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University of Barcelona

The University of Barcelona is a public university located in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia in Spain. With 73 undergraduate programs, 273 graduate programs and 48 doctorate programs to over 63,000 students, UB is considered to be the best university in Spain in the QS World University Rankings of 2018, which ranked the university 156th overall in the world. In the 2016-2017 ranking of University Ranking by Academic Performance, UB is considered the best university in Spain and 45th university in the world. According to the yearly ranking made by US News, it is the 81st-best university in the world, the best university in Spain; the University of Barcelona is the principal centre of university research in Spain and has become a European benchmark for research activity, both in terms of the number of research programs it conducts and the excellence these have achieved. According to the 2011 CYD Report, it is the highest-placed Spanish university in terms of scientific output, with a total of 15,290 papers published between 2006 and 2010 leading the ranking of Spanish universities in terms of percentage of papers published in high impact journals.

It has 106 departments and more than 5,000 full-time researchers and research assistants, most of whom work in the 243 research groups as recognized and supported by the Government of Catalonia. In 2010 the UB was awarded 175 national research grants and 17 European grants and participated in over 500 joint research projects with the business sector, generating an overall research income of 70 million euros; the work of these groups is overseen by the UB's research centres and institutes which collaborate with leading research institutions and networks in Spain and abroad. The UB is home to three large research foundations: the Barcelona Science Park Foundation, which includes the Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona, it is a member of the Coimbra Group, LERU, European University Association, Mediterranean Universities Union, International Research Universities Network and Vives Network. Established on 3 November 1450, it is the fifth oldest university in Spain and one of the oldest universities in the world.

The University was founded under the royal prerogative granted by King Alfonso V of Aragon, in Naples, on 3 November 1450. For forty-nine years prior to this, the city had a fledgling medical school, founded by King Martin of Aragon, but neither the Consell de Cent nor the city's other leading institutions had given it their official recognition, considering it an intrusion on their respective jurisdictions. Alphonse the Magnanimous’ prerogative, was granted at the petition of the Consell de Cent, so the council was always to consider the Estudi General created in 1450 as the city's true university, since it was much under its control and patronage; the process that culminated in the foundation of the Estudi General of Barcelona can be traced back to the end of the fourteenth century, with the opening of a number of schools under the patronage of the City Hall, the cathedral schools and the Dominican convent of Santa Caterina, which established itself as a major cultural centre. It was King Martín the Humane who set in motion the process that would result in the foundation of the University of Barcelona.

In his letter written 23 January 1398 and addressed to the councillors of Barcelona, he informed them that he had sought the Pope's permission to found a university in the city by Juan Carlos IX. Despite the Consell de Cent's refusal to accept the concession issued by the King to found an estudi general, on 10 January 1401, Martín founded the Estudi General of Medicine in Barcelona under his royal prerogative, granting it the same privileges as those enjoyed by the University of Montpellier. In another document, signed in Valencia on 9 May 1402, King Martin sought to promote the Estudi General of Medicine with the appointment of a number of teachers of the liberal arts, without which the study of medicine was useless. From that day forth, the Estudi was known as the Estudi of Medicine and the Arts; the prerogative granted by King Alphonse the Magnanimous in 1450, authorizing the Consell de Cent to found a university in Barcelona, was the culmination of the process initiated in 1398. The first university in the lands of the Crown of Aragon was founded by king James II of Aragon in Lleida in 1300.

Power and learning have always gone hand in hand. So much so that the discussions concerning the foundation of the first universities were characterized by the clear delimitation of jurisdictional authority. After 1229, following a series of bloody encounters in Paris that saw grave confrontations between the agents of the university provost and the students, King Philip II of Spain granted full judicial authority to the university chancellor or rector within the university grounds. Henceforth, the authority of the chancellor came to be symbolized in the maces carried by his two beadles on official occasions; the maces were capped with gold or silver and were borne by public servants during official acts before the king or any other civil or military authority with jurisdiction over a territory, municipality or region. For a number of reasons, in particular the civil war that raged during the reign of John II and the subsequent conflicts involving the peasant farmers, the official Estudi General of Barcelona did not begin to develop until the reign of Fernando the Catholic.

Foundation Beyond Belief

Foundation Beyond Belief is a US-American nonprofit organization founded in 2009 in Georgia by Dale McGowan who envisioned a way for humanists to give to charity by "passing the tithing plate". As of 2018, the organization's mission is to "unite the humanist community in volunteer and charitable efforts, to advocate for compassionate action throughout the world."In 2015, Noelle George took over the position of Executive Director. Foundation beyond belief was founded in 2009, with its IRS Ruling year in 2010 The American Cancer Society was criticized in 2011 for turning down participation from Foundation Beyond Belief in its Relay For Life "National Team" program. Foundation Beyond Belief Sponsored the Reason Rally in both 2012 and 2016 The Minnesota Atheists partnered with Foundation Beyond Belief in 2014 for the third atheist-themed St. Paul Saints game, it became the first game the secularized Mr. Paul Aints team won, which took 11 innings to do, the last "Mr. Paul Aints" game to be played at Midway Stadium.

