Kassim Majaliwa Majaliwa is a Tanzanian politician, Prime Minister of Tanzania since 2015. He was appointed by President John Magufuli after the 2015 general election, he is a member of the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi party and has been a Member of Parliament for Ruangwa constituency since 2010. Majaliwa was born on December 22, 1961, he completed his schooling from Kigonsera Secondary School in 1983. He worked as teacher for sixteen years until 1999. Meanwhile, he obtained a teaching diploma from Mtwara Teacher Training College in 1993 and a Bachelor of Education from the University of Dar es Salaam in 1998, he joined the trade union movement and served as district secretary and regional secretary in the Tanzania Teachers' Association between 1999 and 2006. He was tapped to become the district commissioner for Urambo district in 2006, he remained in this role until his election to Parliament in 2010. Majaliwa was first elected to Parliament in the 2010 general election on the Chama Cha Mapinduzi ticket from Ruangwa.
He was Deputy Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office for Regional Administration and Local Government from 2010 to 2015. In the 2015 general election, Majaliwa was reelected from Ruangwa, defeating Omari Makota of the Civic United Front by a margin of 31,281 to 25,536 votes. After John Magufuli was sworn in as President of Tanzania following the 2015 general election, he appointed Majaliwa as Prime Minister on 19 November 2015, his appointment was a surprise to himself, given he was a relative newcomer to electoral politics. His selection was attributed to his humility, work ethic as well as regional considerations - the new Prime Minister was expected to be from the southern part of the country, where Majaliwa is from, his experience in education as a teacher, trade unionist and deputy minister was expected to be an asset in President Magufuli's stated desire to reform the sector. The opposition criticized his selection. On contrarly and Shortly while in office, Majaliwa proved wrong to handful of critics from the opposition as he and accommodate the role of premiership as the right hand person of President Magufuli.
He swiftly made number of long due crackdowns on grafts, recklessness to civil workers and has since enjoyed great public endorsement along with President Magufuli
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California and patented in 1932. A cyclotron accelerates charged particles outwards from the center along a spiral path; the particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a static magnetic field and accelerated by a varying electric field. Lawrence was awarded the 1939 Nobel prize in physics for this invention. Cyclotrons were the most powerful particle accelerator technology until the 1950s when they were superseded by the synchrotron, are still used to produce particle beams in physics and nuclear medicine; the largest single-magnet cyclotron was the 4.67 m synchrocyclotron built between 1940 and 1946 by Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley, which could accelerate protons to 730 million electron volts. The largest cyclotron is the 17.1 m multimagnet TRIUMF accelerator at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia which can produce 500 MeV protons.
Over 1200 cyclotrons are used in nuclear medicine worldwide for the production of radionuclides. The first cyclotron was developed and patented by Ernest Lawrence in 1932 at the University of California, Berkeley, he used large electromagnets recycled from obsolete Poulsen arc radio transmitters provided by the Federal Telegraph Company. A graduate student, M. Stanley Livingston, did much of the work of translating the idea into working hardware. Lawrence read an article about the concept of a drift tube linac by Rolf Widerøe, working along similar lines with the betatron concept. At the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California at Berkeley Lawrence constructed a series of cyclotrons which were the most powerful accelerators in the world at the time, he developed a 467 cm synchrocyclotron. Lawrence received the 1939 Nobel prize in physics for this work; the first European cyclotron was constructed in Leningrad in the physics department of the Radium Institute, headed by Vitaly Khlopin.
This Leningrad instrument was first proposed in 1932 by George Gamow and Lev Mysovskii and was installed and became operative by 1937. In Nazi Germany a cyclotron was built in Heidelberg under supervision of Walther Bothe and Wolfgang Gentner, with support from the Heereswaffenamt, became operative in 1943. A cyclotron accelerates a charged particle beam using a high frequency alternating voltage, applied between two hollow "D"-shaped sheet metal electrodes called "dees" inside a vacuum chamber; the dees are placed face to face with a narrow gap between them, creating a cylindrical space within them for the particles to move. The particles are injected into the center of this space; the dees are located between the poles of a large electromagnet which applies a static magnetic field B perpendicular to the electrode plane. The magnetic field causes the particles' path to bend in a circle due to the Lorentz force perpendicular to their direction of motion. If the particles' speeds were constant, they would travel in a circular path within the dees under the influence of the magnetic field.
