Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. is an American politician who served as the 34th and 39th Governor of California from 1975 to 1983 and from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, Brown served as California Attorney General from 2007 to 2011, he was both the oldest and sixth-youngest Governor of California as a consequence of the 28-year gap between his second and third terms. Jerry Brown was born in San Francisco as the son of Bernice Layne Brown and Pat Brown, who served as the 32nd Governor of California. After graduating from the University of California and Yale University, he began his political career as a member of the Los Angeles Community College District Board of Trustees, he was elected to serve as the 23rd Secretary of State of California from 1971 to 1975. At 36, Brown was elected to his first term as Governor of California in 1974, making him the youngest California Governor in 111 years. In 1978, he won his second term. During and following his first governorship, Brown ran as a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1976, 1980 and 1992.
He declined to pursue a third term in 1982, instead making an unsuccessful run for the United States Senate that same year. After traveling abroad, he returned to California and served as Chairman of the California Democratic Party, attempting to run for the Senate once more in 1992. After six years out of politics, Brown returned to public life, serving as Mayor of Oakland as Attorney General of California, he ran for his third and fourth terms as California Governor in 2010 and 2014, his eligibility to do so having stemmed from California's constitutional grandfather clause. On October 7, 2013, he became the longest-serving chief executive in the history of California, surpassing Earl Warren. Brown was born in San Francisco, the only son of four children born to District Attorney of San Francisco and Governor of California, Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. and his wife, Bernice Layne. Brown's father was of half half German descent, his great-grandfather August Schuckman, a German immigrant, settled in California in 1852 during the California Gold Rush.
Brown was a member of the California Cadet Corps at St. Ignatius High School, where he graduated in 1955. In 1955, Brown entered Santa Clara University for a year and left to attend Sacred Heart Novitiate, a Jesuit novice house in Los Gatos, intent on becoming a Catholic priest. Brown resided at the novitiate from August 1956 to January 1960 before enrolling at the University of California, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Classics in 1961. With his tuition paid for by the Louis Lurie Foundation, including a $675 scholarship in 1963, Brown went on to Yale Law School and graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1964. After law school, Brown worked as a law clerk for California Supreme Court Justice Mathew Tobriner. Returning to California, Brown passed on his second attempt, he settled in Los Angeles and joined the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor. In 1969, Brown ran for the newly created Los Angeles Community College Board of Trustees, which oversaw community colleges in the city, placed first in a field of 124.
In 1970, Brown was elected California Secretary of State. Brown argued before the California Supreme Court and won cases against Standard Oil of California, International Telephone and Telegraph, Gulf Oil, Mobil for election law violations. In addition, he forced legislators to comply with campaign disclosure laws. Brown drafted and helped to pass the California Political Reform Act of 1974, Proposition 9, passed by 70% of California's voters in June 1974. Among other provisions, it established the California Fair Political Practices Commission. In 1974, Brown ran in a contested Democratic primary for Governor of California against Speaker of the California Assembly Bob Moretti, San Francisco Mayor Joseph L. Alioto, Representative Jerome R. Waldie, others. Brown won the primary with the name recognition of his father, Pat Brown, whom many people admired for his progressive administration. In the General Election on November 5, 1974, Brown was elected Governor of California over California State Controller Houston I.
Flournoy. Brown succeeded Republican Governor Ronald Reagan. After taking office, Brown gained a reputation as a fiscal conservative; the American Conservative noted he was "much more of a fiscal conservative than Governor Reagan". His fiscal restraint resulted in one of the biggest budget surpluses in state history $5 billion. For his personal life, Brown refused many of the privileges and perks of the office, forgoing the newly constructed 20,000 square-foot governor's residence in the suburb of Carmichael and instead renting a $250-per-month apartment at the corner of 14th and N Streets, adjacent to Capitol Park in downtown Sacramento. Rather than riding as a passenger in a chauffeured limousine as previous governors had done, Brown walked to work and drove in a Plymouth Satellite sedan; as governor, Brown held a strong interest in environmental issues. He appointed J. Baldwin to work in the newly created California Office of Appropriate Technology, Sim Van der Ryn as State Architect, Stewart Brand as Special Advisor, John Bryson as chairman of the California State Water Board.
