Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
University of Sarajevo
The University of Sarajevo is a public university located in Sarajevo and Herzegovina. It is the largest and oldest university in the country, as well as the oldest institution of tertiary learning in the former Yugoslavia, tracing its initial origins to 1537 as an Islamic school of law. With 20 faculties, three academies and three faculties of theology and with 30,866 enrolled students as of 2014, it ranks among the largest universities in the Balkans in terms of enrollment. Since opening its doors in 1949, a total of 122,000 students received bachelor's degrees, 3,891 received master's degrees and 2,284 received doctorate degrees in 45 different fields, it is now regarded as the most prestigious university in Bosnia and Herzegovina, employs more than one thousand faculty members. Before establishment of modern University of Sarajevo, first schools of higher educations in Sarajevo and Bosnia and Herzegovina were founded during 16th century under tutelage of Ottomans; as Ottoman institute of higher education first Madrasa in Bosnia, namely Gazi Husrev-beg Madrasa & Library, was inaugurated in Sarajevo 1537 by Gazi Husrev-beg.
The university in its modern, secular incarnation being developed during Austro-Hungarian Empire rule, when many of the institutions of higher education and culture such as National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, still active today, were established. The modern history of the University of Sarajevo continued after the World War I, before World War II as well as during the war extanding its development with new schools and institutes opened, such as the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry in 1940, the Medical Faculty in 1944; the Medical Faculty was re-established in 1946, the Faculty of Law, the Teacher Training College were opened and, in 1948, the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry was re-established. In 1949, the Engineering Faculty was opened. On 2 December of that year with the appointment of the first rector, the University of Sarajevo was established. With the opening of the Faculty of Philosophy and the Faculty of Economics the initial phase of establishment of the Sarajevo University was completed.
The second phase of development was characterized by the affirmation of the university, the opening of new institutions of higher education and the relative satisfaction of the needs for educated personnel in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Another significant achievement is the organization and initiation of postgraduate studies at the university; the third phase was defined by more institutions of higher education being opened at the university, a scientific promotion of the university and its intensified involvement and promotion on the international academic plane. The university contributed directly and indirectly to the establishment of new universities in Banja Luka and Tuzla; the fourth phase was characterized by the separation of scientific activities from the university and the formation of favored scientific institutes outside it. This brought considerable damage to the University of Sarajevo, because the coherence of university education and scientific research was endangered; this resulted in a technological stagnation of the university.
The uncontrolled enrollment of an enormous number of students resulted in a lower efficiency of studies and a hyper-production of personnel in certain areas of education. The fifth phase was marked by devastation of the facilities and equipment of the university, caused by the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Siege of Sarajevo. Despite all of these difficulties of life and work during the four-year siege of Sarajevo, because of the help and the enthusiasm, professionalism and perseverance of university teachers and associates as well as the students, the University of Sarajevo managed to retain its continuity of work and life; this was a specific aspect of intellectual academic resistance against everything, barbaric and uncivilized. It represented the university's contribution to the affirmation of freedom and democracy, the outcry against the war and aggression and the affirmation of the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the beginning of 1996 the University of Sarajevo entered the phase of post-war physical and academic renewal and reconstruction.
The physical renewal is aimed at the reconstruction and the rebuilding of destroyed facilities, the replacement of destroyed educational and scientific equipment and the reconstruction of student dormitories. Significant results have been achieved on this plane and the conditions for higher quality studies have been formed in certain areas. However, despite the numerous reconstruction projects the University of Sarajevo still hasn't reached the full prewar potential; the quality and number of student dormitories are still far below the required, technology is outdated, since the working conditions could be much better academic staff is lacking. In addition, the war caused a rift among the academics and many who worked at the university before the war didn't continue after; the quality of studies is improving because of the Bologna Process implementation, but there is still hyper-production in some areas of education since the Bosnia and Herzegovina doesn't have a unified program of higher education.
The process of renewal and reconstruction of the university is supported by the activities of the European University Association, the European Council, the European Union as well as a whole line of international organizations
Banja Luka or Banjaluka is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of its Republika Srpska entity. It is the traditional centre of the densely-forested Bosanska Krajina region located in northwestern Bosnia. According to the 2013 census, the city proper has a population of 138,963, while its administrative area comprises a total of 180,053 inhabitants; the city is home to the University of Banja Luka as well as numerous state and entity institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city lies on the Vrbas River and is well known in the countries of the former Yugoslavia for being full of tree-lined avenues, boulevards and parks; the name'Banja Luka' was first mentioned in a document dated to 6 February 1494 by Ladislaus II of Hungary. The name is interpreted as the'Ban's meadow', from the words ban, luka; the identity of the ban and the meadow in question remain uncertain, popular etymology combines the modern words banja, or bajna and luka. A different interpretation is suggested by the Hungarian name Lukácsbánya, in English'Luke's Mine', the meaning of the Slovak baňa Luka.
