The University of Groningen is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. The university is the second-oldest university in the Netherlands. Since its founding more than 200,000 students have graduated. In 2014 the university celebrated its 400th anniversary. University of Groningen has been placed in the top 100 universities in the world by four major ranking tables; the university was ranked 59th in the world, according to Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017. In April 2013, according to the results of the International Student Barometer, the University of Groningen, for the third time in a row, was voted the best university of the Netherlands; the University of Groningen has eleven faculties, nine graduate schools, 27 research centres and institutes, more than 175 degree programmes. The university's alumni and faculty include four Nobel Prize winners, five Spinoza Prize winners, multiple mayors, Aletta Jacobs, Johann Bernoulli, the first president of the European Central Bank and a secretary general of NATO.
The institution was founded as a college in 1614 in an initiative taken by the Regional Assembly of the city of Groningen and the Ommelanden, or surrounding region. There were four faculties – Theology, Law and Philosophy; the coat of arms of the university was confirmed by The Estates of the City and County of Groningen in 1615. It consists of the provincial arms, charged with an open book inscribed with the abbreviated words VER/BVM/DNI LV/CER/NA, short for Verbum Domini Lucerna Pedibus Nostris; the shield is surmounted by a golden crown of four pearls. The first 75 years of its existence were fruitful for the University with about 100 students enrolling every year. Half of the students and lecturers came from outside the Netherlands – the first rector magnificus, Ubbo Emmius, came from East Frisia in modern-day Germany, for instance – but at the same time there was a close relationship between the University and the city and the surrounding region; the development of the University came to a standstill at the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century because of theological differences of opinion, a difficult relationship with the Regional Assembly and political problems that included the siege of the city by ‘Bommen Berend’ in 1672.
On average two to three hundred students were registered with the University at any one time during this period. Petrus Camper, was a shining academic example during the second half of the eighteenth century and was famous far beyond the city limits as an anatomist, a fighter against rinderpest and the founder of the first outpatient’s clinic for surgical medicine. Opportunities and threats followed each other during the nineteenth century. During the French occupation between 1775 and 1814 the University of Groningen was administrated by the Imperial University of Paris. Unlike Leiden University, it was not shut down and the institute was renamed Imperial University of Groningen. During this time period, it remained the only open University in the Kingdom of Holland. In 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, at the same time as Leiden and Utrecht, the University gained recognition as a national college of higher education, but this was followed by discussions about closure; the situation improved markedly when a new main university building, the Academiegebouw, was constructed in 1850, a building, financed by the people of Groningen.
This made the fire that destroyed this building in 1906 more poignant. In the meantime, the Higher Education Act of 1876 had radically improved the position of the University, renamed the "Rijksuniversiteit Groningen". Teaching took place in Dutch and Latin and the University was given a research as well as an educational duty; the University of Groningen developed apace during the first decades of the twentieth century. The number of faculties and courses grew while the number of students showed an explosive growth; when the University celebrated its first 300 years in 1914 there were 611 registered students. After a drop back during the Depression, in particular during the Second World War, the number of students grew from 1945 to reach 20,000 in 1994. At the present time there are about 30,000 students registered at the University of Groningen with the number of foreign students again growing and following the tradition set by the first Rector Magnificus, the number of German students and researchers has grown in recent years.
