click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

University of Giessen

University of Giessen, official name Justus Liebig University Giessen, is a large public research university in Giessen, Germany. It is named after its most famous faculty member, Justus von Liebig, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertiliser, it covers the areas of arts/humanities, dentistry, law, science, social sciences, veterinary medicine. Its university hospital, which has two sites and Marburg, is the only private university hospital in Germany; the University of Giessen is among the oldest institutions of higher educations in the German-speaking world. It was founded in 1607 as a Lutheran university in the city of Giessen in Hesse-Darmstadt because the all-Hessian Landesuniversität had become Reformed. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, whence the university got its original name "Ludoviciana," founded his own institution of higher education in Giessen, which as a Lutheran institution had the primary function of ensuring the education of pastors and civil servants.

Endowed with a charter issued by Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, on 19 May 1607, the university was allowed to proceed with instruction in October 1607. During the Thirty Years' War, when Hesse-Darmstadt was able to take the area around Marburg for itself, the University of Giessen ceased instruction and was moved back to its more long-standing location in Marburg; the Peace of Westphalia led to the restoration of the old location and in 1650 to the relocation of the university to Giessen. In the 17th and 18th centuries the Ludoviciana was a typical small state university that had the four common faculties; the instruction was reasonable, with about 20 to 25 professors teaching several hundred students, the latter of which were "Landeskinder." In the 18th century came gradual modernization of the curricula and reforms in the instruction, which were definitively influenced by the local lordly court in Darmstadt. The example for the reforms were both of the "model universities of the Enlightenment," the University of Halle, founded in 1694, more still Georgia Augusta, founded in Göttingen in 1734/37.

Indeed, all attempts at reform were from the start limited by the limited finances of Hesse-Darmstadt. The noteworthy creation of a Faculty of Economics was was born out of this financial hardship. In the Faculty of Economics, new practical subjects were brought together, which the university was supposed to make "expedient" and "profitable." After finishing studies in this Faculty, a number of these youths were able to gain recognition in the Faculties of Medicine and Philosophy. They established the unusually diverse course offerings that continue to exist to the modern day at the University of Giessen; the University of Giessen weathered the transition from the 18th to the 19th century unscathed and was still the only university of an enlarged territory, the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Alongside Jena, Giessen was the prototype for the politicized Vormärz university, the "Giessener Schwarzen" with Karl Follen and Georg Büchner, marked the revolutionary spirit of this decade. With the appointment of the 21-year-old Justus von Liebig in 1824 through the Grand Duchy — against the will of the university on the recommendation of Alexander von Humboldt — a new era in the natural sciences began, not only in Giessen.

Young, promising scientists created a new impulse in their respective areas of knowledge. At the turn of the 20th century, the Ludoviciana began to expand into a modern university. During this period, new clinics in human and veterinary medicine were established, the university library received its first proper building. With the creation of the university's central building and the adjacent newly constructed facilities for chemistry and physics a new cultural centre was established on what was the border of the city; the decisive backer of this project was the last Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig, to whom the university bestowed out of thankfulness the honorary title of "Rector Magnificentissimus." In 1902 the student body surpassed one thousand. For the first time included in the student body were women, who since 1900 were admitted as guest students and starting in 1908 were admitted for regular study. After the different Hessian states were united in 1929, both universities became public universities of that German state.

The University of Giessen now has 23,000 students and 8,500 employees, which together with the Giessen students of Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, makes Giessen the most student-dominated German city. In December 2019 the University shut down all of its IT-servers after a "serious IT security incident". Hess State Prosecution Office investigated the case of a suspected hacker-attack. Following is the growth in the student population of University of Giessen In the 2014/2015 winter semester the student population exceeded the mark of more than a total of 28,000 students and 7,000 first-semester students for the first time. Faculty 01 - Law Faculty 02 - Economics and Business Studies Faculty 03 - Social Sciences and Cultural Studies Faculty 04 - History and Cultural Studies Faculty 05 - Language, Culture Faculty 06 - Psychology and Sports

Bianca Milesi

Bianca Milesi Mojon was an Italian patriot and painter. Bianca Milesi was born into a family of wealthy merchants in Milan, daughter of Giovan Battista Milesi and Elena Viscontini, she had four sisters, Francesca, Louise, a brother, who would join in marriage with his cousin Elena Viscontini, sister of Matilda. She was brought up from six to ten years in a convent in Florence, in Milan in the monasteries of St. Sophia and the Holy Spirit, with a governess. A journey made together with her mother in Tuscany and Switzerland gave her the opportunity to broaden her horizons and study the philosophy of the Enlightenment. After returning to Milan, she continued to travel, periodically visiting Florence and Rome. In Florence he met the Countess of Albany Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, the mistress of Vittorio Alfieri. In Rome she came into relationship with the German painter Sophie Reinhard, she had a leading role in the Carbonari uprisings in Milan in 1821. She went on to become a drawer and painter, taught at schools training girls to become interested in the arts.