In modern usage, the name is pronounced and declined as one word, written as such. The citizens prefer the form with inflected adjective. Banja Luka covers some 96.2 km2 of land in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on either bank of the Vrbas in the Banja Luka valley, characteristically flat within the otherwise hilly region. Banja Luka's centre lies 163 m above sea level; the source of the Vrbas River is about 90 km to the south at the Vranica mountain. Its tributaries—the Suturlija, the Crkvena, the Vrbanja—flow into the Vrbas at various points in the city. A number of springs can be found nearby; the area around Banja Luka is woodland, although there are mountains a little further from the city. The most notable of these mountains are Manjača, Čemernica, Tisovac; these are all part of the Dinaric Alps mountain range. The city of Banja Luka includes the following settlements: Banja Luka has a moderate humid subtropical climate with mild winters, frequent frosts, warm summers; the warmest month of the year is July, with an average temperature of 22.8 °C.
The coldest month of the year is January, when temperatures average around 1.7 °C. The annual precipitation for the city is about 1,037.2 millimetres. Banja Luka has an average of 104 rainy days a year. Due to the city's high latitude and inland location, it snows in Banja Luka every year. Strong winds come from the northeast. Sometimes, southern winds which bring hot weather are prevalent; the history of inhabitation of the area of Banja Luka dates back to ancient times. There is a substantial evidence of the Roman presence in the region during the first few centuries A. D. including an old fort "Kastel" in the centre of the city. The area of Banja Luka was in the kingdom of Illyria and a part of the Roman province of Illyricum, which split into provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia of which Castra became a part. Ancient Illyrian maps call the settlement in Banja Luka's present day location as Ad Ladios, a settlement located on the river Vrbas. Slavs settled in the Balkans in the 6th century. Mediaeval fortresses in the vicinity of Banja Luka include Vrbas, župa Zemljanik, Kotor Varoš, Zvečaj, Bočac.
The name "Banja Luka" was first mentioned in a document dated 6 February 1494, by Vladislav II. Banja Luka fell to the Ottomans in 1527, it became the seat of the Sanjak of Bosnia some time prior to 1554, until 1580 when the Bosnia Eyalet was established. Bosnian beylerbeys were seated in Banja Luka until 1639. Ferhad Pasha Sokolović, a relative of Grand Vizier Mehmed-pasha Sokolović, had upon his return to Bosnia in 1574, begun the building of over 200 buildings ranging from artisan and sales shops to wheat warehouses and mosques. Among more important commissions were the Ferhadija and Arnaudija mosques during which construction a plumbing infrastructure was laid that served surrounding residential areas; this stimulated the economic and urban development of Banja Luka, which soon became one of the leading commercial and political centres in Bosnia. It was sanjak centre in Bosna Eyalet. In 1688, the city was burned down by the Austrian army, but it recovered. Periodic intrusions by the Austrian army stimulated military developments in Banja Luka, which made it into a strategic military centre.
Orthodox churches and monasteries near Banja Luka were built in the 19th century. Sephardic Jews and Trappists migrated to the city in the 19th century and contributed to the early industrialisation of the region by building mills, brick factories, textile factories and other important structures; the Trappist monastery built in the 19th century lent its name to the neighbourhood of Trapisti and has left a large legacy in the area through its famous Trappist cheese and its beer production. In 1835 and 1836, during the Ottoman administration, numerous people from the Banja Luka Krajina emigrated to Lešnica and Loznica, the villages around Loznica, to Šabac. For all its leadership to the region however, Banja Luka as a city was not modernised until Austro-Hungarian occupation in the late 19th century that brought westernisation to Banja Luka. Railroads, schools and infrastructure appeared, were developed, which led to a modern city After World War I, the town became the cap
University of Montenegro
The University of Montenegro is a national public research university of Montenegro, located in the country's capital Podgorica. It was founded in 1974 and it is organized in 19 faculties; the University of Montenegro was founded on 29 April 1974. In that year the following organisations signed the Agreement on Association into the University of Titograd: three faculties: Faculty of Economics, of Engineering and the Faculty of Law from Titograd, two colleges: Teaching College from Nikšić and Maritime Studies College from Kotor, three independent scientific institutes: for History, for Agriculture and for Biological and Medical Research from Titograd. A year after it was founded, the institution changed its name to Veljko Vlahović University in honour of the communist activist and World War II participant from Montenegro who died that year. In 1992, the university was given its current name - University of Montenegro; the seat of the university is in Podgorica, the capital city of Montenegro, with a population of around 190,000.