On Saturday, August 8, 2015 the Minnesota Atheists teamed up with Foundation Beyond Belief to hold the fourth consecutive year of atheist-sponsored minor league baseball at the new home of the St. Paul Saints, CHS Field; as in previous years, the St. Paul Saints were secularized to the "Mr. Paul Aints" and the rebranded player jerseys were auctioned off during the game. A shoe drive benefiting Soles4Souls was incorporated into the event; the team beat the Winnipeg Goldeyes 7-4 in front of 8,500 fans at CHS Field which brought the record of the Mr. Paul Aints to 2 wins and 2 losses; the Mr. Paul Aints won again in 2016, but lost in 2017 bringing their record to 3 games won and 3 games lost. Since 2009, Foundation Beyond Belief has raised more than 2 million dollars for philanthropic causes worldwide; each fiscal quarter, FBB selects 4 organizations to support, in the categories of Poverty and Health, Human Rights and Natural World. In 2014, the American Humanist Association and Foundation Beyond Belief merged their respective charitable programs Humanist Charities and Humanist Crisis Response.

AHA's Executive Director Roy Speckhardt commented that, “This merger is a positive move that will grow the relief efforts of the humanist community. The end result will be more money directed to charitable activities, dispelling the false claim that nonbelievers don’t give to charity.”Now Foundation Beyond Belief's Disaster Recovery program, this effort serves as a focal point for the humanist response to major natural disasters and complex humanitarian crises all over the world. The program coordinates financial support as well as trained humanist volunteers to help impacted communities; the Disaster Recovery program is sustained through the ongoing partnership between FBB and AHA, ensures that our community's efforts are centralized and efficient. Between 2014–2018, Humanist Disaster Recovery has raised over $250,000 for victims of the Syrian Refugee Crisis, Refugee Children of the U. S. Border, Tropical Cyclone Sam, the Nepal and Ecuadoran Earthquakes, Hurricane Matthew in Haiti, Hurricanes Irma and Maria.

In addition to grants for recovery efforts, volunteers have helped to rebuild homes and schools in the following locations: Columbia, South Carolina after the effects of Hurricane Joaquin, in Denham Springs, Louisiana. In 2013, Foundation Beyond Belief launched the Pathfinders Project, a project to determine the viability of a long term Humanist Service Corps; the project launched with 4 pathfinders: Conor Robinson, Wendy Webber, Ben Blanchard, Michelle Huey. Over the course of a year, the team worked with several organizations across the world, including Cambodia, Ghana, Ecuador and Guatemala. Upon returning to the United States, the members of the Pathfinders continued their work of promoting humanist service, including speaking about the project to gain new members for future years. In 2015, the Humanist Service Corps was launched, with the members serving in a camp for accused witches in Ghana; the team consisted of Naduah Wheeler, Christian Hayden, Matan Gold, Rebecca Czekalski. The team continued in 2016, with Cleopatra Blacke and Wendy Webber taking over the administrative duties, a team consisting of Baako Alhassan, Lukeman Domba, George Gold, Warren Alan Tidwell, Jude Lane.

As of 2017, the Humanist serve Corps consists of Yvonne Nyahe serving as a Ghana Coordinator, Conor Robinson serving as HSC Director, a team consisting of Hannah Emily Austin, Sharon Racho, Hibbatullah Wumpini. Hemant Mehta List of secularist organizations American Humanist Association Minnesota Atheists Greta Christina Skepticon Secular Coalition for America Reason Rally Foundation Beyond Belief website

Mrs. A. F. Rossi House

The Mrs. A. F. Rossi House in Boise, Idaho, is a 1-story cottage in the Colonial Revival style with "proto-bungaloid" elements; the house was designed by Tourtellotte & Co. and constructed in 1906. Its prominent feature is an outset, left front center porch; the house was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Lola L. Lindsey and Alexander F. Rossi were married February 1903, in Boise. Alexander Rossi was associated with W. H. Ridenbaugh in logging and lumber enterprises until 1908, they owned the A. F. Rossi Company, a South Boise lumber mill. In 1905 sister and brother Adaline Bennett and Alex Rossi deeded property in South Boise to Lola Rossi, on the lot a six-room cottage was constructed in 1906 according to plans drawn by Tourtellotte & Co; the Rossis may have occupied the house until 1926, when they moved to Idaho City and became proprietors of the Luna House hotel, named for original owner M. G. Luney; the hotel was identical in name to the Luna House in Lewiston, an early stagecoach stop in Idaho Territory.