Brown reorganized the California Arts Council, boosting its funding by 1300 percent and appointing artists to the council, appointed more women and minorities to office than any other previous California governor. In 1977, he sponsored the "first-ever tax incentiv
University of California, Irvine School of Medicine
The University of California, Irvine School of Medicine is an LCME accredited medical school, co-located in Orange County's cities of Irvine on the University of California, Irvine campus and Orange at the UC Irvine Medical Center. Of the medical schools evaluated for its 2013 edition, U. S News & World Report ranked the school 43rd in 61st in Primary Care; the school was founded in 1896 by A. C. Moore and is the oldest continually operating medical school in the greater Los Angeles area. Although the School of Medicine joined UC Irvine in 1967, its history goes back more than 100 years. In 1896, the Pacific College of Osteopathy was founded in the city of Anaheim. Upon moving to Los Angeles in 1904, through a merger with the Los Angeles College of Osteopathy, the California College of Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons was created in 1914 and would exist as such until 1961. In that year, as the California Osteopathic Association merged with the California Medical Association, the college was converted into an MD-granting medical school and was renamed the California College of Medicine.
Over the next three years, its administrators worked with the University of California to have it become the third UC medical school, joining those on the San Francisco and Los Angeles campuses. This was accomplished on October 1, 1965, when the California College of Medicine passed into the full control of the UC Regents and became part of the University of California. Four days UC President Clark Kerr received a CCM faculty resolution requesting that the Regents designate UC Irvine as the campus on which the College of Medicine be developed. On April 20, 1967, the UC Regents approved moving the California College of Medicine to the Irvine campus, creating the UC Irvine College of Medicine. Following that, on July 23, 1968, the Orange County Board of Supervisors approved an affiliation between the Orange County Medical Center and the UC Irvine College of Medicine, giving the medical school a teaching hospital; the UC Irvine College of Medicine moved onto the UC Irvine campus in 1968, on Aug. 29, a first-year class of 94 students began coursework in the Med Surge I and II buildings.
Six years on October 3, 1974, the UC Regents purchased the Orange County Medical Center for $5.5 million. The facility was renamed the UC Irvine Medical Center; the School of Medicine consists of 19 clinical and 6 basic science departments and has several graduate degree-granting programs. These include PhD programs in epidemiology, the interdisciplinary PhD program in cellular & molecular biosciences the Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program and toxicology, MS programs in environmental toxicology and genetic counseling. In 2010, UC Irvine opened its $40.5 million, 65,000-square-foot on-campus medical education building that provides a simulation training center along with clinical laboratories and telemedicine stations. The UC Irvine School of Medicine was the first medical school in the country to adopt a tablet-based curriculum. Irwin Rose, Nobel Laureate, known for Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, nephrology and epidemiology Frank L. Meyskens, Jr. oncology
Villa Park, California
Villa Park is a city in Orange County, United States. It was incorporated in 1962; as of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 5,812, the lowest population for a city in Orange County. The city is zoned for single-family residences on lots that average about 20,000 square feet, or 1/2 acre, in size. Within the city limits there is one small shopping center. City Hall, including a community room, a branch of the Orange County Public Libraries system is adjacent to the city's only shopping center. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Father Junipero Serra named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the areas first permanent European settlement in Alta California, New Spain. In 1810, the Spanish Empire granted 62,500 acres to Jose Antonio Yorba, which he named Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Yorba's rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa and Newport Beach stand today.
After the Mexican-American war in 1848, Alta California became part of the United States in 1850 and American settlers arrived in this area. Villa Park was known as "Mountain View" in the 1860s; the U. S. Post Office refused to allow the local post office to be so named as there was a post office with that name in Mountain View), so the post office and hence the area came to be called Villa Park, it was an agricultural area producing, in turn, grapes and apricots. Citrus became the major crop for about 60 years. Ranchers established the Serrano Water District, which still provides Villa Park's water, founded the Villa Park Orchards Association. Villa Park is located at 33°48′58″N 117°48′40″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.1 square miles, all land. There are no public parks within city limits. Unlike more urban areas of Orange County west of the city, Villa Park has winding streets with few sidewalks and limited street lights. Throughout are trees and flower beds in planted parkways.
Surrounded by the city of Orange, Villa Park has the appearance of an enclave: the city's early unwillingness to annex lands beyond Santiago Creek and those east of a power line easement between the city and Anaheim Hills. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,999 people, 1,950 households, 1,764 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,844.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,008 housing units at an average density of 952.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.40% White, 0.80% African American, 0.43% Native American, 12.92% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, 2.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.90% of the population. There were 1,950 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 82.1% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.5% were non-families. 7.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.22. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 32.9% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $116,203, the median income for a family was $124,852. Males had a median income of $78,563 versus $46,667 for females; the 2010 United States Census reported that Villa Park had a population of 5,812. The population density was 2,796.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Villa Park was 4,550 White, 42 African American, 34 Native American, 854 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 162 from other races, 169 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 598 persons; the census reported that 5,767 people lived in households, 40 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 5 were institutionalized.