However a radio frequency alternating voltage of several thousand volts is applied between the dees. The voltage creates an oscillating electric field in the gap between the dees that accelerates the particles; the frequency is set. To achieve this, the frequency must match the particle's cyclotron resonance frequency f = q B 2 π m,where B is the magnetic field strength, q is the electric charge of the particle and m is the relativistic mass of the charged particle; each time after the particles pass to the other dee electrode the polarity of the RF voltage reverses. Therefore, each time the particles cross the gap from one dee electrode to the other, the electric field is in the correct direction to accelerate them; the particles' increasing speed due to these pushes causes them to move in a larger radius circle with each rotation, so the particles move in a spiral path outward from the center to the rim of the dees. When they reach the rim a small voltage on a metal plate deflects the beam so it exits the dees through a small gap between them, hits a target located at the exit point at the rim of the chamber, or leaves the cyclotron through an evacuated beam tube to hit a remote target.
Various materials may be used for the target, the nuclear reactions due to the collisions will create secondary particles which may be guided outside of the cyclotron and into instruments for analysis. The cyclotron was the first "cyclical" accelerator; the advantage of the cyclotron design over the existing "electrostatic" accelerators of the time such as the Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and Van de Graaff generator, was that in these machines the particles were only accelerated once by the voltage, so the particles' energy was equal to the accelerating voltage on the machine, limited by air breakdown to a few million volts. In the cyclotron, in contrast, the particles encounter the accelerating voltage many times during their spiral path, so are accelerated many times, so the output energy can be many times the accelerating voltage. Since the particles are accelerated by the voltage many times, the final energy of the particles is not dependent on the accelerating voltage but on the strength of the magnetic field and the diameter of the accelerating chamber, the dees.
Cyclotrons can only accelerate particles to speeds much slower than the speed of light, nonrelativistic sp
Sofi Oksanen is a Finnish writer and playwright. Oksanen has published five novels, she has received several domestic awards for her literary work. Her work has been sold more than two million copies, she was born to a Finnish father and Estonian mother. Sofi-Elina Oksanen was raised in Jyväskylä in Central Finland, her father is a Finnish electrician, her mother an Estonian engineer who grew up in Estonia during the Soviet period and emigrated to Finland in the 1970s. Oksanen studied literature at the University of Jyväskylä and University of Helsinki and drama at the Finnish Theatre Academy in Helsinki. Oksanen is involved in public debate in Finland and comments on current issues in her columns and various talk shows, she has suffered from eating disorders. In 2009 she received an award from the organizers of Helsinki Pride for her activism on behalf of LGBT people in Estonia, Latvia and Russia. Oksanen’s first play Puhdistus was staged at the Finnish National Theatre in 2007. From out of the play grew Oksanen’s third novel Puhdistus.
It ranked number 1 on the bestseller list for fiction in Finland when it was published and has received numerous awards, both in Finland and abroad. The play Purge had its American première at La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club, in New York City, on February 10, 2011; the text was translated by the production directed by Zishan Ugurlu. From October 2011, the play was produced in 11 countries, with productions in Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Lithuania and Hungary, it premiered in London at the Arcola Theatre from 22 February - 24 March with a new production directed by Elgiva Field. The novel has been adapted into a film – see Purge – directed by Antti Jokinen, selected as the Finnish entry for the Best Foreign Language Oscar at the 85th Academy Awards. Purge was adapted into an opera, composed by Jüri Reinvere, it premiered at Finnish National Opera in 2012. In 2012, Oksanen published a map of Soviet Gulag prison camps, drawn by Niilo Koljonen, in the National Audiovisual Archive, her fourth novel Kun kyyhkyset katosivat was published in Finland August 31, 2012 and it was the most sold Finnish novel of the year.
