University of Amsterdam

The University of Amsterdam is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The UvA is one of two large, publicly funded research universities in the city, the other being the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Established in 1632 by municipal authorities and renamed for the city of Amsterdam, the University of Amsterdam is the third-oldest university in the Netherlands, it is one of the largest research universities in Europe with 31,186 students, 4,794 staff, 1,340 PhD students and an annual budget of €600 million. It is the largest university in the Netherlands by enrollment; the main campus is located with a few faculties located in adjacent boroughs. The university is organised into seven faculties: Humanities and Behavioural Sciences and Business, Law, Dentistry; the University of Amsterdam has produced six Nobel Laureates and five prime ministers of the Netherlands. The University of Amsterdam has been placed in the top 100 universities in the world by four major ranking tables. By the QS World University Rankings it was ranked 50th in the world, 15th in Europe, 1st in the Netherlands in 2014.

The university placed in the top 50 worldwide in seven fields in the 2011 QS World University Rankings in the fields of linguistics, philosophy, science and econometrics, accountancy and finance. In 2018 and 2019 the two departments of Media and Communication were ranked 1st in the world by subject by QS Ranking. Close ties are harbored with other institutions internationally through its membership in the League of European Research Universities, the Institutional Network of the Universities from the Capitals of Europe, European University Association, the International Student Exchange Programs, Universitas 21. In January 1632, the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam was founded by the municipal authorities in Amsterdam, it was devoted to medical teaching. The first two professors were Gerardus Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus; the Athenaeum Illustre provided education comparable to other higher education institutions, although it could not confer doctoral degrees. After training at the Athenaeum, students could complete their education at a university in another town.

At the time, Amsterdam housed several other institutions of higher education, including the Collegium Chirugicum, which trained surgeons, other institutions that provided theological courses for the Remonstrant and the Mennonite communities. Amsterdam's large degree of religious freedom allowed for the establishment of these institutions. Students of the Colegium Chirugicum and the theological institutions attended classes at the Athenaeum Illustre. In 1815 it was given the statutory obligation “to disseminate taste and learning" and “to replace, at least in part, the institutes of higher education and an academic education for those young men whose circumstances unable them to spend the time necessary for an academic career at an institute of higher education.” The Athenaeum began offering classes for students attending non-academic professional training in pharmacy and surgery in 1800. The Athenaeum Illustre worked together with Amsterdam's theological institutions such as the Evangelisch-Luthers Seminarium and the Klinische School, the successor to the Collegium Chirurgicum.

The Athenaeum remained a small institution until the 19th century, with no more than 250 students and eight professors. Alumni of the Athenaeum include Cornelis Petrus Tiele. In 1877, the Athenuem Illustre became the Municipal University of Amsterdam and received the right to confer doctoral degrees; this gave the university the same privileges as national universities while being funded by the city of Amsterdam. The professors and lecturers were appointed by the municipal council; this resulted in a staff, in many ways more colorful than the staffs of national universities. During its time as a municipal university, the university flourished, in particular in the science department, which counted many Nobel prize winners: Tobias Asser, Christiaan Eijkman, Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Pieter Zeeman, Frits Zernike; the University of Amsterdam's municipal status brought about the early addition of the faculties of Economics and Social Sciences. After the World War II the dramatic rise in the cost of university education put a constraint on the university's growth.

In 1961, the national government made the university a national university, giving it its current name, the University of Amsterdam. Funding was now given by the national government instead of the city and the appointment of professors was transferred to the board of governors; the city of Amsterdam retained a limited influence until 1971, when the appointment was handed over to the executive board. During May 1969, the university became the focus of nationwide news when UvA's administrative centre at the Maagdenhuis was occupied by hundreds of students who wanted more democratic influence in educational and administrative matters; the protest lasted for days and was broken up by the police. During the 1970s and 1980s, the university was the target of nationwide student actions; the university saw considerable expansion since becoming a national university, from 7,500 students in 1960 to over 32,000 in 2010. In 2007, UvA undertook the construction of the Science Park Amsterdam, a 70 hectare campus to house the Faculty of Science along with the new University Sports Center.

