Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Pine Bluff is the tenth-largest city in the state of Arkansas and the county seat of Jefferson County. It is the principal city of the Pine Bluff Metropolitan Statistical Area and part of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area; the population of the city was 49,083 in the 2010 Census with 2017 estimates showing a decline to 42,984. The city is situated in the Southeast section of the Arkansas Delta and straddles the Arkansas Timberlands region to its west, its topography is flat with wide expanses of farmland, consistent with other places in the Delta Lowlands. Pine Bluff has numerous creeks and bayous.. Large bodies of water include Lake Pine Bluff, Lake Langhofer, the Arkansas River; the area along the Arkansas River had been inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples of various cultures. They used the river for transportation as did European settlers after them, for fishing. By the time of encounter with Europeans, the historical Quapaw were the chief people in the area, having migrated from the Ohio River valley centuries before.
The city of Pine Bluff was founded on a high bank of the Arkansas River forested with tall pine trees. The high ground furnished settlers a safe haven from annual flooding. Joseph Bonne, a Métis fur trader and trapper of mixed Quapaw and colonial French ancestry, settled on this bluff in 1819. After the Quapaw signed a treaty with the United States in 1824 relinquishing their title to all the lands which they claimed in Arkansas, many other American settlers began to join Bonne on the bluff. In 1829 Thomas Phillips claimed a half section of land. Jefferson County was established by the Territorial Legislature on November 2, 1829 and began functioning as a county April 19, 1830. At the August 13, 1832 county election, the pine bluff settlement was chosen as the county seat; the Quorum Court voted to name the village "Pine Bluff Town" on October 16, 1832. Pine Bluff was incorporated January 1839, by the order of County Judge Taylor. At the time, the village had about 50 residents. Improved transportation aided in the growth of Pine Bluff during the 1850s.
With its proximity to the Arkansas River, the small town served as a port for shipping. Steamships provided the primary mode of transport, arriving from downriver ports such as New Orleans. From 1832–1838, Pine Bluff residents would see Native American migrants on the Trail of Tears waterway who were being forcibly removed by the US Army from the American Southeast to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. From 1832–1858, Pine Bluff was a station on the passage of Seminole and Black Seminoles, who were forcibly removed from Florida to the Territory, they included the legendary Black Seminole leader John Horse, who arrived in the city via the steamboat Swan in 1842. Pine Bluff was prospering by the outbreak of the Civil War; this was cultivated on large plantations by hundreds and thousands of enslaved Africans throughout the state, but in the Delta. The city had one of the largest slave populations in the state by 1860, Jefferson County, Arkansas was second in cotton production in the state.
When Union forces occupied Little Rock, a group of Pine Bluff residents asked commanding Major General Frederick Steele to send Union forces to occupy their town to protect them from bands of Confederate bushwhackers. Union troops under Colonel Powell Clayton arrived September 17, 1863 and stayed until the war was over. Confederate General J. S. Marmaduke tried to expel the Union Army in the Battle of Pine Bluff October 25, 1863, but was repulsed by a combined effort of soldiers and freedmen. In the final year of the war, the 1st Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry, was the first African-American regiment in the civil war to go into combat, it was dispatched to guard Pine Bluff and was mustered out there. Because of the Union forces, Pine Bluff attracted many refugees and freedmen after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued in early 1863; the Union forces set up a contraband camp there to house the runaway slaves and refugees behind Confederate lines. After the war, freed slaves worked with the American Missionary Association to start schools for the education of blacks, prohibited from learning to read and write by southern laws.
Both adults and children eagerly started learning. By September 1872, Professor Joseph C. Corbin opened the Branch Normal School of the Arkansas Industrial University, a black college. Founded as Arkansas's first black public college, today it is the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Pine Bluff and the region suffered lasting effects from defeat, the aftermath of war, the trauma of slavery and exploitation. Recovery was slow at first. Construction of railroads improved access to markets, with increased production of cotton as more plantations were reactivated, the economy began to recover; the first railroad reached Pine Bluff in December 1873. This same year Pine Bluff's first utility was formed when Pine Bluff Gas Company began furnishing manufactured gas from coke fuel for lighting purposes; the state's economy remained dependent on cotton and agriculture, which suffered a decline through the 19th century. As personal fortunes increased from the 1870s onward, community leaders constructed large Victorian-style homes west of Main Street.