The title refers to German soldiers catching and eating all the pigeons in Tallinn during the German occupation of Estonia. The book is translated into English by Lola Rogers:. Oksanen has written a libretto for Kaija Saariaho´s opera; the world premiere is in 2020 at Coven Garden, in London. Oksanen has written numerous articles published in international newspapers; the topics are related to freedom of speech, women's rights, Russian politics, information war and Finlandization. In 2014 Die Welt published her article about information war from the point of view of Eastern European countries, her novel, translated by Owen Witesman, was published by Knopf in September 2017. NovelsStalin's cows Baby Jane Purge When the Doves Disappeared Norma PlaysThe Blue-cheeked girls Purge When the Doves Disappeared I love you Lyrics/PoemsToo short skirt - tales from the kitchen Essays in English A Lion in a Cage, Eurozine, 19.5.2015 What's it like to write about Russia, 14.6.2016, UpNorth Your silence will not protect you, 28.2.2018, UpNorth My family knew all about iron curtain: it's vital to protect our right to speak out, The Guardian, 30.5.2018 A Soviet shadow looms over the Putin-Trump summit in Helsinki, The Guardian, 11.7.2018 Finlandia Prize, Finland, 2008 The Kristiina of the year, Kristiina-institute, Finland, 2008 The Mika Waltari Award, Finland, 2008 The Great Finnish Book Club Prize, Finland, 2008 The SSKK Recognition Award, Finland, 2008 The Kalevi Jäntti Award, Finland, 2008 Runeberg PrizeFinland, 2009 The Person of the Year, Estonia, 2009 The Order of The Cross Terra Mariana, Estonia, 2010 Nordic Council Literature Prize for Puhdistus The Prix Femina Ètranger, France, 2010 The Prix du Roman FNAC, France, 2010 The European Book Prize, EU, 2010 The French Booksellers Prize, France, 2012 The Order of the Lion of Finland, the Pro Finlandia, Finland, 2012 The Budapest Grand Prize, Hungary, 2013 The Swedish Academy Nordic Prize, Sweden, 2013 Wolmar Schildt Award, Finland, 2015 Premio Salerno Libro d'Europa, Italy, 2015NominationsThe Helsingin Sanomat Prize for the best debutant novel, Finland, 2003 Runeberg Prize, Finland, 2004 Prix Médicis, France, 2010 The Dublin International Literary Award, Ireland, 2012 The Dublin International Literary Award, Ireland, 2017 The Ambassador of Finnish Culture, Finland, 2017 The New Academy Prize in Literature, Sweden, 2018 Official site Kun kyyhkyset katosivat, When the Doves Disappeared What Westerners weren't supposed to see 29.
May 2012, Sofi Oksanen's New Book to Break Printing Record, http://news.err.ee 30. August 2012, Sofi Oksanen: Tiet keskitysleireille on kivetty hyvillä aikomuksilla 31. August 2012, Puhdistuksen ensi-ilta keräsi tähdet punaiselle matolle
The Finns Party known in English as the True Finns, is a Finnish conservative political party, founded in 1995 following the dissolution of the Finnish Rural Party. In the 2011 parliamentary election, the party won 19.1% of votes, becoming the third largest party in the Finnish Parliament. In the 2015 election the party got 17.7% of the votes, making them the parliament's second largest party. The party was in opposition for the first 20 years of its existence. In 2015 they joined the government coalition formed by Prime Minister Sipilä. Following a 2017 split, over half of the party's MPs left the parliamentary group and were subsequently expelled from their party membership; this defector group, New Alternative, continued to support the government coalition, while the Finns Party went into opposition. The party combines left-wing economic policies with conservative social values, socio-cultural authoritarianism, ethnic nationalism. Several researchers have described the party as fiscally centre-left conservative, a "centre-based populist party" or the "most left-wing of the non-socialist parties", whereas other scholars have described them as radically right-wing populist.