Most faculties of the University of Montenegro are located in Podgorica, while some faculties were opened in Nikšić, Cetinje and Kotor. The university comprises faculties and colleges, as well as logistic centers; the Managing Board governs the Rector manages it. The supreme academic body is the University Senate. Deans are heads of directors are heads of institutes. At faculties i.e. at institutes, the highest academic bodies are councils for teaching-scientific issues, i.e. for teaching-artistic issues. The highest student body is the Student Parliament. Representatives of students are elected of the faculties; the university comprises following 19 faculties in 4 cities: Within the faculties, there are departments and study groups. The University includes three scientific research institutes: Institute for History Institute of Marine Biology Institute- Center of Excellence in Research and Innovation In 2017, the University of Montenegro reformed the system of studies and adopted the new system of 3+2+3 instead of the previous 3+1+1+3 system.
With the accreditation from 2017, 160 study programmes are accredited on all study levels, of which 114 are at bachelor and postgraduate studies, 14 within the applied studies, 25 doctoral study programmes. Eight interdisciplinary study programmes are accredited, of which one is at the doctoral level, while seven exist at the level of postgraduate master studies. All the bachelor study programmes are accredited as three-year study programmes, while having, at the most, two modules in their VI semester, they are organized as either applied studies. Their scope is 180 ECTS. Exempted from this rule are the regulated professions, which have implemented the EU directives about the duration of their bachelor studies, so that bachelor studies in medicine and dentistry last 6 years, while pharmacology and architecture last five years; the postgraduate study programmes are organized after the completion of the bachelor studies and all are accredited as two-year programmes. The scope of the postgraduate studies is 120 ECTS.
Doctoral studies are organized after postgraduate studies, all are accredited as three-year study programmes. The scope of doctoral studies is 180 ECTS. University of Montenegro portal List of colleges and universities Podgorica University of Montenegro website Students
St. Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola
The St. Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola is the second Macedonian state university located in Bitola, with faculties in Prilep, Veles and Skopje, it was founded on 25 April 1979, but the name of St. Clement of Ohrid was not given until late 1994; the number of enrolled students exceeds 15,000. The act of the formal establishment of the university of Bitola was on the 25th April 1979. On 8 December 1994 when the University of Bitola started to celebrate the day of St Clement in honor of theirpatron; the founding assembly was held on 25 April 1979 in Bitola. A Self-Managing Agreement for joining into the University of Bitola was signed by six higher education institutions and two research institutes, namely: Faculty of Economics – Prilep Faculty of Law – Bitola Faculty of Technical Sciences – Bitola Faculty of Tourism and Catering – Ohrid Higher School of Agriculture - Bitola Academy of Pedagogy- Bitola Tobacco Institute – Prilep Institute of Hydro-biology- OhridThe following institutions have since joined the university: Institute for Old Slav Culture – Prilep National and University Library "St.
Kliment Ohridski" – Biota Student Center "Koch Racin" – Bitola Higher Medical School – Bitola Police Academy – Skopje The international character of UKLO is confirmed by the participation in international programs and associations among which the most significant is the membership in EUA and BUA. St. Clement of Ohrid University is a holder of the Erasmus+ Charter. Natural Sciences Computer & information sciencesEngineering & Technology Transport engineering Electrical and information engineering Communication engineering and systems Applied engineering Mechanical Engineering Mechatronics Graphic EngineeringMedical & Health Sciences Nursing Nutrition Dietetics Health care Forensic scienceAgricultural Sciences Agricultural biotechnology and food biotechnology Animal products processing Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Veterinary scienceSocial Sciences Economics and Business Educational sciences Law Tourism and hospitality Security Political sciences Organization science and managementHumanities Languages Literature 12 higher education institutions 4 accompanying units: Faculty of Economics – Prilep Faculty of Technical Sciences – Bitola Faculty of Biotechnical Sciences Faculty of Education – Bitola Faculty of Veterinary Medicine – Bitola Faculty of Information and Communication Technologies – Bitola Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality – Ohrid Faculty of Security – Skopje Faculty of Law – Kichevo Faculty of Technology and Technical Sciences – Veles Higher Medical School – Bitola Faculty of Information and Communication Technologies – Bitola Tobacco institute – PrilepAccompanying units Hydro-biological institute – Ohrid Institute for Ancient Slav literature National Institution University Library "St.
Kliment Ohridski" Students’ residence "Kocho Racin" – Bitola Horizons is an international research journal of St. Clement of Ohrid University published in two series depending on the research areas: Series A in the area of social sciences and humanities, Series B in the area of natural sciences and mathematics and technology, biotechnology and health sciences; the journal is EBSCO classified. Balkan Universities Network List of universities in the Republic of Macedonia List of colleges and universities Bitola University "St. Kliment Ohridski" – Bitola Hydrobiological Institute's 1st Conference on Conservation and Management of the Balkan Freshwater Fishes Hydrobiological Institute
A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is ceremonial and titular; the term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used in universities in Europe, and is common in Latin American countries. It is used in Brunei, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, is responsible for chairing the University Court; the head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector magnificus or rectrix magnifica, as in some Belgian universities. In Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda of the university.