She died in Paris on June 8, 1849. Souvestre Émile Blanche Milesi-Mojon. Biographical Angers and Lachèse 1854 Carlo Cattaneo, Bianca Milesi Mojon, in published and unpublished works: literary works, Florence, Le Monnier, 1925, p. 474-492 Maria Teresa Mori, Salotti. 2003. The Sociability of the Elite in Italy in the Nineteenth Century. Rome, Carocci Arianna Arisi Rota, Bianca, in Biographical Dictionary of Italian, vol. 74, Italian Encyclopedia Institute, 2010 Boneschi, Marta. 2010. La donna segreta: storia di Metilde Viscontini Dembowski. Venezia: Marsilio. ISBN 978-88-317-0730-5

Love in Thoughts

Love in Thoughts is a German film directed by Achim von Borries. It was released in Germany on 24 November 2004; the main characters are played by Daniel Brühl, Anna Maria Mühe and Jana Pallaske. The movie takes place in late 1920s Berlin, it opens with Paul being questioned by police about a note he had written. The scene fades out, the movie shows what happened. Paul, a shy virgin poet, tired of being alone and heartbroken, is friends with an gay aristocrat boy, suffering unrequited love for Hans. Paul is staying at Guenther's parents' country home over the weekend; the parents are absent. Guenther's sister Hilde, who stole Hans' heart besides, is loved by Paul, for whom Guenther has budding feelings, which complicates the brother-sister relationship. Hilde has no interest in committing to a relationship with Paul, however. Guenther invites some people over to have an all-night party, filled with alcohol and sex, it is one of their last parties, since Guenther have made a suicide pact. Guenther, Paul and Hilde go through a series of couplings and partying before proceeding to Hilde and Guenther's parents' apartment in the city.

There the drama ends with gunshots. The question is what happened; the film is based on the so-called Steglitz student tragedy. Won2005: German Film Critics Association Awards - for Best Actor: August Diehl 2004: Copenhagen International Film Festival - Golden Swan for Best actress: Anna Maria Mühe 2004: European Film Awards - Audience Award for Best Actor: Daniel Brühl 2004: New Faces Awards, Germany - for Best Director: Achim von Borries 2004: Undine Awards, Austria - for Best Young Actor - Film: August Diehl 2004: Verona Love Screens Film Festival - for Best Film: Love in ThoughtsNominated2005: German Camera Award - for Feature Film: Jutta Pohlmann 2004: Brussels European Film Festival - Golden Iris: Love in Thoughts Love in Thoughts on IMDb Official website Love in Thoughts: Film review at Filmcritic.com

Karla (character)

Karla is a recurring character in the works of John le Carré. A Soviet Intelligence officer, he is the head of Moscow Centre, le Carré's fictional version of the KGB, the nemesis of le Carré's frequent protagonist George Smiley. Karla is nominally an unseen character who operates either through functionaries, hitmen, or by turning his enemies into double agents. Although other characters recount their past meetings with him, he only appears once during the events of the books, his real name is never revealed. Karla is the central antagonist in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, The Honourable Schoolboy, Smiley's People, three novels which were published as a single omnibus edition entitled Smiley Versus Karla or The Quest for Karla in the US. In the BBC's television adaptations of both Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy and Smiley's People, Karla is played by British actor Patrick Stewart. Karla is only seen in one scene in each production and does not speak. Much of Karla's history is unconfirmed rumour, passed by Smiley to his protégé Peter Guillam.

Among the rumours are: that his father was a professional intelligence officer, first for the Czarist Okhrana and for the Bolshevist Cheka. The network was code-named "Karla", the agent was known only by that name, it was an outstanding achievement for such a young man and would become characteristic of Karla in the series. He next appeared during the German invasion of Russia, running networks of partisans behind German lines, he discovered that his radio operator was a double agent for the Germans and so fed him false information that confused the Germans. According to one legend, at "Yelnya", Karla caused the Germans to shell their own forward line. During his years as a field agent, Karla traveled in several countries, recruiting agents who would become placed in their respective national regimes, he traveled to England in 1936 and 1941 and recruited Bill Haydon, code-named "Gerald", who became the number-two-man in the "Circus". At another time he recruited a high-ranking technocrat in the People's Republic of China.