In the parliament seating order, the party's MPs have always been seated in the centre and the party's supporters have described themselves as centrists as well. The party has drawn people from left-wing parties but central aspects of their manifesto have gained support from right-wing voters as well; the Finns Party has been compared by international media to the other Nordic populist parties and other similar nationalist and right-wing populist movements in Europe that share euroscepticism and are critical of globalism, whilst noting its strong support for the Finnish welfare state. In June 2014, the Finns Party joined the European Conservatives and Reformists Group in the European Parliament, where it co-operates with parties like the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom and Law and Justice of Poland; the predecessor of the Finns Party was the Finnish Rural Party, founded by Agrarian League dissident Veikko Vennamo in 1959. Vennamo ran into serious disagreement with Arvo Korsimo, the Agrarian League's party secretary, was excluded from the parliamentary group.
As a result, Vennamo started building his own organization and founded the Finnish Rural Party. Vennamo was a populist and became a critic of President Urho Kekkonen and of political corruption within the "old parties" the Centre Party; the Rural Party achieved two major victories in the elections of 1970 and 1983, winning 18 and 17 seats respectively. In the 1970s, Vennamo's personalized leadership style alienated some in the party, which led to a split in the parliamentary group in 1972. After the Rural Party's new rise in 1983 under Vennamo's son Pekka, the party became a partner in two coalition governments. However, the party's support declined in the late-1980s and early-1990s. In 1995, the party soon filed for bankruptcy. In the summer of 1995, following the collapse of the Finnish Rural Party, the decision to found the Finns Party was made by Timo Soini, Raimo Vistbacka, Urpo Leppänen and Kari Bärlund. Soini had been the Rural Party's last party secretary and Vistbacka its last chairman and MP.
The party collected the five thousand signatures needed for registration and was added to the official party register on 13 October 1995. The first party congress was held in November. Vistbacka was elected Soini the party secretary, it took some time. At the time of its founding in 1995, the party's sole MP was Vistbacka, reelected in the 1999 election. In 2003, the party won three seats: besides Vistbacka and Tony Halme were elected. In the 2007, the party gained two further seats for a total of five. In the 2008 municipal election, the Finns Party were most successful in those districts where the Social Democrats and the Left Alliance lost most. In the 2011 election, the Centre Party suffered the largest blow from the Finns Party's success. According to a 2008–2009 study, Finns Party supporters viewed themselves as centrist: on a scale where 1 was extreme left and 10 was extreme right, the average supporter placed themselves at 5.4. According to the same study, supporters were united by social conservatism.
A 2011 study indicated that the Finns Party was the most popular party among voters with an annual income of 35,000–50,000 euros, while over a quarter of the party's voters earn over 50,000 per year. The same study indicated that the party's voters included a higher percentage of blue collar workers than those of the Social Democrats. Timo Soini led the Finns Party for twenty years, from 1997 until 2017, he was first elected to the parliament in 2003. He was the party's candidate in the 2006 presidential election, was elected to the European Parliament in 2009 with the highest personal vote share in the country, he served as an MEP for two years. Soini was the party's presidential candidate for a second time in the election of 2012. Jussi Halla-aho succeeded Soini as party chairman in 2017; the Finns Party obtained 39 seats in the 2011 election, making them the third largest party, narrowly behind the National Coalition Party and the Social Democrats. Soini received 43,212 personal votes, the highest number of all candidates, leaving behind the Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb and the Finance Minister Jyrki Katainen in their Uusimaa electoral district.
The popularity of the party rose from 4.1% to 19.1% i
Erik Gustav Ahlman was a Finnish philosopher and linguist. Ahlman initiated his academic career as a classical philologist. Ahlman was born in Turku, he worked as a theoretical science education professor at the Jyväskylä College of Education from 1935 to 1948 and Professor of Moral Philosophy of the University of Helsinki from 1948–1952. His most important works are Arvojen ja välineiden maailma, Kulttuurin perustekijöitä and Ihmisen probleemi. Erik Ahlman's daughter was a professor of psychology at the University of Kirsti Lagerspetz; the family's philosophical traditions have continued at the University of Turku with philosophy professor Eerik Lagerspetz and Åbo Akademi University philosophy professor Olli Lagerspetz
Aalto University is a university located in Greater Helsinki, Finland. It was established in 2010 as a merger of three major Finnish universities: the Helsinki University of Technology, the Helsinki School of Economics, the University of Art and Design Helsinki; the close collaboration between the scientific and arts communities is intended to foster multi-disciplinary education and research. The Finnish government, in 2010, set out to create a university that fosters innovation, merging the three institutions into one; the university is composed of six schools with close to 17,500 students and 4,000 staff members, making it Finland's second largest university. The main campus of Aalto University is located in Otaniemi, where the engineering schools as well as the bachelor programs of the School of Business operate. Other functions of the School of Business are located in Töölö; the School of Arts and Architecture is located in Arabianranta. All of the university's activities will be located in the Otaniemi campus by 2020.