There were 1,976 households, out of which 625 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,525 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 123 had a female householder with no husband present, 80 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 36 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 208 households were made up of individuals and 144 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92. There were 1,728 families; the population was spread out with 1,164 people under the age of 18, 458 people aged 18 to 24, 845 people aged 25 to 44, 1,934 people aged 45 to 64, 1,411 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males. There were 2,016 housing units at an average density of 970.1 per square mile, of which 1,886 were owner-occupied, 90 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.5%.
5,486 people (94.4% of the popul
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
Me Too movement
The Me Too movement, with a large variety of local and international alternative names, is a movement against sexual harassment and sexual assault. The movement began to spread virally in October 2017 as a hashtag on social media in an attempt to demonstrate the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment in the workplace, it followed sexual-abuse allegations against Harvey Weinstein. Tarana Burke, an American social activist and community organizer, began using the phrase "Me Too" as early as 2006, the phrase was popularized by American actress Alyssa Milano, on Twitter in 2017. Milano encouraged victims of sexual harassment to tweet about it and "give people a sense of the magnitude of the problem". A number of high-profile posts and responses from American celebrities Gwyneth Paltrow, Ashley Judd, Jennifer Lawrence, Uma Thurman, among others, soon followed. Tarana Burke, a social activist and community organizer, began using the phrase "Me Too" in 2006, on the Myspace social network as part of a campaign to promote "empowerment through empathy" among women of color who have experienced sexual abuse within underprivileged communities.
Burke, creating a documentary titled Me Too, has said she was inspired to use the phrase after being unable to respond to a 13-year-old girl who confided to her that she had been sexually assaulted. Burke said she wished she had told the girl, "Me too". Following widespread exposure of accusations of predatory behavior by Harvey Weinstein, her own blog post on the subject, on October 15, 2017, actress Alyssa Milano encouraged spreading the hashtag #MeToo, to attempt to draw attention to sexual assault and harassment. Milano acknowledged earlier use of the phrase by Burke. Milano credits her identification with the Me Too movement to being affected by sexual harassment during a concert when she was 19. Several hashtags related to sharing stories of workplace sexual harassment were in use before #MeToo, including #MyHarveyWeinstein, #YouOkSis, #WhatWereYouWearing and #SurvivorPrivilege; the phrase "Me too" was tweeted by Milano around noon on October 15, 2017, had been used more than 200,000 times by the end of the day, tweeted more than 500,000 times by October 16.
On Facebook, the hashtag was used by more than 4.7 million people in 12 million posts during the first 24 hours. The platform reported that 45% of users in the United States had a friend who had posted using the term. Tens of thousands of people, including hundreds of celebrities, replied with #MeToo stories; some men, such as actors Terry Crews and James Van Der Beek, have responded to the hashtag with their own experiences of harassment and abuse, while others have responded by acknowledging past behaviors against women, spawning the hashtag #HowIWillChange. In addition to Hollywood, "Me Too" declarations elicited discussion of sexual harassment and abuse in the music industry, sciences and politics. Feminist author Gloria Feldt stated in Time that many employers are being forced to make changes in response to #MeToo, for example examining gender-based pay differences and improving sexual harassment policies. Others have noted there has been pressure on companies in the financial industry, to disclose diversity statistics.
In January 2019, actress Emma Thompson pulled out of the production "Luck" based on the production company's decision to hire John Lasseter. Thompson wrote a letter in February 2019 to the American production company Skydance, to explain her reasons for leaving "Luck". Among others, Thompson stated: "If a man has been touching women inappropriately for decades, why would a woman want to work for him if the only reason he’s not touching them inappropriately now is that it says in his contract that he must behave “professionally”?. In November 2017, the hashtag #ChurchToo was started by Emily Joy and Hannah Paasch on Twitter and began trending in response to #MeToo as a way to try to highlight and stop sexual abuse that happens in a church. In early January 2018, about a hundred evangelical women launched #SilenceIsNotSpiritual to call for changes to how sexual misconduct is dealt within the church. #ChurchToo started spreading again virally in January 2018 in response to a live-streamed video admission by Pastor Andy Savage to his church that he sexually assaulted a 17-year-old girl twenty years before as a youth pastor while driving her home, but received applause by his church for admitting to the incident and asking for forgiveness.