In the Netherlands, the rector is, not the chair of the university board. The chair has, in the most influence over the management of the University. In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in secondary schools is designated as rector. In the Netherlands, the terms "rector" and "conrector" are used for high school directors; this is the case in some Maltese secondary schools. In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway, this term is used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland, the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster; the head of some Finnish universities is called chancellor. In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or presidents have the title; those universities whose foundation has been approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred to as Magnífico Reitor.
The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor. In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico according to the law, but the Rector of the University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca. In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag was reserved for the rector of the capital's university, notably: Graz in Steiermark, Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien in Nieder-Österreich. Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of one Rector and 3-5 additional Vizerectors; the Rector is the CEO of the university. The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor; the rector acts in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators, while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret; the term of office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two consecutive terms. The rector appoints vice-rectors. Rectors' salaries are determined directly by the Minister of Education. Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. Jiřina Popelová became the first female Rector in 1950; the rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Rector". In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of universities, schools of commerce and construction, etc. Rektor may be used for the head of any educational institution above the primary school level, where the head is referred to as a'skoleinspektør'. In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is known as prorektor. Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors".
In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a "president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each university is the "vice-chancellor". At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges" of the University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head while the academic head is the "principal"; the University of London has a chancellor (a
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is viewed as having started on 6 April 1992; the war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, which were led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia, respectively; the war was part of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, the multi-ethnic Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina –, inhabited by Muslim Bosniaks, as well as Orthodox Serbs and Catholic Croats – passed a referendum for independence on 29 February 1992; this was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs, who had boycotted the referendum.
Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence, the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadžić and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević and the Yugoslav People's Army, mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure ethnic Serb territory war soon spread across the country, accompanied by ethnic cleansing. The conflict was between the Yugoslav Army units in Bosnia which transformed into the Army of Republika Srpska on the one side, the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, composed of Bosniaks, the Croat forces in the Croatian Defence Council on the other side. Tensions between Croats and Bosniaks increased throughout late 1992, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War that escalated in early 1993; the Bosnian War was characterised by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing and systematic mass rape perpetrated by Serb, to a lesser extent and Bosniak forces. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre became iconic of the conflict.
The Serbs, although militarily superior due to the weapons and resources provided by the JNA lost momentum as the Bosniaks and Croats allied themselves against the Republika Srpska in 1994 with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Washington agreement. Pakistan defied the UN's ban on supply of arms and airlifted missiles to the Bosnian Muslims, while after the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened in 1995 with Operation Deliberate Force targeting the positions of the Army of the Republika Srpska, which proved key in ending the war; the war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995. Peace negotiations were held in Dayton and were finalised on 21 November 1995. By early 2008, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia had convicted 45 Serbs, 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks of war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia; the most recent estimates suggest.
Over 2.2 million people were displaced, making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II. In addition, an estimated 12,000–20,000 women were raped, most of them Bosniak. There is debate over the start date of the Bosnian War. Clashes between Bosnian Muslims and Croats started in late February 1992, "full-scale hostilities had broken out by 6 April", the same day that the United States and European Economic Community recognised Bosnia and Herzegovina. Misha Glenny gives a date of 22 March, Tom Gallagher gives 2 April, while Mary Kaldor and Laura Silber and Allan Little give 6 April. Philip Hammond the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, claimed that the most common view is that the war started on 6 April 1992. Serbs consider the Sarajevo wedding shooting, when a groom's father was killed on the second day of the Bosnian independence referendum, 1 March 1992, to have been the first victim of the war; the Sijekovac killings of Serbs took place on the Bijeljina massacre on 1 -- 2 April.
On April 5, when a huge crowd approached a barricade, a demonstrator was killed by Serb forces. The war was brought to an end by the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, negotiated at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio between 1 and 21 November 1995 and signed in Paris on 14 December 1995; the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina came about as a result of the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A crisis emerged in Yugoslavia as a result of the weakening of the confederational system at the end of the Cold War. In Yugoslavia, the national communist party, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, was losing its ideological potency. Meanwhile, ethnic nationalism experienced a renaissance in the 1980s, after violence broke out in Kosovo. While the goal of Serbian nationalists was the centralisation of Yugoslavia, other nationalities in Yugoslavia aspired to the federalisation and the decentralisation of the state. Bosnia and Herzegovina, a former Ottoman province, has been a multi-ethnic state.
According to the 1991 census, 44% of the population considered themselves Muslim, 32.5% Serb and 17% Croat, with 6% describing themselves as Yugoslav. In March 1989, the crisis in Yugoslavia deepened after the adoption of amendments to the Serbian Constitution which allowed the government of Serbia to dominate the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina; until Kosovo and Vojvodina's decision-making had been independent and both autonomous provinc