In March 2015, the RUG signed an agreement with the China Agricultural University to establish a campus in the Chinese city of Yantai. This would have made the RUG the first Dutch university to open a campus in China; the plan was criticised due to worries about the restriction of academic freedom caused by censorship in China. In January 2018, the plans were cancelled by the Executive Board of the UG, based on the "insufficient support for the project". In 2016 the Dutch chemist Ben Feringa, who has spent most of his career at the University of Groningen, won the Nobel prize for his work on molecular motors. Key facts and figures about the University of Groningen are: The university, as of September 2016, has 32,700 students enrolled in various programs from the undergraduate level up to doctorate students; this includes 7,700 The university has 6,100 individuals in its academic staff. The UMCG included, a third of the academic staff is international. 330 full professors, 280 associate professors, 92 professors by special appointment (including University M
The Khroma River is a river in the Sakha Republic of the Russian Federation. The source of the Khroma River is at the confluence of the Tamteken and the Nemalak-Arangas, flowing down from the Polousny Range, it crosses the Yana-Indigirka Lowland, part of the greater East Siberian Lowland. It flows across the tundra northeastwards and it has its mouth in Khromskaya Bay, connected with the East Siberian Sea. Owing to its extreme northerly location the Khroma River freezes up in early October and remains icebound until June; the Kytalyk Wetlands, located between the Khroma and the Sundrun River is an ecologically important area, providing a favorable habitat for many rare animals. The region is uninhabited and full of lakes and marshes. Wild reindeer, Siberian cranes, Canadian cranes, marsh sandpipers and Ross's gulls are abundant in the Khroma River wetlands; the lesser white-fronted goose, brent goose, Bewick's swan and the spectacled eider are found in the Khroma-Sundrun Interfluvial Area. Gold and tin mining upriver are affecting the ecology of the region by destroying fish and bird habitat.
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David Rhys Grenfell, sometimes known as Dai Grenfell, was a Welsh Member of Parliament. He represented the Gower constituency for the Labour Party from 1922 to 1959. Grenfell was born on 16 June 1881 at Penyrheol, Swansea, one of ten children of William Grenfell and his wife, whose name was either Alice or Ann, the daughter of William Hopkins, his grandfather, John Grenfell, settled in Blaenavon where he became a coal miner, having been born in Sancreed, Cornwall. Grenfell was educated at Penyrheol Board Elementary School until 1893, when, at the age of 12, he was forced to start working as a coal miner underground himself. While working he attended night school to study mining and mathematics. While in Canada he passed his Under Managers Certificate. Grenfell taught at a number of evening classes himself from 1907 to 1911, was named a miners' agent in 1916 for the Western Region of the South Wales Area of the Coalminer's Federation upon the death of his predecessor, William Morgan. In December 1905 Grenfell married Beatrice May Morgan, daughter of John and Emma Morgan of Mountain Cottage, Gorseinon.
They had Eileen. Grenfell continued to work underground until 1916, when he was appointed the miners agent for the Western Region of the South Wales Area, he became active in the local Labour Party in 1916. He was elected Member of Parliament in a by-election in 1922, held the seat until 1959, he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1935. "DR", as he was known, was a member of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Betting, a member of the Parliamentary Administration Committee, served on the Forestry Commission and on the Royal Commission of Safety in Mines in 1936. He became chairman of the Franco/British Parliamentary Party, for which he was invested with the Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Grenfell condemned the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, stating in October 1939: "I know what Russia has done, it has been a most despicable act. We say in this country. Russia, kicked Poland when she was prostrate and shook hands with the aggressor. There is no word for it. I do not know what Russia proposes to do in future, but I am sure it does not reduce the crime against Poland by one iota because they have been two aggressors instead of one."
He acted as chairman of the Welsh Parliamentary Labour Party, in Winston Churchill's coalition government during World War II he served as Secretary for Mines at the Board of Trade, in which capacity he argued for the nationalization of the coal industry, reiterated the call in his 1947 book, Coal. From 1948 to 1951 Grenfell was Chairman of the Welsh Tourist Holiday Board. In 1951 Grenfell was sworn of the Privy Council. In 1953 Grenfell became the first Labour politician to hold the title "Father of the House", as the longest continual serving Parliamentarian; this was despite Churchill being older and entering Parliament before him, as Churchill had broken his time as a MP. Grenfell held office in many local bodies, was made an Honorary Freeman of Swansea for his contribution to public service. A bust of him now stands in the Swansea Guildhall, he was succeeded as Member of Parliament for Gower by his former agent, County Councillor Ifor Davies of Gowerton, who continued to hold the Gower seat until his death in 1982.
His brother, William John Grenfell, was for a number of years a member of Llwchwr Urban District Council, representing the Pontybrenin ward. Grenfell resided at "Ardwyn", Carnglas Road, Swansea, he died on 20 November 1968 aged 87, is buried at Brynteg Cemetery, Gorseinon. His wife, a county magistrate, died in 1976, followed by their daughter Eileen. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs