Michel Kafando is a Burkinabé diplomat who served as the transitional President of Burkina Faso from 2014 to 2015. He served in the government as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1982 to 1983 and was the Permanent Representative of Burkina Faso to the United Nations from 1998 to 2011. Following the resignation of President Blaise Compaoré amidst mass protests on 31 October 2014, Kafando was chosen to serve as President during a year-long transitional period leading to the next election, he was sworn in on 18 November 2014. Kafando was ousted by the Regiment of Presidential Security in a September 2015 coup, but he was restored to power within a week. Michel Kafando was born on 18 August 1942 in Ouagadougou. From 1956 until 1963 he attended Jean-Baptiste de la Salle College, where he received both his secondary education and his bachelor's degree in sciences, he attained a bachelor's degree in public law from the University of Bordeaux in 1969, a diploma in political studies in 1972 in Paris and another diploma from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva in 1972.
He gained a PhD in political science at the Sorbonne in 1990. He has one child. Michel Kafando was the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Upper Volta from 1982 to 1983, becoming the only cabinet member to retain his portfolio after the November 1982 coup of Major Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo, he was a Vice-President of the United Nations General Assembly in 1982. He headed many delegations to the Organisation of African Unity and was Vice-President of the African Centre for Environmental Protection, he served as Upper Volta's Permanent Representative to the UN and as its Ambassador to Cuba before being appointed as Permanent Representative to the UN for a second time. Kafando was President of the United Nations Security Council in September 2008 and in December 2009. On 5 May 2017, Michel Kafando was appointed Special Envoy of the United Nations Secretary-General; as Special Envoy he will be involved in promoting peace in Burundi and political dialogue in the East African Community. Long-time President Blaise Compaore was forced to resign on 31 October 2014 due to unrest related to his moves to eliminate term limits so that he could run for President again.
The military under Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Zida took power, but it faced international pressure to hand over power to civilian authorities. On 17 November 2014, Kafando was appointed as transitional President of Burkina Faso by the designation council, he was sworn in on 18 November 2014, he appointed Zida as Prime Minister on 19 November. In the transitional government, appointed on 23 November, Kafando held the foreign affairs portfolio. On 19 July 2015, amidst tensions between the military and Prime Minister Zida, Kafando stripped Zida of the defense portfolio and took over the portfolio himself, he took over the security portfolio held by Zida's ally Auguste Denise Barry. As part of the same reshuffle, he appointed Moussa Nébié to replace himself as Minister of Foreign Affairs. On 16 September 2015, two days after a recommendation from the National Reconciliation and Reforms Commission to disband the Regiment of Presidential Security, members of the RSP detained President Kafando and Prime Minister Zida.
The military chief of staff, Brigadier General Pingrenoma Zagré, called on members of the RSP to lay down their arms, promising in a statement that they would not be harmed if they surrendered peacefully. Kafando was believed to remain under house arrest until 21 September, when he was reported to have arrived at the residence of the French ambassador; the regular army issued an ultimatum to the RSP to surrender by the morning of 22 September. Kafando was reinstalled as President at a ceremony on 23 September in the presence of ECOWAS leaders. In early May 2017 Kafando was appointed UN Envoy to Burundi. Biography Scienceblog biography Appearances on C-SPAN
Michel Albert Jean Joseph Ybarnégaray was a French Basque politician and founder of the International Federation of Basque Pelota. Jean Ybarnegaray was born in Uhart-Cize, Department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques called Basses Pyrénées, in the Northern Basque Country, he practised as a lawyer. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in April 1914. On the outbreak of the First World War, he was recalled to service, he was wounded and discharged from the army with the Légion d'honneur, returning to the Chamber of Deputies, where he criticised the Nivelle Offensive of 1917, the armistice of 1918 and the Treaty of Versailles. A member of the Republican Federation, Ybarnegaray joined the French Social Party of François de La Rocque in 1938, he served as Minister of State in Paul Reynaud's government from 10 May 1940. On arrival of refugees from the Basque and Catalan fronts in the Spanish Civil War, Ybarnegaray took a hostile stance against the exiles, labeling them as "reds" and turned a cold shoulder to Basque nationalism or any Basque political approach.
He served in the Vichy government, as Minister of State in the first government of Marshal Philippe Pétain and as Minister for Veterans and the Family in the second Pétain government. He resigned his office on 6 September 1940. Ybarnegaray had undertaken French Resistance activities, assisting escapees in crossing the Pyrenees, for which he was arrested in 1943, detained in Plansee in the state of Tyrol. Although he was sentenced after the war to losing civil rights, his Resistance activities resulted in the sentence being suspended, he died in Paris on 25 April 1956. Jolly, Jean. "Dictionnaire des Parlementaires français 1889-1940". Presses Universitaires de France. Retrieved 2007-08-22
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
Jacques Ellul was a French philosopher, lay theologian, professor, a noted Christian anarchist. Ellul was a longtime Professor of History and the Sociology of Institutions on the Faculty of Law and Economic Sciences at the University of Bordeaux. A prolific writer, he authored 58 books and more than a thousand articles over his lifetime, many of which discussed propaganda, the impact of technology on society, the interaction between religion and politics; the dominant theme of his work proved to be the threat to human freedom and religion created by modern technology. Among his most influential books are The Technological Society and Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes. Considered by many a philosopher, Ellul was by training a sociologist who approached the question of technology and human action from a dialectical viewpoint, his constant concern was the emergence of a technological tyranny over humanity. As a philosopher and theologian, he further explored the religiosity of the technological society.
In 2000 the International Jacques Ellul Society was founded by a group of former Ellul students. The society, which includes scholars from a variety of disciplines, is devoted to continuing Ellul's legacy and discussing the contemporary relevance and implications of his work. Jacques Ellul was born in France, on January 6, 1912, to Marthe Mendes and Joseph Ellul; as a teenager he wanted to be a naval officer but his father made him study law. He married Yvette Lensvelt in 1937. Ellul was educated at the universities of Paris. In World War II, he was a leader in the French resistance. For his efforts to save Jews he was awarded the title Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem in 2001, he was a layman in the Reformed Church of France and attained a high position within it as part of the National Council. Ellul was best friends with Bernard Charbonneau, a writer from the Aquitaine region and a protagonist of the French personalism movement, they met through the Protestant Student Federation during the academic school year of 1929–1930.
Both men acknowledged. By the early 1930s, Ellul's three primary sources of inspiration were Karl Marx, Søren Kierkegaard, Karl Barth. Ellul was first introduced to the ideas of Karl Marx during an economics lecture course taught by Joseph Benzacar in 1929–30. During this same period, he came across the Christian existentialism of Kierkegaard. According to Ellul and Kierkegaard were his two greatest influences, the only two authors whose work he read in its entirety, he considered Karl Barth, a leader of the resistance against the German state church in World War II, the greatest theologian of the 20th century. In addition to these intellectual influences, Ellul said that his father played a great role in his life and considered him his role model; these ideological influences earned him vicious enemies. In large measure, in those of his books concerned with theological matters, Ellul restates the viewpoints held by Barth, whose polar dialectic of the Word of God, in which the Gospel both judges and renews the world, shaped Ellul's theological perspective.
In Jacques Ellul: A Systemic Exposition Darrell J. Fasching claimed Ellul believed "That which desacralizes a given reality, itself in turn becomes the new sacred reality". In 1932, after what he describes as "a brutal and sudden conversion", Ellul professed himself a Christian. Ellul believes he was about spending the summer with some friends in Blanquefort, France. While translating Faust alone in the house, Ellul knew he was in the presence of a something so astounding, so overwhelming, which entered the center of his being, he jumped on a bike and fled, concluding that he had been in the presence of God. This experience started the conversion process which Ellul said continued over a period of years thereafter, he was prominent in the worldwide ecumenical movement, although he became critical of the movement for what he felt were indiscriminate endorsements of political establishments of the Left. However, he was no friendlier in his assessment of those of the Right. Ellul has been credited with coining the phrase, "Think globally, act locally."
He said that he was born in Bordeaux by chance, but that it was by choice that he spent all his academic career there. On 19 May 1994, after a long illness, he died in his house in Pessac, just a mile or two from the University of Bordeaux campus and surrounded by those closest to him, his wife had died a few years prior, on 16 April 1991. While Ellul is most noted for his sociological work his discussions of technology, he saw his theological work as an essential aspect of his career, began publishing theological discussions early, with such books as The Presence of the Kingdom. Although a son of the minority French Reformed tradition and thus a spiritual heir of thinkers like John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli, Ellul departed from Reformed doctrinal traditions, but unlike other European Protestant thinkers, utterly rejected the influence of philosophical idealism or romanticism upon his beliefs about God and human faith. In articulating his theological ideas, he drew upon the corpus of works by the Swiss-German theologian Karl
Olivier Falorni is a French politician. He was elected to the French National Assembly on 17 June 2012, representing the department of Charente-Maritime. French legislative election, 2017
Blessed Pey Berland was the Archbishop of Bordeaux from 1430 until his abdication, during a pivotal time in the history of the city and of Gascony. During his tenure, the city of Bordeaux remained staunchly faithful to the King of England in the last phase of the Hundred Years' War, but the French took the city in 1451. Berland was born in the hamlet of Saint-Raphael in the parish of Avensan in central Medoc. Though a peasant, he was educated early on by a retired local notary before moving to Bordeaux to continue his studies and enter the Church, he enrolled in the University of Toulouse and received a bachelor's certificate in canon law. He was ordained at that point, though still young by the standards of the time, when most boys who entered the church put off priesthood until it was required by their office, he caught the attention of Francesco Uguccione, the old Archbishop of Bordeaux, who drafted him to serve as his personal secretary. As a secretary of an influential diplomat and cardinal, Berland travelled extensively in the early 15th century.