Meanwhile, the Reconstruction era of the 1870s brought a stark mix of progress and challenge for African Americans. Most black
A dental hygienist or oral hygienist is a licensed dental professional, registered with a dental association or regulatory body within their country of practice. Prior to completing clinical and written board examinations, registered dental hygienists must have either an Associate's or Bachelor's degree in Dental Hygiene from an accredited college or university. Once registered, hygienists are primary healthcare professionals who work independently of or alongside dentists and other dental professionals to provide full oral health care, they have the training and education that focus on and specialize in the prevention and treatment of many oral diseases. Dental hygienists have a specific scope of clinical procedures, they assess a patient's condition in order to offer patient-specific preventative and educational services to promote and maintain good oral health. The major role of a dental hygienist is to perform periodontal therapy which includes things such periodontal charting, periodontal debridement, prophylaxis or periodontal maintenance procedures for patients with periodontal disease.
The use of therapeutic methods assists their patients in controlling oral disease, while providing tailored treatment plans that emphasize the importance of behavioral changes. Some dental hygienists are licensed to perform dental radiography. Dental hygienists are the primary resource for oral cancer screening and prevention. In addition to these procedures, hygienists may take intraoral radiographs, apply dental sealants, administer topical fluoride, provide patient-specific oral hygiene instruction. Additionally, they can perform many tasks related to orthodontia, such as selecting and sizing of orthodontic bands for dental braces and the removal of orthodontic appliances, they are able to make dental impressions for the construction of study casts and mouth guards. Dental hygienists work in a range of dental settings, from independent, private, or specialist practices to the public sector, they can work in residential aged care facilities. Dental hygienists work together with other dental professionals, with a higher number working at general practices with dentists, dental therapists and oral health therapists.
A smaller number work at specialist practices alongside periodontists. They help with the contribution of an interdisciplinary approach, aiming to provide optimum oral health care to their patients. Dental hygienists aim to work inter-professionally to provide holistic oral health care in the best interest of their patient. Dental hygienists offer expertise in their field and can provide a dental hygiene diagnosis, an integral component of the comprehensive dental diagnosis. Dental hygienists may serve as researchers and as educators in dental hygiene programs. Periodontal therapy is a continuous cycle requiring regular evaluation and maintenance to optimise treatment outcomes; the treatment is carried out by a dental hygienist or oral health therapist, but involves all members of the dental team and can include specialists throughout the course of care. There are six phases undertaken by dental professionals when undertaking periodontal therapy, which are as follows; the provisional diagnosis is generated following a comprehensive oral examination, data collection and radiographic interpretation.
An ASA physical status classification system is used to indicate future treatment options for the patient, while considering the implications of risk factors, such as medical conditions. This allows the dental clinician to begin planning all non-surgical therapy. All emergency treatment should be addressed first, this includes emergency periodontal treatment, it is accomplished with the incorporation of patient education and motivational interviewing, if appropriate may include discussions regarding nutrition and smoking cessation. The various treatments involved in this phase include: Debridement Antimicrobial therapy Correction of local risk factors Fluoride therapy Caries control and placement of temporary restorations Occlusal therapy Minor orthodontic treatmentIf disease is present, secondary prevention may be necessary, the cause of disease should be identified and noted, the relevant professional movement should be identified and patient instruction for dental plaque control established in an attempt to reinstate a healthy oral condition.