In 1948, Karla was snagged in one of Stalin's random purges of the Soviet military and intelligence organisations and sent to prison in Siberia. His wife, a student from Leningrad, killed herself. However, Karla returned to intelligence work. In 1951, while setting up a network in California under the name "Gerstmann," Karla was unexpectedly caught when his radio codes were broken. Though he escaped the United States, he was arrested in Delhi on his way back to Moscow. Smiley attempted to use reason to get Karla to defect to the United Kingdom. Smiley felt that his case was ironclad: Karla's superiors at Moscow Centre were looking to make him the scapegoat for the failure in California, he was facing certain execution. Rather than giving in, Karla instead studied Smiley's words for signs of a hidden weakness deducing Smiley's insecurity regarding his unfaithful wife, Ann. Karla agreed to return to the Soviet Union, stealing Smiley's lighter prior to departure, he returned to Moscow and somehow contrived to have his superiors dismissed and executed, with himself appointed in their place.

After being promoted away from active fieldwork, Karla sought to create his own independent apparatus inside Moscow Centre, believing that his personal agents were too important to leave to others. After several years, he became senior enough to create this apparatus, he founded a special camp outside Moscow and trained a selection of handpicked men to act as handlers of his various moles. Karla is first mentioned in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy as the spymaster who recruited and controls "Gerald", a mole inside the Circus. By the time of the novel, the mole—Bill Haydon—has become The Circus' number-two-man; this allows the Circus to gain access to valuable intelligence from the American CIA and creates a perfect cover for Gerald's activities: Polyakov must pretend to his superiors that he is running a mole inside the Circus to meet with the Circus officials, so the Circus itself ignores and suppresses any indications that there is a mole, not realising that there is. Smiley recounts what little he knows of Karla's history to his protege, Peter Guillam, including his interview with Karla in Delhi, opines that Karla is a "fanatic", which he hopes will one day cause his downfall.

After Jim Prideaux is freed from capture by the Soviets, Smiley interrogates him, learning that Karla came to visit Prideaux in prison and showed him that he still had Smiley's lighter. After Smiley

Duluth & Northeastern 28

Duluth & Northeastern 28 is a restored 2-8-0 locomotive built in 1906 by the Pittsburgh Works of American Locomotive Company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was restored to operating condition by the Lake Superior Railroad Museum from 2011-2017, now operates in excursion service on the North Shore Scenic Railroad, it was built for the Duluth and Northern Railway as number 332. In 1937 it passed to the Duluth and Iron Range Railway on the merger of the DM&N with the Duluth and Iron Range Rail Road. In 1955 locomotives 332 and 348 were sold to the Duluth & Northeastern and renumbered 28 and 27 respectively. D&NE 28 saw regular service on the D&NE between Cloquet and Duluth, Minnesota, it was one of only five remaining steam locomotives for the D&NE by 1964, when dieselization was eliminating the use of steam. D&NE retained #28 and used it for only special excursions until 1965, it was put in storage in Cloquet. In 1974, the locomotive was cleaned and donated to the Lake Superior Railroad Museum. There it was on static display until December 2011, when the locomotive was returned to Cloquet for restoration until 2014 when it was returned to Duluth to complete its restoration.

Sister engine D&NE 27 is displayed at the Carlton County Fairgrounds, Minnesota, while DM&N 347 is displayed at the Museum of Mining, Minnesota. Some parts from the D&NE #27 were used in the operational restoration of D&NE #28 in Duluth. D&NE #28's restoration was completed in the spring of 2017, operating for the first time in over 50 years. Duluth & Northeastern #28 was the last steam locomotive to operate in regular service on a railroad in Minnesota. D&NE 28 is one of the only one in operating condition. D&NE 28 was being restored by Cloquet Terminal Railroad when it was announced by the Lake Superior Railroad Museum in March 2014 that the 28 would be restored to operating condition, would pull excursions on the North Shore Scenic Railroad. "Fire up the 28" fundraiser was held in order to pay the $11,700 needed for boiler flues which are required for operation. Within a week, the museum had raised over half the required funds. By April, the total amount of funds raised was well over $15,000, more than enough to cover the cost of its restoration.