In addition to the Greater Helsinki area, the university operates in Mikkeli and Pori. Aalto University's operations showcase Finland’s experiment in higher education; the Aalto Design Factory, Aalto Ventures Program and Aalto Entrepreneurship Society, among others, drive the university's mission for a radical shift towards multidisciplinary learning and have contributed to the emergence of Helsinki as a hotbed for startups. Aaltoes is Europe’s largest and most active student run entrepreneurship community that has founded major concepts such as the Startup Sauna accelerator program and the Slush startup event; the university is named in honour of Alvar Aalto, a prominent Finnish architect and alumnus of the former Helsinki University of Technology, instrumental in designing a large part of the university's main campus in Otaniemi. In 2004, a workgroup led by Anne Brunila of the Finnish Ministry of Finance concluded that Finland had too many universities and other institutes of tertiary education which should be consolidated.
Following this, Yrjö Sotamaa, president of the University of Art and Design Helsinki at the time, proposed the merger of Aalto University's founding schools in his president's opening speech in 2005. Sotamaa's line of reasoning was that this move would create a unique interdisciplinary university, needed to create new innovative thought; the idea received attention within the Finnish Ministry of Education, which appointed Raimo Sailas, a leading official at the Ministry of Finance, to investigate the possibility of a merger. After Sailas' group reported that it considered the merger to be beneficial to the Finnish academic world and economy, the Finnish government decided to go on with the project on November 11, 2007. On May 29, 2008, the government announced that the new university would be named after the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto in honor of his achievements in technology and art; the Finnish Minister of Education at the time, Ms. Sari Sarkomaa, together with representatives of Finnish industries and professional organisations, signed the Aalto University charter on June 25, 2008 in Helsinki.
On December 19, 2008, Prof. Tuula Teeri was selected by the Board to be the first President of Aalto University. Aalto University started operating on January 1, 2010. In the process of creating the university the university law of Finland was rewritten for the university to be allowed to collect endowment; the university managed to reach its goal of collecting 200 million euros in private donations. The sum was augmented by 2.5 times by the Finnish state. As the Aalto University was founded the four schools of science and engineering were formed out of the departments of the Helsinki University of Technology, founded in 1849 by Grand Duke Nicholas I, it received university status in 1908. In 1966, the University of Technology moved from Hietalahti in downtown Helsinki to its current Otaniemi campus, designed by Alvar Aalto. At the time of creation of Aalto University, TKK had about 250 professors and 15,000 students; this means the largest part of the Aalto University is formed from the former Helsinki University of Technology.
In 2011, the former University of Technology was split up into four schools, corresponding to the former TKK faculties: School of Chemical Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, School of Science. The Helsinki School of Economics was established in Helsinki in 1904 by the business community and was given the status of a university in 1911, it operated as a private university until 1974, when the state of Finland was given the financial responsibility of the university. Following the merger, the university was renamed Aalto University School of Economics, is known as Aalto University School of Business; the University of Art and Design Helsinki has been the largest art university in the Nordic countries. It was founded in 1871. Media Centre Lume - the National Research and Development Center of audiovisual media - is located in the university; the university awarded the following academic degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Doctor of Arts. The university has been active in establishing research projects and industrial collaborations via the private sector.
During the rectorship of Yrjö Sotamaa the university was active in integrating design into Finnish innovation networks. Following the merger, the university was renamed Aalto University School of Art and Design. In 2012, the Department of Archit
Hanken School of Economics
The Hanken School of Economics is a business school located in Helsinki and Vaasa. Hanken was established as a community college in 1909 and offered a two-year vocational education, it is the only institution of its kind in Finland. Hanken offers master's, MBA programmes in English, as well as bachelor’s and master’s programmes in Swedish. Hanken has one in Helsinki and one in Vaasa. Hanken was founded in 1909 as a private community college under the name of Högre Svenska Handelsläroverket. Together with Stockholm School of Economics, Hanken is the oldest business school in northern Europe, with the former opening only a month after Hanken. In 1927, the school was given Svenska Handelshögskolan. A year the school introduced a bachelor's degree in economics, with professorships being introduced in 1934; the first doctoral dissertation took place in 1944. Hanken’s second campus in Vaasa was established in 1980 to develop business education in the region - a region that houses a large proportion of the Swedish-speaking population in Finland.
The university is represented in both regions of Finland that have large Swedish-speaking populations. Hanken was the first business school in Finland to introduce a compulsory stay abroad for its bachelor's students. All universities in Finland, Hanken among them, are regulated by the Universities Act and the Universities Decree; the principal governance bodies of Hanken are the University Council, the Board, the Rector and Deans. The University Council appoints the external members of the Board, the auditors for the School, the Academic Council, it grants the Board and the rector a discharge from liability. The Board is the highest decision-making body of the School and is always chaired by an external person - at present Björn Wahlroos is chair of the Board; the Board decides on most issues of a strategic nature, such as the activity and economic plan as well as the budget. The Board is responsible for the economy of the School, the allocation of its funds, appointing the Rector; the current Rector is Professor Karen Spens, appointed for a five-year period commencing 1 August 2015.
The Rector exercises general authority as stated in the Universities Act, i.e. she heads the school, she is responsible for preparing and carrying out the decisions of the Board, takes decisions on all matters that are not expressly the business of some other body. Other decision-making bodies are the Examination Board; the student body is represented in each decision-making body by at least one student. Hanken’s research and teaching is organized into five departments and one centre that constitute of one or more subjects. Students of the subjects are represented in each Department Council by student-elected student representatives. Accounting and Commercial Law Economics Finance and Statistics Management and Organisation Marketing Centre for Languages and Business Communication Currently, Hanken offers master's degree programmes in both Swedish and English, while all bachelor's degree programmes are in Swedish. Hanken has PhD and MBA programmes in English; the bachelor's degree programmes are three year courses.
Those who complete a bachelor's degree at Hanken have the automatic right to continue with master’s studies. The MSc in Economics and Business Administration programme is a two-year programme with 120 ECTS. Students studying in English can choose between six different degree programmes, while students studying in Swedish have a choice of seven majors; the English degree programmes are Business and Management, Corporate Governance, Economics and Accounting, General Management, Intellectual Property Law. In some of the programmes, students can choose between majors, e.g. International Strategy and Sustainability, Marketing, or Humanitarian Logistics in the Business and Management programme; the Hanken PhD Programme corresponds to four years of full-time studies, during which students produce a doctoral thesis and complete 60 ECTS of coursework. The courses consist of 44 credits in the major and related subjects, 16 credits in general methodology, philosophy of science, or other similar courses of a methodological nature.
The Hanken MBA is an accredited executive MBA programme. There are different; the programme was awarded the AMBA accreditation in 2008. Hanken offers tailor-made courses to companies within the framework of Hanken & SSE Executive Education. Hanken & SSE Executive Education was founded in 2005 by Hanken and IFL at Stockholm School of Economics. Hanken has 120 partner universities for student exchange; every year some 250 students from Hanken spend a full academic year abroad. Hanken receives 150 exchange students yearly. Hanken researchers are engaged in pure, applied, as well as commissioned research. Research at Hanken is carried out at the academic departments and research centres and researchers at Hanken are involved in cross-disciplinary project groups with both national and international academic colleagues. According to data by the Academy of Finland, Hanken’s research has an index value of 1.4 compared to the world average of 1. U-Multirank ranks Hanken as fifth in the world in research linkages.
Hanken’s areas of strength are: Finance Economics Management and Organisation Marketing The research and competence centres at Hanken coordinate education, promote research, offer a wide range of services in information and executive education. CERS – Centre for R