Therefore and chemical plaque control are involved in this phase. This may be via: Plaque disclosing agents Manual or electric toothbrushes Tooth brushing techniques Inter-dental aids Dentifrices Chemical plaque control This phase is continuous throughout treatment, allowing the dental professional along with the patient to monitor the patients oral health status and assists in recognizing the need for change or amendment to the formulated treatment plan, according to the patients specific needs. Treatment is monitored using accurate periodontal charting and clinical observation of hard and soft tissues by the dental professional; the results of the periodontal charting and clinical observation dictates what follows the non-surgical periodo
Minnie Joycelyn Elders is an American pediatrician and public health administrator. She was a vice admiral in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the first African American appointed as Surgeon General of the United States. Elders is best known for her frank discussion of her views on controversial issues such as drug legalization and distributing contraception in schools, she was forced to resign in December 1994 amidst controversy as a result of her views. She is a professor emerita of pediatrics at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Elders was born Minnie Lee Jones in Schaal, Arkansas, to a poor farm sharecropping family, was the eldest of eight children, valedictorian of her school class; the family spent two years near a defense plant in Richmond, California. In college, she changed her name to Minnie Joycelyn Lee. In 1952, she received her B. S. degree in Biology from Philander Smith College in Little Rock, where she pledged Delta Sigma Theta. After working as a nurse's aide in a Veterans Administration hospital in Milwaukee for a period, she joined the United States Army in May 1953.
During her 3 years in the Army, she was trained as a physical therapist. She attended the University of Arkansas Medical School, where she obtained her M. D. degree in 1960. After completing an internship at the University of Minnesota Hospital and a residency in pediatrics at the University of Arkansas Medical Center, Elders earned an M. S. in Biochemistry in 1967. In 1987, then-governor Bill Clinton appointed Elders as Director of the Arkansas Department of Health, making her the first African American woman in the state to hold this position; some of her major accomplishments while in office include reducing the teen pregnancy rate by increasing the availability of birth control and sex education at school-based clinics. She worked hard to promote the importance of sex education, proper hygiene, prevention of substance abuse in public schools. In 1992, she was elected President of the Association of Territorial Health Officers. Though Elders was a pediatric endocrinologist and a professor at one of the nation's top medical schools, she was not immune from racism in the workplace.
"Some people in the American Medical Association, a certain group of them, didn't know that I was a physician. And they were passing a resolution to say that from now on every Surgeon General must be a physician--which was a knock at me.... They don't expect a black female to have accomplished what I have and to have done the things that I have."During an interview, she was asked if she related to Shirley Chisholm's statement about feeling more oppressed as a woman than as an African American, she replied saying, "I am who I am because I'm a black woman". Elders was able to be the voice for the African American community and speak on poverty and its role in teenage pregnancy, a major issue within the community. Poor African American teenage mothers are "captive to a slavery the 13th Amendment did not anticipate", a major reason why she stressed the importance of teaching sex education in public schools; as an endocrinologist, Elders was concerned with young diabetic women getting pregnant. If young teen women who have diabetes get pregnant, they have a high chance of their bodies rejecting the fetus or the fetus developing abnormalities in utero.
To prevent these pregnancies from happening, she talked to her patients about the dangers of early pregnancy and the importance of using contraceptives, taking control of their sexuality as soon as they began puberty. Of the 260 young diabetic women she treated, only one of them became pregnant. Elders advocated sex and reproductive education in African American communities, she criticized older textbooks that said only white females had regular periods, because white females were on birth control to regulate their periods. Black females did not seek out birth control because their " ministers were up on the pulpit saying the birth control pills were black genocide", she was vocal about her disgust with black men exploiting black women and stripping them of their reproductive health choices, because "If you can't control your reproduction, you can't control your life". Elders has received a National Institutes of Health career development award serving as assistant professor in pediatrics at the University of Arkansas Medical Center from 1967.
She was promoted to associate professor in 1971 and professor in 1976. Her research interests focused on endocrinology, she received board certification as a pediatric endocrinologist in 1978, becoming the first person in the state of Arkansas to do so. Elders received a D. Sc. degree from Bates College in 2002. In January 1993, Bill Clinton appointed her as the United States Surgeon General, making her the first African American and the second woman to hold the position, she was a controversial choice and a strong backer of the Clinton health care plan, so she was not confirmed until September 7, 1993. As Surgeon General, Elders established a reputation for being controversial. Like many of the Surgeons General before her, she was an outspoken advocate of a variety of health-related causes, she argued for an exploration of the possibility of drug legalization, backed the distribution of contraceptives in schools. President Clinton sto
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurse practitioners are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. Nurses develop a plan of care, working collaboratively with physicians, the patient, the patient's family and other team members, that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life.