Pastor Andy Savage resigned from his staff position at Highpoint Church and stepped away from ministry. Many have argued that one of the biggest crises in the history of the Catholic Church is the current child sexual abuse, being reported, according to Tom Inglis in his book Are the Irish Different?. The University of California has been no stranger to sexual harassment, with substantial accusations reported yearly in the hundreds at all nine UC campuses, notably UC Berkeley, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Diego. However, a landmark event at the University of California, Irvine spearheaded the removal and reprimand of several campus officials and professors accused of sexual harassment and discrimination. In early July 2018, UC Irvine removed millionaire benefactor Francisco J. Ayala's name from its biology school, central science library, graduate fellowships, scholar programs, endowed chairs after an internal investigation substantiated a number of sexual harassment claims; the results from the investigation were compiled in a 97-page report, which included testimony from victims enduring Ayala's harassment for 15 years.
His removal promptly sparked the removal of Professor Ron Carlson in August 2018, who had led the creative writing program at UC Irvine. He resigne
University of California, San Diego
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States. The university occupies 2,141 acres near the coast of the Pacific Ocean, with the main campus resting on 1,152 acres. Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh-oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling 30,000 undergraduate and 8,500 graduate students. UC San Diego is organized into six undergraduate residential colleges, five academic divisions, five graduate and professional schools. A proposed School of Public Health is in the planning stages. UC San Diego Health, the region's only academic health system, provides patient care, conducts medical research and educates future health care professionals at the UC San Diego Medical Center and Jacobs Medical Center; the university operates 19 organized research units, including the Center for Energy Research, Qualcomm Institute, San Diego Supercomputer Center and the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, as well as eight School of Medicine research units, six research centers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and two multi-campus initiatives, including the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation.
UC San Diego is closely affiliated with several regional research centers, such as the Salk Institute, the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine and the Scripps Research Institute. According to the National Science Foundation, UC San Diego spent $1.133 billion on research and development in fiscal year 2017, ranking it 7th in the nation. As of August 2018, UC San Diego faculty and alumni have won 27 Nobel Prizes and 3 Fields Medals, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, two Pulitzer Prizes. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 70 to the National Academy of Sciences, 45 to the Institute of Medicine and 110 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; when the Regents of the University of California authorized the San Diego campus in 1956, it was planned to be a graduate and research institution, providing instruction in the sciences and engineering.
Local citizens supported the idea, voting the same year to transfer to the university 59 acres of mesa land on the coast near the preexisting Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The Regents requested an additional gift of 550 acres of undeveloped mesa land northeast of Scripps, as well as 500 acres on the former site of Camp Matthews from the federal government, but Roger Revelle director of Scripps Institution and main advocate for establishing the new campus, jeopardized the site selection by exposing the La Jolla community's exclusive real estate business practices, which were antagonistic to minority racial and religious groups; this outraged local conservatives, as well as Regent Edwin W. Pauley. UC President Clark Kerr satisfied San Diego city donors by changing the proposed name from University of California, La Jolla, to University of California, San Diego; the city voted in agreement to its part in 1958, the UC approved construction of the new campus in 1960. Because of the clash with Pauley, Revelle was not made chancellor.
Herbert York, first director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was designated instead. York planned the main campus according to the "Oxbridge" model. UC San Diego was the first general campus of the University of California to be designed "from the top down" in terms of research emphasis. Local leaders disagreed on whether the new school should be a technical research institute or a more broadly based school that included undergraduates as well. John Jay Hopkins of General Dynamics Corporation pledged one million dollars for the former while the City Council offered free land for the latter; the original authorization for the San Diego campus given by the UC Regents in 1956 approved a "graduate program in science and technology" that included undergraduate programs, a compromise that won both the support of General Dynamics and the city voters' approval. Nobel laureate Harold Urey, a physicist from the University of Chicago, Hans Suess, who had published the first paper on the greenhouse effect with Revelle in the previous year, were early recruits to the faculty in 1958.