In Autumn 1408 he accompanied Uguccione to England, where the cardinal sought to persuade the English to send a delegation to the Council of Pisa - struggling to put an end to the Western Schism. From England and Uguccione went to Italy, in 1410 the archbishop rewarded Berland with one of the canonries of the Cathedral of Saint-André, which included Bouliac opposite Bordeaux on the Garonne and the associate parishes of Quinsac and Lormont. In 1412 the two were in Florence. Berland supervised his burial and went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, before returning once more to Bordeaux. In 1413 Berland was rewarded post mortem by his old master when Pope John XXIII, fulfilling a request by Uguccione that "his beloved servant" Berland not be forgotten, granted the canon a prebend, he subsequently rose in the ecclesiastical ranks of Gascony and, in 1423, he was appointed by the regents of the young Henry VI to the Court of Sovereignty, a sort of appellate court, of Gascony, which sat in Bordeaux.
In 1430 the archbishop David de Montferrand died and the cathedral chapter elected Berland to replace him, which election was unhesitatingly confirmed by Pope Martin V. As archbishop, Berland pursued several building projects, he had a new hospital constructed, dedicated to Saint Peter near Saint-Seurin. The bell tower built at Saint-André in 1440 is still called the Tour Pey Berland today, after its founder. Berland was a patron of the education in his city. In 1441, after years of urging in the Papal curia, Bordeaux was granted its own studium generale, a precursor to the University of Bordeaux. In 1442 he founded a college in his birth town of Saint-Raphael; this college was a prototype of the diocesan seminary and in Berland's day it trained twelve young men for the priesthood. Berland bequeathed all his books to the college and he created a fund to help purchase books for poor students at other institutions. Politically, Berland was resistant to French efforts to control Bordeaux and he supported English sovereignty.
While the French kings claimed ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Bordeaux by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, Berland rejected it. During the period from 1434 to 1451 his leadership was essential, as the mayor of the time, Gadifer Shorthose, was weak-willed and short-sighted. During that time Berland did not deem it wise to leave his diocese. On 16 July 1442 Robert Roos and Thomas Bekynton, Bishop of Bath and Wells, arrived in Bordeaux as ambassadors of the English king; the next day they took letters from Henry VI promising aid, once they had had them translated, to Berland, who read them from the pulpit the next day. The citizens were stirred to action to help defend their city. Berland travelled to England on 26 July with letters from the ambassadors, he sent his physician back to Bordeaux in October, but he himself remained in England for the twofold purpose of assuring the king of the loyalty of his Gascon subjects and of keeping the plight of the Bordelais on his mind. On 1 November 1450, a day remembered as La Male Journade in Bordelais history, the citizens of Bordeaux, along with English men-at-arms and Gascon knights, sallied forth to defend the city from the encroaching armies of Amanieu of Orval, Poton de Xaintrailles, Jean Bureau.
The Gascon defenders were routed and many citizens lost heir lives. Berland is said to have retreated into his chamber for two days to pray after seeing the mass of bodies being returned to the city. Bordeaux was forced to come to terms. On 12 June 1451, the Estates of Bordeaux, represented by Pey Berland, signed a treaty with the French, represented by Xaintrailles. On 30 June, at a ceremony held in the cathedral, Pey Berland and the leading men of Bordeaux swore oaths of fealty to Charles VII of France and so the French, led by Dunois, in return recognised the privileges of Bordeaux, it is that the French pressured Berland to renounce his bishopric in order that they could fill it with a more amenable Frenchman. On 7 December 1451, he made a public protest at the acts of the commission of the French seneschal of Guyenne, he ordered the commissary, Georges de Bassac, not to hold any further audiences under pain of excommunication or worse, a fine. On 7 July 1452, Berland took an oath at the altar of his church that he would never abandon or renounce his archbishopric and wished to die an archbishop.
He refrained from any anti-French activities for the du
Charles-Joseph Marie Pitard
Charles-Joseph Marie Pitard, name sometimes given as Charles-Joseph Marie Pitard-Briau was a French pharmacist and botanist. In 1899 he obtained his doctorate in natural sciences at the University of Bordeaux serving as a professor at the school of medicine in Tours, he conducted botanical and exploratory investigations in the Canary Islands and Morocco. Many of his plant collections were sent to herbaria in Paris, he was the taxonomic authority of numerous botanical taxa. The genus Pitardia is named in his honor, as are plants with the specific epithets of pitardii and pitardiana. Les Iles Canaries. Flore de l'Archipel – The Canary Islands, flora of the archipelago. Contribution à l'étude de la Flore du Maroc – Contribution to the study of Moroccan flora. Pitard made significant contributions to the "Flore générale de L'Indo-Chine"