In the United States and the United Kingdom, advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies, depending on individual state regulations. Nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by other members of a multidisciplinary health care team such as therapists, medical practitioners and dietitians. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, independently as nursing professionals. Nursing historians face the challenge of determining whether care provided to the sick or injured in antiquity was nursing care. In the fifth century BC, for example, the Hippocratic Collection in places describes skilled care and observation of patients by male "attendants," who may have been early nurses. Around 600 BC in India, it is recorded in Sushruta Samhita, Book 3, Chapter V about the role of the nurse as "the different parts or members of the body as mentioned before including the skin, cannot be described by one, not well versed in anatomy.
Hence, any one desirous of acquiring a thorough knowledge of anatomy should prepare a dead body and observe, by dissecting it, examine its different parts." Before the foundation of modern nursing, members of religious orders such as nuns and monks provided nursing-like care. Examples exist in Christian and Buddhist traditions amongst others. Phoebe, mentioned in Romans 16 has been described in many sources as "the first visiting nurse"; these traditions were influential in the development of the ethos of modern nursing. The religious roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today in many countries. One example in the United Kingdom is the use of the historical title "sister" to refer to a senior nurse in the past. During the Reformation of the 16th century, Protestant reformers shut down the monasteries and convents, allowing a few hundred municipal hospices to remain in operation in northern Europe; those nuns, serving as nurses were given pensions or told to get married and stay home. Nursing care went to the inexperienced as traditional caretakers, rooted in the Roman Catholic Church, were removed from their positions.
The nursing profession suffered a major setback for 200 years. Florence Nightingale laid the foundations of professional nursing after the Crimean War, her Notes on Nursing became popular. The Nightingale model of professional education, having set up the first school of nursing, connected to a continuously operating hospital and medical school, spread in Europe and North America after 1870. Nightingale was a pioneer of the graphical presentation of statistical data. Other important nurses in the development of the profession include: Agnes Hunt from Shropshire was the first orthopedic nurse and was pivotal in the emergence of the orthopedic hospital The Robert Jones & Agnes Hunt Hospital in Oswestry, Shropshire. Agnes Jones, who established a nurse training regime at the Brownlow Hill infirmary, Liverpool, in 1865. Linda Richards, who established quality nursing schools in the United States and Japan, was the first professionally trained nurse in the US, graduating in 1873 from the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston.
Clarissa Harlowe "Clara" Barton, a pioneer American teacher, patent clerk and humanitarian, the founder of the American Red Cross. Saint Marianne Cope, a Sister of St. Francis who opened and operated some of the first general hospitals in the United States, instituting cleanliness standards which influenced the development of America's modern hospital system. Catholic orders such as Little Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Mary, St. Francis Health Services, Inc. and Sisters of Charity built hospitals and provided nursing services during this period. In turn, the modern deaconess movement began in Germany in 1836. Within a half century, there were over 5,000 deaconesses in Europe. Formal use of nurses in the modern military began in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Nurses saw active duty in the First Boer War, the Egyptian Campaign, the Sudan Campaign. Hospital-based training came to the fore in the early 1900s, with an emphasis on practical experience; the Nightingale-style school began to disappear.