Much of the park has now been completed. The University of Amsterdam began working in close collaboration with the Hog


Goaso is a city in Ghana and the capital of the newly created Ahafo Region of Ghana. Goaso doubles as the capital of Asunafo North municipality, it is located between three major towns. Other surrounding towns include Ayumso, Akrodie and Nkaseim, it has a reach vegetation cover. It boast as one of the food baskets of Ghana; the forest cover of the area is thick with a vast area being forest. The predominant occupation of the citizens is farming, Cocoa farming and food crops. Food production in this municipality is high as compared to other parts of the country which led the NPP government to launch one of its flagship programs "the Planting for Food and Jobs" in this city. Business activities in the area is low during off-cocoa seasons but high when they start their cocoa season; the main market day of Goaso is Wednesday and on this day, people from near and far meet to transact their goods and services. There is one public Senior High School in Goaso called Ahafoman Senior High and Technical School, a midwifery training institute.

There are however other private Senior High Schools and vocational institutes at Goaso

Spaceward Ho!

Spaceward Ho! is a turn-based science fiction computer strategy game, written by Peter Commons, designed by Joe Williams and published by Delta Tao Software. The first version was released in 1990, further upgrades followed regularly, it has received wide recognition in the Macintosh community, for example being inducted into the Macworld Game Hall of Fame. Spaceward Ho! can be categorized in the 4X game genre with a theme of galactic conquest. It took many elements of its design from the earlier Reach for the Stars, but expanded on many of that game's basic themes while taking advantage of the larger memory and better graphics available on the Mac platform. Version 5 is available for iOS, Classic Mac OS, Mac OS X versions before 10.7 and Palm OS. Version 4 is available for Windows and version 2 for Amiga; the gameplay of Spaceward Ho! Focuses on efficiently extracting the resources of conquered worlds while anticipating and countering opponents' actions. Spaceward Ho! can be played against a computer AI, or against other human players over the internet.

Previous versions of the game allowed LAN-based networked play, but this feature has been disabled in the Mac OS X version. It has a simple gameplay compared with most other games in the genre. Depending on the initial settings, games take from about ten minutes to an hour, its small but dedicated fanbase considers the simplicity to be elegance, its designers boast that it has gotten faster and more intuitive to play with each new version. All unnecessary complexity has been stripped from the game, resulting in a fast-paced game that still manages to be engaging; the core of the game is the two-dimensional map of "planets". Each "planet" has three characteristics: temperature and metal. Temperature and gravity are both used to determine how fast colonies can grow and how large they can become. Colonies with low population take a certain amount of money per turn to support, while colonies with high population earn money for their owner. Metal can, with money expenditure, be mined for use with shipbuilding.

A planet's stats are unknown until explored. Travel between planets is via hyperspace, the time it takes depends on the distance between the origin and the destination on the map, as well as on the speed of the ship in question. Ships are built with metal. Money and metal are available wherever needed. There are several different kinds of ships, including the basic Fighter, a Scout with longer range but weaker weapons, a Colony Ship used to found new colonies, Satellites which are cheap but cannot move from the world at which they are built, in recent versions a few others as well, such as the Tanker and Dreadnought; each ship has a ranking in each of five technologies: range, weapons, "miniaturization". Higher-tech ships cost more money and metal, with the exception of ships with high "miniaturization" which take far more money but less metal. Miniaturization is much less effective when applied to Colony Ships, compared to other types of ships. Ships can not be upgraded; when a ship is destroyed in battle, a smaller portion can be recovered.

The first ship of a given design costs two to four times as much as subsequent units, to account for research and design costs. There is no ground combat; the planet can be recolonized by the victor's species. If a battle lasts into the second round of firing, the participants will get information on what happened. In addition to spending on supporting colonies, terraforming planets, mining planets, building ships, players can spend money on technological research; this raises the available maximum for each of the five ship technologies. There is a sixth type of research, "Radical", which gives unpredictable advantages such as improved terraforming, information about distant planets, or a temporary advantage in one tech. Most spending in the game follows the law of diminishing returns: it is more effective to spend but on a given tech or planet for a long period of time than to spend for a short period of time. For example, a novice player might reason that allocating 20% of one's income to mining a particular planet would yield twice as much metal as allocating 10%.

A pseudo-logarithmic bar graph displays the player's spending allocations. The player manipulates the bars with the mouse to allocate spending; as one bar is lengthened, the lengths of the other bars are automatically shortened. Spaceward Ho! for iOS was released in March 2012 by Ariton. Spaceward Ho! for Android was released in March 2013 by Ariton. Computer Gaming World praised Spaceward Ho!, calling it "the Holy Grail of strategic computer games – the entertaining, int