episcopal Church. UA opened its doors to students on April 1831, with the Reverend Alva Woods as president. An academy-style institution during the Antebellum period, the university emphasized the classics and the social and natural sciences. There were around 100 students per year at UA in the 1830s. However, as Alabama was a frontier state and a sizable amount of its territory was still in the hands of various Native American tribes until the 1840s, it lacked the infrastructure to adequately prepare students for the rigors of university education. Only a fraction of students who enrolled in the early years remained enrolled for long and fewer graduated.

Those who did graduate, however had distinguished careers in Alabama and national politics. Early graduates included Alexander Meek; as the state and university matured, an active literary culture evolved in Tuscaloosa. UA had one of the largest libraries in the country on the eve of the Civil War with more than 7,000 volumes. There were several thriving literary societies, including the Erosophic and the Phi Beta Kappa societies, which had lectures by such distinguished politicians and literary figures as United States Supreme Court justice John A. Campbell, novelist William Gilmore Simms, Professor Frederick Barnard; the addresses to those societies reveal a vibrant intellectual culture in Tuscaloosa. Discipline and student behavior was a major issue at the university from the day it opened. Early presidents attempted to enforce strict rules regarding conduct. Students were prohibited from drinking, making unauthorized visits off-campus, or playing musical instruments outside a one-hour time frame.

Yet riots and gunfights were not an uncommon occurrence. To combat the severe discipline problem, president Landon Garland lobbied and received approval from the legislature in 1860 to transform the university into a military school. Many of the cadets who graduated from the school went on to serve as officers in the Confederate Army during the Civil War; as a consequence of that role, Union troops burned down the campus on April 4, 1865, unrelated to Sherman's March to the Sea several months earlier and farther east, in Georgia. Despite a call to arms and defense by the student cadet corps, only four buildings survived the burning: the President's Mansion, Gorgas House, Little Round House, Old Observatory; the university reopened in 1871 and in 1880, Congress granted the university 40,000 acres of coal land in partial compensation for $250,000 in war damages. The University of Alabama allowed female students beginning in 1892; the Board of Trustees allowed female students due to Julia S. Tutwiler, with the condition that they be over eighteen, would be allowed to enter the sophomore class after completing their first year at another school and passing an exam.

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Bill Thompson (Wyoming politician)

William Leigh Thompson was a Democratic member of the Wyoming House of Representatives, representing the 60th district from 2001 until his retirement in 2011. Thompson was born in Casper and went to Wyoming Midwest High School, he received his associated degree from Casper College. Thompson received his bachelor's degree from the University of Wyoming and his master's degree from Utah State University. Thompson was a teacher at the Green River High School, the Sweetwater County School District Number 2, from 1961 until 1996; when incumbent Democratic Representative Louise Ryckman announced her retirement, Thompson ran unopposed in the Democratic primary and was elected with 62.9% of the vote. Thompson served as House Minority Whip between 2003 and 2007, he was reelected four more times before announcing his retirement in 2011, was succeeded by fellow educator and Democrat John Freeman. Thompson died on June 21, 2018 in Green River, Wyoming at the age of 80. Wyoming State Legislature - Representative Bill Thompson Project Vote Smart - Representative Bill Thompson Follow the Money - Bill Thompson 2006 2004 2002 2000 campaign contributions

Thapa dynasty

Thapa dynasty or Thapa noble family was a Kshatriya political family that handled Nepali administration affairs between 1806 and 1837 A. D. and 1843 to 1845 A. D. as Mukhtiyar. This was one of the four noble families to be involved in the active politics of the Kingdom of Nepal, along with the Shah dynasty, Basnyat family, the Pande dynasty before the rise of the Rana dynasty. At the end of 18th century, Thapas had extreme dominance over Nepalese Darbar politics alternatively contesting for central power against the Pandes. Bir Bhadra Thapa was leading Bharadar during Unification of Nepal, his grandson Bhimsen Thapa became Mukhtiyar of Nepal and established Thapa dynasty to the dominating position of central court politics of Nepal. The Thapa family gave rise to the Rana dynasty of Jung Bahadur Kunwar Rana whose father Bal Narsingh Kunwar was the son-in-law of Kaji Nain Singh Thapa; this dynasty was connected to the Pande aristocratic family through Nain Singh Thapa, the son-in-law of once Mulkaji Ranajit Pande The Thapa dynasty comes from the family of Kaji Bir Bhadra Thapa, commander of Unification of Nepal who belonged to the Bagale Thapa clan.