Maria Goeppert-Mayer the second female Nobel laureate in physics, was appointed professor of physics in 1960. The graduate division of the school opened in 1960 with 20 faculty in residence, with instruction offered in the fields of physics, biology and earth science. Before the main campus completed construction, classes were held in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. By 1963, new facilities on the mesa had been finished for the School of Science and Engineering, new buildings were under construction for Social Sciences and Humanities. Ten additional faculty in those disciplines were hired, the whole site was designated the First College renamed after Roger Revelle, of the new campus. York resigned as chancellor that year a
A trauma center is a hospital equipped and staffed to provide care for patients suffering from major traumatic injuries such as falls, motor vehicle collisions, or gunshot wounds. A trauma center may refer to an emergency department without the presence of specialized services to care for victims of major trauma. In the United States of America, a hospital can receive trauma center status by meeting specific criteria established by the American College of Surgeons and passing a site review by the Verification Review Committee. Official designation as a trauma center is determined by individual state law provisions. Trauma centers vary in their specific capabilities and are identified by "Level" designation: Level-I being the highest, to Level-III being the lowest; the highest levels of trauma centers have access to specialist medical and nursing care including emergency medicine, trauma surgery, critical care, orthopedic surgery and radiology, as well as sophisticated surgical and diagnostic equipment.
Lower levels of trauma centers may only be able to provide initial care and stabilization of a traumatic injury and arrange for transfer of the victim to a higher level of trauma care. The operation of a trauma center is expensive; some areas—especially rural regions—are under-served by trauma centers because of this expense. As there is no way to schedule the need for emergency services, patient traffic at trauma centers can vary widely. A variety of methods have been developed for dealing with this. A trauma center will have a helipad for receiving patients that have been airlifted to the hospital. In many cases, persons injured in remote areas and transported to a distant trauma center by helicopter can receive faster and better medical care than if they had been transported by ground ambulance to a closer hospital that does not have a designated trauma center; the trauma level certification can directly affect the patient's outcome and determine if the patient needs to be transferred to a higher level trauma center.
Trauma centres grew into existence out of the realisation that traumatic injury is a disease process unto itself requiring specialised and experienced multidisciplinary treatment and specialised resources. The world's first trauma centre, the first hospital to be established to treat injured rather than ill patients, was the Birmingham Accident Hospital, which opened in Birmingham, England in 1941, after a series of studies found that the treatment of injured persons within England was inadequate. By 1947, the hospital had three trauma teams, each including two surgeons and an anaesthetist, a burns team with three surgeons; the hospital became part of the National Health Service on its formation in July 1948 and closed in 1993. The NHS now has 27 major trauma centres established across England, 2 in Scotland, one planned in Wales. According to the CDC, injuries are the leading cause of death for American children and adults ages 1–44; the leading causes of trauma are motor vehicle collisions and assaults with a deadly weapon.
In the United States of America, Drs. Robert J. Baker and Robert J. Freeark established the first civilian Shock Trauma Unit at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, IL on March 16, 1966; the concept of a shock trauma center was developed at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, in the 1950s and 1960s by thoracic surgeon and shock researcher R Adams Cowley, who founded what became the Shock Trauma Center in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 1, 1966. The R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center is one of the first shock trauma centers in the world. Cook County Hospital in Chicago trauma center. Dr. David R. Boyd interned at Cook County Hospital from 1963 to 1964 before being drafted into the Army of the United States of America. Upon his release from the Army, Dr. Boyd became the first shock-trauma fellow at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, from 1967 to 1968. Boyd returned to Cook County Hospital, where he would serve as resident director of the Cook County Trauma Unit. According to the founder of the Trauma Unit at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Dr. Marvin Tile, "the nature of injuries at Sunnybrook has changed over the years.
When the trauma center first opened in 1976, about 98 percent of patients suffered from blunt-force trauma caused by accidents and falls. Now, as many as 20 percent of patients arrive with gunshot and knife wounds". Fraser Health Authority in British Columbia, located at Royal Columbian Hospital and Abbotsford Regional Hospital, services the BC area, "Each year, Fraser Health treats 130,000 trauma patients as part of the integrated B. C. trauma system" In the United States of America, trauma centers are ranked by the American College of Surgeons, from Level I to Level III. The different levels refer to the types of resources available in a trauma center and the number of patients admitted yearly; these are categories. Level I and Level II designations are given adult and or pediatric designations. Additionally, some states have their own trauma-center rankings separate from the ACS; these levels may range from Level I to Level IV. Some hospitals are less-formally designated Level V; the ACS does not designate hospitals as trauma centers.
Numerous US hospitals that are not verified by ACS claim trauma center designation. Most states have legislation which determines the process for designation of trauma centers within that state; the ACS describes this responsibility as "a geopoliti