Hospitals and physicians saw women in nursing as a source of inexpensive labor. Exploitation of nurses was not uncommon by employers and educational providers. Many nurses saw active duty in World War I, but the profession was transformed during the second World War. British nurses of the Army Nursing Service were part of every overseas campaign. More nurses volunteered for service in the US Army and Navy than any other occupat
Fay Winford Boozman III was a Republican politician from the U. S. state of Arkansas, a close friend of former Governor Mike Huckabee and a 1998 candidate for Senate. At the time of his death at the age of fifty-eight as a result of a freak accident, Boozman, an ophthalmologist, was the director of the Arkansas Department of Health, he had first become involved in politics while working on Huckabee's 1993 special election campaign for lieutenant governor. As health department director, Boozman was the front man for Huckabee's Healthy Arkansas initiatives and earned national attention for his commitment to reducing obesity. From 1995 to 1998, Boozman was a member of the Arkansas State Senate from Rogers in Benton County, he succeeded the Democrat Reid Holliman, a supporter of former U. S. Senator Dale Bumpers and U. S. President Bill Clinton. In 1998, rather than running for a second term for the state Senate, Boozman was the unsuccessful Republican nominee against Democrat Blanche Lincoln. Lincoln received 385,878 votes to Boozman's 295,870.
In 2010, Boozman's brother, unseated Lincoln for the same Senate seat that Fay Boozman had sought twelve years earlier. During the campaign against Lincoln, Boozman came under criticism when he claimed that victims of rape were impregnated as a result of the crime due to hormonal protection that results from a "true" rape, he apologized for the statement, saying that it was "not statistically based." Boozman, pro-life, saw his role as director of the health department as that of a "Christian" and a "servant." Those who worked with him found him "caring, sensitive, a family man a servant's heart, compassionate and moral." Dr. Boozman was a former medical advisor to a crisis pregnancy center. A Republican, Dave Bisbee, was elected to succeed Boozman; the seat was held until 2013 by Kim Hendren, another Republican candidate for the U. S. Senate nomination and a brother-in-law of former U. S. Senator Tim Hutchinson and former U. S. Representative Asa Hutchinson who serves as Governor of Arkansas. After an automobile accident in 1996, Boozman suffered serious injuries, including a bruised heart, broken ribs, kidney problems, a collapsed lung, a broken hip that left him using a walker.
He was a passenger in the vehicle driven by Timothy Hutchinson a member of the Arkansas House of Representatives and a son of then-Congressman Tim Hutchinson. Timothy Hutchinson's twin brother, Jeremy Hutchinson, their mother, Donna Hutchinson, divorced from Tim Hutchinson, have served in the Arkansas House. Asa Hutchinson, a former U. S. representative, the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 2006, the state's current governor, an uncle of Timothy Hutchinson, said that Dr. Boozman rendered aid to the victims of the accident despite his serious injuries. "I've never known a more tender-hearted human being. His life was an encouragement to everyone who came in contact with him every day, losing him is just devastating," said Asa Hutchinson. Boozman died near Rogers, when a barn in which he had been engaged in farm chores collapsed. In addition to his brother, he was survived by his wife, Josephine Victoria "Vicky" Boozman, their three children, his mother, the former Marie Nichols, who lives in Fort Smith in Sebastian County, where John Boozman was born and both brothers were reared.
His father was Fay Winford Boozman Jr.. Governor Huckabee released this statement on Boozman's death: " was not only one of my most trusted team members, but he was a close personal friend and Christian brother. One of my happiest days as governor was, his death will mark the saddest day..... Many of us lose a dear personal friend, but our entire state loses one of our finest and most pure-hearted public servants who loved others more than self and was incapable of anything other than statesmanship and kindness."Bob Alvey, a health department spokesman, referred to the "tragic loss" of Dr. Boozman's death: "Our thoughts and prayers go out to those who knew him and knew how great a person he was." Rogers Mayor Steve Womack, a Boozman family friend and John Boozman's U. S. House successor, told The Rogers Morning News that Boozman was moving from his Rogers residence to another home in Rogers. Emergency personnel found that Boozman had been crushed by a large gate; the Arkansas Physicians Resource Council offers the annual Fay Boozman Award to physicians who practice their Christian faith in family practice and community affairs.