He had three sons: Jeevan Thapa, Bangsha Raj Thapa, Amar Singh Thapa. The eldest son of Amar Singh Thapa was Bhimsen Thapa who became an essential ruler in Nepalese history; the family became prominent during the rule of King Prithvi Narayan Shah and were established as a dominant faction during the reign of King Rana Bahadur Shah. After the assassination of King Rana Bahadur Shah, Bhimsen Thapa rose to the event killing all enemies and proving the strength and presence of the Thapa family in the Royal Court of Nepal, he went on to become the second Prime Minister of Nepal and thus founded the Thapa family in the political context of Nepal. Afterwards, the Thapas took the stronghold of the military power with an absolute order, which leads to a rivalry among other nobles. Tripurasundari was the daughter of Kazi Nain Singh Thapa. After the chaos that followed King Rana Bahadur's murder, Bhimsen became the Mukhtiyar and his niece Tripurasundari was given the title Lalita Tripurasundari and declared regent and Queen Mother of Nepal.

The Thapa family remained in power continuously after the death of King Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah and after the peace deal with the British East India Company done between the ruling prime minister Bhimsen Thapa representative of Nepal and British. The modernization of the Nepalese Army was done to keep things in control while convincing the suspicious British of no intention to use. Bhimsen increased his family members in court and military and transferred other aristocratic families away from the capital. Bhimsen instated his youngest brother, General Ranabir Singh Thapa, in the royal palace as chief palace authority. Any meetings between the royal family and commoners or Bhardars were done under his permission and observation. Thapas remained on political power from the military domination by Bhimsen Thapa, it was no secret that Bhimsen was able to maintain his supremacy due to the large standing army under his and his family's command. Thus, King Rajendra of Nepal feared the Thapa faction as "...a race of men who for the last fifty-five years have dragged the country and its princes at the wheels of military car."

Bhimsen had committed atrocities against the Pande family by being involved in the execution of Nepalese Chief Kazi Damodar Pande. Rana Jang Pande, the youngest son of Damodar Pande, was a supporter of Senior Queen Samrajya Laxmi and had planned for the downfall of the thirty-one year Thapa rule. In the Nepalese court, the rivalry between the two queens rose where the Senior Queen supported the Pandes, while the Junior Queen supported the Thapas. Bhimsen went to his ancestral home in Gorkha for some time making Ranabir Singh Thapa as Acting Mukhtiyar. Rana Jang Pande, the leading member of Pande aristocratic family and his brother, Ranadal Pande, was elevated in the Nepal Darbar. On 24 July 1837, Devendra Bikram Shah, died. Bhimsen and members of the Thapa faction conspired against. On this charge and whole the Thapa family, the court physicians and Eksurya Upadhyay, his deputy Bhajuman Baidya, with relatives of the Thapas were incarcerated, proclaimed outcasts, their properties confiscated. Fatte Jang Shah, Rangnath Poudel, the Junior Queen Rajya Laxmi Devi, the anti-Pande faction, obtained from the King the liberation of Bhimsen and the rest of the party, about eight months after they were incarcerated for the poisoning case.

Confiscation of some properties was pardoned. The pro-Thapa soldiers rallied to Bhimsen, Mathabar Singh, Sherjung Thapa's houses. Mathabar Singh fled to India. Mathabarsingh Thapa fled to India when Bhimsen Thapa courtiers were punished. Sher Jung Thapa and other jailed Thapa members were pardoned on the request of Junior Queen after the death of Senior Queen. Mathabar, the most senior Thapa, was requested to return to Nepal by ruling Junior Queen Rajya Laxmi after six years of exile. Mathabarsingh Thapa arrived in Kathmandu Valley on 17 April 1843 where he was greeted with state honors, he re-opened the murder case of his uncle and godfather Bhimsen Thapa, members of Pande faction and their supporters were executed. The murder of Mathabar Singh on 17 May 1845 by his nephew, Janga Bahadur Kunwar, on the orders of King Ra