Media related to Mrs. A. F. Rossi House at Wikimedia Commons

The Silver Tree

The Silver Tree is a 2006 album by Lisa Gerrard. It was her first solo album release since The Mirror Pool; the album was released in digital format. A U. S. release by Rubber in 2007 contained an extra track, "Entry". The album was short-listed for the 2006 Australian Music Prize, it peaked at No. 4 on the Billboard New Age Albums chart. Steve Hochman of the Los Angeles Times described it as "hypnotic, atmospheric", while AllMusic critic Thom Jurek praised the album, saying, "Gerrard's fans will find this irresistible, despite its lack of drama, ambient music fans will no doubt appreciate its various textures and knit sonics. Yes, it is beautiful, spiritual, moving in places, but it is secretive and engaging on the aural level as a text as well. Certain CD versions contain "Entry" as a bonus track 14. All compositions by Lisa Gerrard except as noted. Composed and performed by Lisa Gerrard Engineered and produced by David Badrick and Lisa Gerrard "In Exile" and "Tower" orchestrations by Patrick Cassidy Mastered by Don Tyler Art direction and design by Clive Collier

Coity Higher

Coity Higher is a community in Bridgend County Borough, south Wales. It contains the north western suburbs of Bridgend which includes the villages of Coity; the southern boundary of the community adjoins the community of Brackla, while the northern border is defined by the M4 motorway. Notable buildings and landmarks within the community include Coity Castle, Parc Prison, the 14th century Church of St Mary, Pendre Hospital, Ty Mawr house and a burial chamber. At the 2001 census, the community's population was 835, being re-measured at 6,078 t the 2011 Census. There are six Scheduled Monuments in the Coity Higher Community:- Coity Burial Chamber A Chambered tomb, The ruins of a Neolithic chambered tomb, with four large stone slabs. Pant-y-Pyllau Enclosure A Prehistoric Earthwork.. A banked enclosure with external ditches. Parts have been destroyed by farm tracks. Coity Castle A property in the care of Cadw. A circular castle with 3-storey keep, it had fallen into ruin by the 18th century. Derwen Moated Site.

A medieval moat in the former parkland of Coity Castle, with no visible trace of habitation. Angleton Iron Works An Industrial monument. Built by Robert Sydney in 1589, it was the only pre-1700 ironworks in Glamorgan. Sandstone slabs are part buried by the railway embankment. Cefn Hirgoed Rabbit Warren, On the boundary with St Bride's Minor community, the three pillow mounds are from a medieval warren built to house rabbits, they are now near Sarn Park Services. Coity Higher was an electoral ward to Ogwr Borough Council from 1973 until 1996, electing two councillors. At the 1995 elections to the new Bridgend County Borough Council it elected two Labour councillors. Since 1999 the community has been divided into three wards, Coity and Pendre, which each elect one councillor. Map showing the community boundaries of Coity Higher

Scattering length

The scattering length in quantum mechanics describes low-energy scattering. For potentials that decay faster than 1 / r 3 as r → ∞, it is defined as the following low-energy limit: lim k → 0 k cot ⁡ δ = − 1 a, where a is the scattering length, k is the wave number, δ is the phase shift of the outgoing spherical wave; the elastic cross section, σ e, at low energies is determined by the scattering length: lim k → 0 σ e = 4 π a 2. When a slow particle scatters off a short ranged scatterer it cannot resolve the structure of the object since its de Broglie wavelength is long; the idea is that it should not be important what precise potential V one scatters off, but only how the potential looks at long length scales. The formal way to solve this problem is to do a partial wave expansion, where one expands in the angular momentum components of the outgoing wave. At low energy the incoming particle does not see any structure, therefore to lowest order one has only a spherical outgoing wave, called the s-wave in analogy with the atomic orbital at angular momentum quantum number l=0.

At higher energies one needs to consider p and d-wave scattering and so on. The idea of describing low energy properties in terms of a few parameters and symmetries is powerful, is behind the concept of renormalization; the concept of the scattering length can be extended to potentials that decay slower than 1 / r 3 as r → ∞. A famous example, relevant for proton-proton scattering, is the Coulomb-modified scattering length; as an example on how to compute the s-wave scattering length for a given potential we look at the infinitely repulsive spherical potential well of radius r 0 in 3 dimensions. The radial Schrödinger equation outside of the well is just the same as for a free particle: − ℏ 2 2 m u ″ = E u, where the hard core potential requires that the wave function u vanishes at r = r 0, u = 0; the solution is found: u = A sin ⁡. Here k = 2 m E / ℏ and δ s = − k ⋅ r 0 is the s-wave phase shift, fixed by the boundary condition u = 0. One can show; the parameter a s of dimension length is defined as the scattering length.

For our potential we have therefore a = r 0, in other words the scattering length for a hard sphere is just the radius. To relate the scattering length to physical observables that can be measured in a scattering experiment we need to compute the cross section σ. In scattering theory one writes the asymptotic wavefunction as: ψ = e i