The extra funds are to be used in operating the locomotive. The total cost of the restoration was in thousands of volunteer hours. There were few factors. One, the engine was retired in 1965 in operating condition. Two, the engine was stored indoors to protect it from weather, and three, the engine was kept on display indoors for the entire time. In the summer of 2014, Cloquet Terminal Railroad ended its part in the restoration process due to management changes. On August 27, 2014, the flues for #28 arrived at the Lake Superior Railroad Museum from Germany, it was decided that 28 would return to the Lake Superior Railroad Museum to complete its restoration with the installation of the flues. On February 3, 2015, #28 was moved back to the Lake Superior Railroad Museum via BNSF Railway to complete its restoration; the remainder of the restoration included boiler flue installation, insulation & jacketing, as well as repainting. By the end of spring 2015, new metalwork had been installed outside the cab.

The pilot, running gear, hand-grabs had been painted. Work on flue installation by Fraser Shipyards began November 17, 2015, was completed on December 26, 2015; the 28's wheels were given clearance by the FRA a few months later. In March 2016, the brass and cab water-level meters were reinstalled, the super-heater tubes were being reassembled for installation, the blow-down valves were sent to Colorado for rebuilding; the hydro-test was scheduled for July 13, 2016. The FRA report was filed on July 2016, stating the locomotive passed the test; the cab was painted black with red windows in June. The smoke box front was being installed in early August. Insulation and lagging and a new boiler jacket were supplied to the museum to finish locomotive assembly at no charge. Insulation was installed on the boiler beginning August 12, according to the North Shore Scenic Railroad's Facebook page; the FRA began its 15-year or 1,472 days inspection period on November 4, 2016. By January, the locomotive's jacketing had been installed and painted, its headlight was restored.

The # 28 had a successful test fire April 4th, with a few last minute touches to be completed. A final test fire occurred in June. Completion of the restoration was April/May 2017; the 28 underwent successful test runs in May. The first excursions of the 28 took place June 10 and 11, 2017; these two excursions, for donors to the restoration project, operated from the Duluth Union Depot to Palmers, MN 16 miles up the former DM&IR, tracks once used by the 28 in regular service. Regular steam excursions to the general public were announced, a total of 27 excursions in 2017. Excursions will be split between Palmers, on Sundays, Two Harbors on Fridays and Saturdays. DN&E 28 did not run in 2018 in order for the museum to improve the locomotive's condition, it is scheduled to operated on several weekends in 2019. For the 2019 operating season, the D&NE 28 was restored as DM&IR 332. On July 19, 2019 DM&IR 332 met Union Pacific 4014 during a "festival of steam" hosted by the museum to welcome the "Big Boy" to Duluth as it made its midwest tour.

The 332 operated excursions

Harvey Milk Foundation

The Harvey Milk Foundation was founded in 2009 by Harvey Milk's nephew, Stuart Milk, Harvey’s campaign manager and political aide, Anne Kronenberg, based on discussions held with the family and close Harvey allies after Stuart received the Presidential Medal of Freedom earlier that year. The organization continues to be headed by Stuart Milk and Anne Kronenberg and operates on a small private donor based, budget; the Foundation's activities focus around encouraging local, regional and global organizations to learn and utilize Harvey Milk’s story and coalition building technique. Harvey Milk Day is organized by the Harvey Milk Foundation and celebrated globally each year on Milk's birthday, May 22. In California, Harvey Milk Day is recognized as a day of special significance for public schools; the day was established by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2009 following the success of the award-winning feature film Milk retracing Milk's life. An effort campaigning the US Postal Service to issue a stamp honoring Harvey Milk is supported by the Foundation and led by Michael Gaffney and Nicole Murray-Ramirez.

The campaign has received assistance from the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and community leaders such as David Mixner, John Pérez, Reverend Troy Perry. The Foundation supported efforts by San Francisco Supervisor David Campos in early 2013 to rename San Francisco International Airport in honor of Harvey Milk. At the time, about 80 other U. S. airports were named after none of whom are gay. Supervisor Campos introduced a proposal on January 15, 2013 to put a ballot initiative renaming the airport "Harvey Milk San Francisco International Airport" before voters in November 2013. To send the name change to voters, Campos needed the support of five other supervisors. Supervisor Scott Wiener, who represents the same area that Milk did, was a co-sponsor of the proposal; the change would cost between $50,000 and $250,000 to implement, there are plans to solicit private donations to cover the costs. The proposal has been met with resistance by some community leaders and members of the LGBT media, leaving it without public support from the sixth supervisor necessary to put the proposal on the ballot.

Supporters, including the Foundation, have held events and online actions to generate additional public support. In 2012, the Foundation brought together transgender leaders from five continents together for a panel at a global summit in Milan, Italy; the Foundation helped support the first LGBT pride parade through Taksim Square in Istanbul in 2008. During the parade, Turkish police aimed water cannons and assault rifles on the crowd. Harvey Milk Foundation Official Harvey Milk Day Website