The College of Public Health at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock was renamed in Boozman's honor. Boozman was a UAMS alumnus. Vickie Boozman, now residing in Cave Springs in Benton County, was an Arkansas alternate delegate to the 2008 Republican National Convention in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Earlier in 2008, she lost a primary bid for the District 99 in the Arkansas House to fellow Republican Tim Summers of Bentonville. In 2010, she was a surrogate speaker for her brother-in-law, John Boozman, in his U. S. Senate campaign
Psychiatric hospitals known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric hospitals vary in their size and grading; some hospitals may specialize only in short outpatient therapy for low-risk patients. Others may specialize in the temporary or permanent care of residents who, as a result of a psychological disorder, require routine assistance, treatment, or a specialized and controlled environment. Patients are admitted on a voluntary basis, but people whom psychiatrists believe may pose a significant danger to themselves or others may be subject to involuntary commitment. Psychiatric hospitals may be referred to as psychiatric wards or units when they are a subunit of a regular hospital. Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, replaced the older lunatic asylums; the treatment of inmates in early lunatic asylums was sometimes brutal and focused on containment and restraint.
With successive waves of reform, the introduction of effective evidence-based treatments, most modern psychiatric hospitals provide a primary emphasis on treatment, attempt where possible to help patients control their own lives in the outside world, with the use of a combination of psychiatric drugs and psychotherapy. An exception is in Japan, where many psychiatric hospitals still use physical restraints on patients, tying them to their beds for days or months at a time. A crisis stabilization unit is in effect an emergency department for psychiatry dealing with suicidal, violent, or otherwise critical individuals. Open units are psychiatric units. Another type of psychiatric hospital is medium term. In the United Kingdom, both crisis admissions and medium term care are provided on acute admissions wards. Juvenile or adolescent wards are sections of psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric wards set aside for children or adolescents with mental illness. Long-term care facilities have the goal of treatment and rehabilitation back into society within a short time-frame.
Another institution for the mentally ill is a community-based halfway house. Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, replaced the older lunatic asylums; the development of the modern psychiatric hospital is the story of the rise of organized, institutional psychiatry. Hospitals known as bimaristans were built in Persia beginning around the early 9th century, with the first in Baghdad under the leadership of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid. While not devoted to patients with psychiatric disorders, they contained wards for patients exhibiting mania or other psychological distress; because of cultural taboos against refusing to care for one's family members, mentally ill patients would be surrendered to a bimaristan only if the patient demonstrated violence, incurable chronic illness, or some other debilitating ailment. Psychological wards were enclosed by iron bars owing to the aggression of some of the patients. Western Europe would adopt these views on with the advances of physicians like Philippe Pinel at the Bicêtre Hospital in France and William Tuke at the York Retreat in England.
They advocated the viewing of mental illness as a disorder that required compassionate treatment that would aid in the rehabilitation of the victim. The arrival in the Western world of institutionalisation as a solution to the problem of madness was much an advent of the nineteenth century; the first public mental asylums were established in Britain. Nine counties first applied. In 1828, the newly appointed Commissioners in Lunacy were empowered to license and supervise private asylums; the Lunacy Act 1845 made the construction of asylums in every country compulsory with regular inspections on behalf of the Home Secretary. The Act required asylums to have a resident physician. At the beginning of the nineteenth century there were a few thousand "sick people" housed in a variety of disparate institutions throughout England, but by 1900 that figure had grown to about 100,000; this growth coincided with the growth of alienism known as psychiatry, as a medical specialism. The treatment of inmates in early lunatic asylums was sometimes brutal and focused on containment and restraint.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, terms such as "madness," "lunacy" or "insanity"—all of which assumed a unitary psychosis—were split into numerous "mental diseases," of which catatonia and dementia praecox were the most common in psychiatric institutions. In 1961 sociologist Erving Goffman described a theory of the "total institution" and the process by which it takes efforts to maintain predictable and regular behavior on the part of both "guard" and "captor," suggesting that many of the features of such institutions serve the ritual function of ensuring that both classes of people know their function and social role, in other words of "institutionalizing" them. Asylums was a key text in the development of deinstitutionalization. With successive waves of reform and the introduction of effective evidence-based treatments, modern psychiatric hospitals provide a primary emphasis on treatment.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl